169 results found
Zhang J, Wheatley A, Pasaribu R, et al., 2023, Wind turbine lubrication: Low temperature fretting wear behaviour of four commercial greases, Tribology International, Vol: 187, ISSN: 0301-679X
Fretting tests on four commercial greases were run on a ball-on-disc machine at 25, 7, − 20, − 40 °C. Post-test wear was measured on the ball and the chemical composition of lubricant films in the wear scar analysed by FTIR (RA-IRS), Raman and SEM-EDS. At 25 and 7 °C the greases had similar friction and wear properties. At − 20 and − 40 °C the highest base-oil viscosity grease gave an inferior friction and wear performance. RA-IRS analysis showed thickener remaining in the wear scar for most test conditions. The highest wear was linked to the absence of thickener in the scar. Better wear and friction performance at low temperatures was associated with thickener present in the lubricated contact and lowest base-oil viscosity.
Samaras G, Bikos D, Skamniotis C, et al., 2023, Experimental and computational models for simulating the oral breakdown of food due to the interaction with molar teeth during the first bite, Extreme Mechanics Letters, Vol: 62, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 2352-4316
The first bite involves the structural breakdown of foods due to the interaction with teeth and is a crucial process in oral processing. Although in vitro experiments are useful in predicting the oral response of food, they do not facilitate a mechanistic understanding of the relationship between the intrinsic food mechanical properties and the food behaviour in the oral cavity. Computer simulations, on the other hand, allow for such links to be established, offering a promising design alternative that will reduce the need for time consuming and costly in vivo and in vitro trials. Developing virtual models of ductile fracture in soft materials, such as food, with random and non-predefined crack morphology imposes many challenges. One of the most important is to derive results that do not depend on numerical parameters, such as Finite Element (FE) mesh density, but only physical constants obtained through independent standard mechanical tests, such as fracture strain and/or critical energy release rate. We demonstrate here that this challenge can be overcome if a non-local damage approach is used within the FE framework. We develop a first bite FE modelling methodology that provides mesh independent results which are also in agreement with physical first bite experiments performed on chocolate. The model accounts for key features found in chocolate and a wide range of compliant media, such as rate dependent plasticity and pressure dependent fracture initiation strain. As a result, our computational methodology can prove valuable in studying food structure-function relationships that are essential in product development.
Bikos D, Samaras G, Cann P, et al., 2023, Destructive and non-destructive mechanical characterisation of chocolate with different levels of porosity under various modes of deformation, Journal of Materials Science, Vol: 58, Pages: 5104-5127, ISSN: 0022-2461
Chocolate exhibits a complex material response under the varying mechanical loads present during oral processing. Mechanical properties such as Young’s modulus and fracture stress are linked to sensorial attributes such as hardness. Apart from this link with hardness perception, these mechanical properties are important input parameters towards developing a computational model to simulate the first bite. This study aims to determine the mechanical properties of chocolate with different levels of micro-aeration, 0–15%, under varying modes of deformation. Therefore, destructive mechanical experiments under tension, compression, and flexure loading are conducted to calculate the Young’s modulus, yield, and fracture stress of chocolate. The values of Young’s modulus are also confirmed by independent ultrasonic mechanical experiments. The results showed that differences up to 35% were observed amongst the Young’s modulus of chocolate for different mechanical experiments. This maximum difference was found to drop with increasing porosity and a negligible difference in the Young’s modulus measurements amongst the different mechanical experiments is observed for the 15% micro-aerated chocolate. This phenomenon is caused by micro-pores obstructing the microscopic inelastic movement occurring from the early stages of the material’s deformation. This work provides a deeper understanding of the mechanical behaviour of chocolate under different loading scenarios, which are relevant to the multiaxial loading during mastication, and the role of micro-aeration on the mechanical response of chocolate. This will further assist the food industry’s understanding of the design of chocolate products with controlled and/or improved sensory perception.
Bikos D, Samaras G, Charalambides M, et al., 2023, A micromechanical based finite element model approach to accurately predict the effective thermal properties of micro-aerated chocolate, Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, Vol: 83, ISSN: 1466-8564
Micro-aeration is a method to modify the sensorial attributes of chocolate but also affects the material properties of chocolate, which in turn, determine its material response during manufacturing and oral processes. This study aims to define the effect of micro-aeration on the thermal properties of chocolate by considering the changes of chocolate microstructure due to micro-aeration. Micro-aeration was found to alter the chocolate microstructure creating a layer of a third phase at the porous interfaces, which is argued to consist of cocoa butter of higher melting properties. A multiscale Finite Element Model is developed, which was confirmed by macroscale heat transfer measurements, to parametrically simulate the structural changes of micro-porous chocolates at the microscale level and estimate their effective properties, such as thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity. The developed multiscale computational model simulates the porous chocolate as a two-phase (chocolate- pores) or three-phase material (chocolate-cocoa butter layer- pores). The investigation identified a new, complex transient thermal mechanism that controls the behaviour of micro-aerated chocolate during melting and solidification. The results showed a maximum 13% reduction of keff and 15% increase of Cpeff with 15% micro-aeration resulting to a slower transient heat transfer through the micro-aerated chocolate. The reason is that the micro-aerated chocolate can store a larger amount of thermal energy than its solid counterpart. This effect slows down the transient heat transfer rate in the chocolate and modifies melting/solidification rate and impacts sensorial attributes during oral processing and cooling during manufacturing.
Bikos D, Samaras G, Charalambides M, et al., 2022, Experimental and numerical evaluation of the effect of micro-aeration on the thermal properties of chocolate, Food and Function, Vol: 13, Pages: 4993-5010, ISSN: 2042-6496
Thermal properties, such as thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity and latent heat, influence the melting and solidification of chocolate. The accurate prediction of these properties for micro-aerated chocolate products with varying levels of porosity ranging from 0% to 15% is beneficial for understanding and control of heat transfer mechanisms during chocolate manufacturing and food oral processing. The former process is important for the final quality of chocolate and the latter is associated with sensorial attributes, such as grittiness, melting time and flavour. This study proposes a novel multiscale Finite Element Model to accurately predict the temporal and spatial evolution of temperature across chocolate samples. The model is evaluated via heat transfer experiments at temperatures varying from 16 °C to 45 °C. Both experimental and numerical results suggest that the rate of heat transfer within the micro-aerated chocolate is reduced by 7% when the 15% micro-aerated chocolate is compared to its solid counterpart. More specifically, on average, the thermal conductivity decreased by 20% and specific heat capacity increased by 10% for 15% micro-aeration, suggesting that micro-pores act as thermal barriers to heat flow. The latter trend is unexpected for porous materials and thus the presence of a third phase at the pore’s interface is proposed which might store thermal energy leading to a delayed release to the chocolate system. The developed multiscale numerical model provides a design tool to create pore structures in chocolate with optimum melting or solidifying response.
Desai N, Masen M, Cann P, et al., 2022, Modernising Orodispersible Film Characterisation to Improve Palatability and Acceptability Using a Toolbox of Techniques, PHARMACEUTICS, Vol: 14
Charalambides M, Bikos D, Samaras G, et al., 2022, Effect of structure on the mechanical and physical properties of chocolate considering time scale phenomena occuring during oral processing, Food Structure, Vol: 31, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 2213-3291
Micro-aeration has been employed by the chocolate industry as a texture and flavour modifier. However, the impact of micro-aeration on oral processing is still not well understood. This study quantifies the mechanical, thermal and tribological behaviour of chocolate materials of different porosity levels. These material properties were then linked to sensory data considering the temporal phenomena of the oral process. In-vivo mastication tests were utilised to define the level of fragmentation of chocolate and coupled with heat transfer numerical models to simulate the melting during oral processing. Micro-aeration affects all material properties resulting in lower fracture stresses, rapid melting and a lower friction coefficient. The sensory results showed that micro-aeration creates a perception of a softer, less sticky chocolate which melts fast inside the mouth, without compromising the sweetness perception. This research adopts an innovative multidisciplinary approach to the physics of chocolates, bringing together the fields of solid mechanics, heat transfer, tribology, and sensory analysis and employing engineering experimental and numerical approaches to provide a link between chocolate structure, material properties and sensory perception. The outcome can contribute a powerful design tool for controlling the perception of sensory attributes for specific chocolate composition.
Whitehouse S, Myant C, Cann PM, et al., 2021, Fluorescent imaging of razor cartridge/skin lubrication, SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY-METROLOGY AND PROPERTIES, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2051-672X
Stevenson H, Cann PM, 2021, Protein content of model synovial fluid and CoCrMo wear, Biotribology, Vol: 26, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 2352-5738
Wear of cobalt chromium molybdenum alloy in a reciprocating ball-on-plate test was measured for a series of model synovial fluid samples, where the effect of protein and phospholipid content was examined. The protein content (albumin and γ-globulin) was varied to replicate a range of healthy and diseased SF pathologies. The results showed reduced wear was strongly correlated with increasing protein content. The effect of phospholipid addition on wear was more complex. Limited evidence suggested phospholipids reduced wear for a high albumin/γ-globulin ratio (A/G) but increased wear for low A/G ratios. Post-test examination showed thick (~μm) insoluble “gel-like” films were deposited in, and around, the wear scar. Micro Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy analysis indicated the films were predominately denatured β-sheet proteins although in some cases lipids were also present. Similar films were found in tests with human synovial fluid samples. Scanning Electron Microscopy imaging showed an aggregated fibril “rope” structure typical of non-native β-sheet proteins. The gel film is a protein-rich viscous phase which is entrained intermittently to form a lubrication film which contributes to surface protection and reduction of wear. We also suggest the formation of gel deposits is comparable to the “boosted” lubrication model of proposed by Professor Duncan Dowson for articular cartilage. In the boosted model high-viscosity, concentrated protein films are formed in depressions on the cartilage surface. The tests indicate the chemistry of human synovial fluid, particularly the protein content, could affect CoCrMo wear and therefore the risk of implant failure.
Charalambides M, Bikos D, Masen M, et al., 2021, Effect of micro-aeration on the mechanical behaviour of chocolates and implications for oral processing, Food and Function, Vol: 12, Pages: 4864-4886, ISSN: 2042-6496
Aeration in foods has been widely utilised in the food industry to develop novel foods with enhanced sensorial characteristics. Specifically, aeration at the micron-sized scale has a significant impact on the microstructure where micro-bubbles interact with the other microstructural features in chocolates. This study aims to determine the effect of micro-aeration on the mechanical properties of chocolate products, which are directly correlated with textural attributes such as hardness and crumbliness. Uniaxial compression tests were performed to determine the mechanical properties such as Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus and macroscopic yield strength together with fracture tests to estimate the fracture toughness. In vivo mastication tests were also conducted to investigate the link between the fracture properties and fragmentation during the first two chewing cycles. The uniaxial stress–strain data were used to calibrate a viscoplastic constitutive law. The results showed that micro-aeration significantly affects mechanical properties such as Young's modulus, yield and fracture stresses, as well as fracture toughness. In addition, it enhances the brittle nature of the chocolate, as evidenced by lower fracture stress but also lower fracture toughness leading to higher fragmentation, in agreement with observations in the in vivo mastication tests. As evidenced by the XRT images and the stress–strain measurements micro-aeration hinders the re-arrangement of the microscopic features inside the chocolate during the material's deformation. The work provides a new insight of the role of bubbles on the bulk behaviour of complex multiphase materials, such as chocolates, and defines the mechanical properties which are important input parameters for the development of oral processing simulations.
Parkes M, Tallia F, Young G, et al., 2021, Tribological evaluation of a novel hybrid for repair of articular cartilage defects, Materials Science and Engineering C: Materials for Biological Applications, Vol: 119, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 0928-4931
The friction and wear properties of silica/poly(tetrahydrofuran)/poly(ε-caprolactone) (SiO2/PTHF/PCL-diCOOH) hybrid materials that are proposed as cartilage tissue engineering materials were investigated against living articular cartilage. A testing rig was designed to allow testing against fresh bovine cartilage. The friction force and wear were compared for five compositions of the hybrid biomaterial articulating against freshly harvested bovine cartilage in diluted bovine calf serum. Under a non-migrating contact, the friction force increased and hence shear force applied to the opposing articular cartilage also increased, resulting in minor damage to the cartilage surface. This worse case testing scenario was used to discriminate between material formulations and revealed the increase in friction and damaged area was lowest for the hybrid containing the most silica. Further friction and wear tests on one hybrid formulation with an elastic modulus closest to that of cartilage were then conducted in a custom incubator system. This demonstrated that over a five day period the friction force, cell viability and glucosaminoglycan (GAG) release into the lubricant were similar between a cartilage-cartilage interface and the hybrid-cartilage interface, supporting the use of these materials for cartilage repair. These results demonstrate how tribology testing can play a part in the development of new materials for chondral tissue engineering.
Samaras G, Bikos D, Vieira J, et al., 2020, Measurement of molten chocolate friction under simulated tongue-palate kinematics: effect of cocoa solids content and aeration, Current Research in Food Science, Vol: 3, Pages: 304-313, ISSN: 2665-9271
The perception of some food attributes is related to mechanical stimulation and friction experienced in the tongue-palate contact during mastication. This paper reports a new bench test to measure friction in the simulated tongue-palate contact. The test consists of a flat PDMS disk, representing the tongue loaded and reciprocating against a stationary lower glass surface representing the palate. The test was applied to molten chocolate samples with and without artificial saliva. Friction was measured over the first few rubbing cycles, simulating mechanical degradation of chocolate in the tongue-palate region. The effects of chocolate composition (cocoa solids content ranging between 28 wt% and 85 wt%) and structure (micro-aeration/non-aeration 0–15 vol%) were studied. The bench test clearly differentiates between the various chocolate samples. The coefficient of friction increases with cocoa solids percentage and decreases with increasing micro-aeration level. The presence of artificial saliva in the contact reduced the friction for all chocolate samples, however the relative ranking remained the same.
Porte E, Cann P, Masen M, 2020, A lubrication replenishment theory for hydrogels, Soft Matter, Vol: 16, Pages: 10290-10300, ISSN: 1744-683X
<p>For soft porous materials, limited contact motion results in a non-replenished lubricant state with high friction.</p>
Cann PM, Spikes HA, 2020, The influence of lubricant on temperature generated in elasto-hydrodynamic contacts.
Direct measurement of temperatures generated in concentrated contacts by infra-red (IR) radiometry can be used to explore the rheological properties of lubricants under elastohydrodynamic (EHD) conditions. This paper describes the influence of lubricant composition on thermal effects in EHD and attempts to relate rheological characteristics of the fluids to the temperature produced. The lubricants have been chosen to provide a range of rheological and chemical properties. They include synthetic hydrocarbons, polyglycols, perfluorethers, and a traction fluid. An emission technique similar to that employed by Winer and coworkers (1976) has been used to measure the surface temperature distribution within an EHD contact. Significant differences have been found between the surface temperature response of these fluids. The role of lubricant rheology in determining temperature with EHD contacts is discussed together with the implications of such measurement in the study of the traction response of lubricants.
Stevenson H, Jaggard M, Akhbari P, et al., 2019, The role of denatured synovial fluid proteins in the lubrication of artificial joints, Biotribology, Vol: 17, Pages: 49-63, ISSN: 2352-5738
CoCrMo ball-on-flat wear tests were carried out with 25 wt% bovine calf serum (25BCS) and human synovial fluid (HSF) to investigate artificial joint lubricating mechanisms. Post-test the wear scar on the disc was measured and surface deposits in and around the rubbed region were analysed by Micro InfraRed Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (Micro-IRRAS). In most tests the HSF samples gave higher wear than the 25BCS solution; in some cases, up to 77%. After rinsing a similar pattern of surface deposits was observed in and around the wear scar for both the model and HSF. Micro-IRRAS showed the deposits were primarily denatured proteins with an increased β-sheet content. In some cases, trans-alkyl chain/carbonyl components were also present and these were assigned to lipids. Thioflavin T fluorescent imaging also indicated aggregated non-native β-sheet fibrils were present in the deposits and their presence was associated with lower wear. The formation of insoluble, denatured protein films is thought to be the primary lubrication mechanism contributing to surface protection during rubbing. From this and earlier work we suggest inlet shear induces denaturing of proteins resulting in the formation of non-native β-sheet aggregates. This material is entrained into the contact region where it forms the lubricating film. Patient synovial fluid chemistry appears to influence wear, at least in the bench test, and thus could contributes to increased risk of failure, or success, with metal-metal hips. Finally using 25BCS as a reference screening fluid gives an overly optimistic view of wear in these systems.
Porte E, Cann P, Masen M, 2019, Fluid load support does not explain tribological performance of PVA hydrogels, Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, Vol: 90, Pages: 284-294, ISSN: 1751-6161
The application of hydrogels as articular cartilage (AC) repair or replacement materials is limited by poor tribological behaviour, as it does not match that of native AC. In cartilage, the pressurisation of the interstitial fluid is thought to be crucial for the low friction as the load is shared between the solid and liquid phase of the material. This fluid load support theory is also often applied to hydrogels. However, this theory has not been validated as no experimental evidence directly relates the pressurisation of the interstitial fluid to the frictional response of hydrogels. This lack of understanding about the governing tribological mechanisms in hydrogels limits their optimised design. Therefore, this paper aims to provide a direct measure for fluid load support in hydrogels under physiologically relevant sliding conditions. A photoelastic method was developed to simultaneously measure the load on the solid phase of the hydrogel and its friction coefficient and thus directly relate friction and fluid load support. The results showed a clear distinction in frictional behaviour between the different test conditions, but results from photoelastic images and stress-relaxation experiments indicated that fluid load support is an unlikely explanation for the frictional response of the hydrogels. A more appropriate explanation, we hypothesized, is a non-replenished lubricant mechanism. This work has important implications for the tribology of cartilage and hydrogels as it shows that the existing theories do not adequately describe the tribological behaviour of hydrogels. The developed insights can be used to optimise the tribological performance of hydrogels as articular cartilage implants.
Stevenson H, Parkes M, Austin L, et al., 2018, The development of a small-scale wear test for CoCrMo specimens with human synovial fluid, Biotribology, Vol: 14, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2352-5738
A new test was developed to measure friction and wear of hip implant materials under reciprocating sliding conditions. The method requires a very small amount of lubricant (<3 ml) which allows testing of human synovial fluid. Friction and wear of Cobalt Chromium Molybdenum (CoCrMo) material pairs were measured for a range of model and human synovial fluid samples. The initial development of the test assessed the effect of fluid volume and bovine calf serum (BCS) concentration on friction and wear. In a second series of tests human synovial fluid (HSF) was used. The wear scar size (depth and volume) on the disc was dependent on protein content and reduced significantly for increasing BCS concentration. The results showed that fluid volumes of <1.5 ml were affected by evaporative loss effectively increasing the protein concentration resulting in anomalously lower wear. At the end of the test thick deposits were observed in and around the wear scars on the disc and ball; these were analysed by Infrared Reflection-Absorption Spectroscopy. The deposits were composed primarily of denatured proteins and similar IR spectra were obtained from the BCS and HSF tests. The analysis confirmed the importance of SF proteins in determining wear of CoCrMo couples.
Masen M, Cann PME, 2018, Friction measurements with molten chocolate, Tribology Letters, Vol: 66, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 1023-8883
A novel test is reported which allows the measurement of the friction of molten chocolate in a model tongue–palate rubbing contact. Friction was measured over a rubbing period of 150 s for a range of commercial samples with different cocoa content (85–5% w/w). Most of the friction curves had a characteristic pattern: initially a rapid increase occurs as the high-viscosity chocolate melt is sheared in the contact region followed by friction drop as the film breaks down. The exceptions were the very high (85%) and very low (~ 5%) cocoa content samples which gave fairly constant friction traces over the test time. Differences were observed in the initial maximum and final friction coefficients depending on chocolate composition. Generally, the initial maximum friction increased with increasing cocoa content. At the end of the test, the rubbed films on the lower slide were examined by optical microscopy and infrared micro-reflection spectroscopy. In the rubbed track, the chocolate structure was severely degraded and predominately composed of lipid droplets, which was confirmed by the IR spectra. The new test provides a method to distinguish between the friction behaviour of different chocolate formulations in a rubbing low-pressure contact. It also allows us to identify changes in the degraded chocolate film that can be linked to the friction profile. Further development of the test method is required to improve simulation of the tongue–palate contact including the effect of saliva and this will be the next stage of the research.
Milner P, Parkes M, Puetzer J, et al., 2018, A low friction, biphasic and boundary lubricating hydrogel for cartilage replacement, Acta Biomaterialia, Vol: 65, Pages: 102-111, ISSN: 1742-7061
Partial joint repair is a surgical procedure where an artificial material is used to replace localised chondral damage. These artificial bearing surfaces must articulate against cartilage, but current materials do not replicate both the biphasic and boundary lubrication mechanisms of cartilage. A research challenge therefore exists to provide a material that mimics both boundary and biphasic lubrication mechanisms of cartilage.In this work a polymeric network of a biomimetic boundary lubricant, poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC), was incorporated into an ultra-tough double network (DN) biphasic (water phase + polymer phase) gel, to form a PMPC triple network (PMPC TN) hydrogel with boundary and biphasic lubrication capability. The presence of this third network of MPC was confirmed using ATR-FTIR. The PMPC TN hydrogel had a yield stress of 26 MPa, which is an order of magnitude higher than the peak stresses found in the native human knee. A preliminary pin on plate tribology study was performed where both the DN and PMPC TN hydrogels experienced a reduction in friction with increasing sliding speed which is consistent with biphasic lubrication. In the physiological sliding speed range, the PMPC TN hydrogel halved the friction compared to the DN hydrogel indicating the boundary lubricating PMPC network was working.A biocompatible, tough, strong and chondral lubrication imitating PMPC TN hydrogel was synthesised in this work. By complementing the biphasic and boundary lubrication mechanisms of cartilage, PMPC TN hydrogel could reduce the reported incidence of chondral damage opposite partial joint repair implants, and therefore increase the clinical efficacy of partial joint repair.Statement of SignificanceThis paper presents the synthesis, characterisation and preliminary tribological testing of a new biomaterial that aims to recreate the primary chondral lubrication mechanisms: boundary and biphasic lubrication. This work has demonstrated that the
De Laurentis N, Cann P, Lugt P, et al., 2017, The Influence of Base Oil Properties on the Friction Behaviour of Lithium Greases in Rolling/Sliding Concentrated Contacts, Tribology Letters, Vol: 65, ISSN: 1023-8883
This study investigates the influence of base oil type and viscosity on the frictional behaviour of lithium-thickened bearing greases. A series of model lithium greases were manufactured by systematically varying viscosity and type of base oil, so that the influence of a single base oil property could be studied in isolation. In addition, selected greases were blended with oleic acid, with the purpose of evaluating its effectiveness in further reducing grease friction. Friction coefficient and film thickness were measured in laboratory ball-on-disc tribometers over a range of speeds and temperatures. For a specific oil type, the influence of base oil viscosity on friction was found to be closely related to its effect on film thickness: greases formulated with PAO oils covering a wide range of viscosities gave very similar friction at the same nominal film thickness. For a given base oil viscosity, base oil type was found to have a strong influence on grease friction under all test conditions. PAO-based greases generally produced lower friction than mineral- and ester-based greases. Addition of oleic acid to the test greases did not significantly affect friction within the range of test conditions employed in this study. The results provide new insight into the frictional behaviour of greases, which may be used to help inform new low-friction grease formulations for rolling bearing applications.
Parkes M, Cann P, Jeffers J, 2017, Real-time observation of fluid flows in tissue during stress relaxation using Raman spectroscopy, Journal of Biomechanics, Vol: 60, Pages: 261-265, ISSN: 1873-2380
This paper outlines a technique to measure fluid levels in articular cartilage tissue during an unconfined stress relaxation test. A time series of Raman spectrum were recorded during relaxation and the changes in the specific Raman spectral bands assigned to water and protein were monitored to determine the fluid content of the tissue. After 1000 s unconfined compression the fluid content of the tissue is reduced by an average of 3.9% ± 1.7%. The reduction in fluid content during compression varies between samples but does not significantly increase with increasing strain. Further development of this technique will allow mapping of fluid distribution and flows during dynamic testing making it a powerful tool to understand the role of interstitial fluid in the functional performance of cartilage.
Parkes M, Sayer K, Goldhofer M, et al., 2017, Zirconia phase transformation in retrieved, wear simulated and artificially aged ceramic femoral heads, Journal of Orthopaedic Research, Vol: 35, Pages: 2781-2789, ISSN: 1554-527X
Zirconia in Zirconia toughened alumina ceramic hip replacements exists in an unstable state and can transform in response to stress giving the material improved fracture toughness. Phase transformation also occurs under hydrothermal conditions such as exist in vivo. To predict the hydrothermal aging that will occur in vivo accelerated aging procedures have been used, but validation of these models requires the study of retrieved hip joints. Here 26 retrievals are analysed to determine the degree of phase transformation in vivo. These were compared with virgin heads, heads that had undergone the accelerated aging process and heads wear tested to 5 million cycles in a hip simulator. Monoclinic content and surface roughness were measured using Raman spectroscopy and white light interferometry respectively. The monoclinic content for retrieved heads was 28.5% ± 7.8, greater than twice that in virgin, aged or wear tested heads and did not have a significant correlation with time, contrary to the predictions of the hydrothermal aging model. The surface roughness for retrieved heads in the unworn area was not significantly different to that in virgin, aged or unworn areas of wear tested heads. However in worn areas of the retrieved heads, the surface roughness was higher than observed in wear simulator testing. These results indicate that current testing methodologies do not fully capture the operational conditions of the material and the real performance of future new materials may not be adequately predicted by current pre-clinical testing methods. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Tsui S, Tandy J, Myant C, et al., 2016, Friction measurements with yoghurt in a simulated tongue-palate contact, Biotribology, Vol: 8, Pages: 1-11
© 2016 The perception of many food attributes is related to mechanical stimulation and friction experienced in the tongue-palate contact during mastication. Friction in the tongue-palate is determined by the changing film properties (composition, component distribution, thickness) in the conjunction. We suggest this evolution is essentially determined by tongue-palate film loss rather than shear flow entrainment which predominates in conventional bearing lubrication. The paper reports friction measurements in a simulated tongue-palate contact for a range of high and low fat dairy foods. A reciprocating, sliding contact with restricted stroke length ( < contact width) was used; under these conditions there is negligible shear-entrainment of fluid from outside the contact area. The tongue-palate contact was simulated by a PDMS ball and glass surface. The effect of hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces on friction was investigated for different fat contents (0, 4.2, 9.5% wt fat). Friction was measured over 60 s of rubbing. Significant differences were observed in the friction change with time for different fat contents (μ 9.5 < μ 4.2 < μ 0 wt%) and for different surface energy conditions (μ hydrophilic < μ hydrophobic). Post-test visualisation of the rubbed films showed that low friction coefficient was associated with the formation of a thin oil film on deposited particulate solids.
Huang L, Guo D, Cann PM, et al., 2016, Thermal Oxidation Mechanism of Polyalphaolefin Greases with Lithium Soap and Diurea Thickeners: Effects of the Thickener, Tribology Transactions, ISSN: 1040-2004
In this work, lithium and diurea greases formulated by poly-alpha-olefin were aged up to 1,200 h in an oven at 120°C and periodically taken out for testing. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared (IR) spectra proved that both physical and chemical degradation occurred during the thermal aging process, such as a decrease in apparent viscosity, thickener destruction, and change in chemical species. Diurea grease showed much better anti-oxidation performance during thermal aging than lithium grease. A dual effect of thermal aging on the grease lubricity was observed and analyzed. Results showed that early oxidation might reduce grease lubricity due to the formation of ketones and aldehydes, and the decrease in grease viscosity and oil bleeding due to thickener destruction would contribute to better replenishment.
De Laurentis N, Kadiric A, Lugt P, et al., 2016, The influence of bearing grease composition on friction in rolling/sliding concentrated contacts, Tribology International, Vol: 94, Pages: 624-632, ISSN: 0301-679X
This paper presents new results examining the relationship between bearing grease composition and rolling-sliding friction in lubricated contacts. Friction coefficient and lubricating film thickness of a series of commercially available bearing greases and their bled oils were measured in laboratory tribometers. Test greases were selected to cover a wide spectrum of thickener and base oil types, and base oil viscosities. The trends in measured friction coefficients were analysed in relation to grease composition in an attempt to establish the relative influence of individual grease components on friction. Two distinct operating regions with markedly different friction behaviour are identified for each grease. At relatively high speeds the greases behave approximately as their bled/base oils, while in the low speed region the frictional response is very dependent on their thickener type and properties of the lubricating film. Low viscosity, synthetic base oil seems to offer efficiency advantages in the high speed region regardless of thickener used, while the choice of thickener type is significant under low speed conditions.
Parkes M, Myant C, Cann PM, et al., 2015, Synovial fluid lubrication: The effect of protein interactions on adsorbed and lubricating films, Biotribology, Vol: 1-2, Pages: 51-60, ISSN: 2352-5738
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Synovial fluid lubrication is dependent on protective protein films that form between joint surfaces. Under static conditions surface film formation occurs through adsorption, while under dynamic conditions protein aggregation under shear and load becomes the dominant mechanism. This work examines how the protein content of six model synovial fluids affects film formation under static and rolling conditions and if the changes in properties can be correlated. With an increase in the statically adsorbed mass and the rate of adsorption the film thickness under rolling increased. These increases did not correlate with the total protein content of the fluid, but were dependent on the type of protein. An increase in pH reduced the adsorbed mass, rate of adsorption and film thickness, but was of secondary importance to the type of protein. The rolling film thickness was also correlated with the viscoelastic properties of the films formed under static conditions. In this case thinner rolling films corresponded to the more hydrated, viscoelastic adsorbed films. The strong correlations found between the properties of the adsorbed films and those formed under rolling indicate that the same protein-protein and protein-surface interactions may govern both mechanisms of film formation despite the differences in the film structures.
Parkes M, Myant C, Dini D, et al., 2014, Tribology-optimised silk protein hydrogels for articular cartilage repair, Tribology International, Pages: ---, ISSN: 0301-679X
Myant CW, Cann P, 2014, The effect of transient conditions on synovial fluid protein aggregation lubrication, Journal of The Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, Vol: 34, Pages: 349-357, ISSN: 1751-6161
Little is known about the prevailing lubrication mechanisms in artificial articular joints and the way in which these mechanisms determine implant performance. The authors propose that interfacial film formation is determined by rheological changes local to the contact and is driven by aggregation of synovial fluid proteins within the contact inlet region. A direct relationship between contact film thickness and size of the protein aggregation within the inlet region has been observed.In this paper the latest experimental observations of the protein aggregation mechanism are presented for conditions which more closely mimic joint kinematics and loading. Lubricant films were measured for a series of bovine calf serum solutions for CoCrMo femoral component sliding against a glass disc. An optical interferometric apparatus was employed to study the effects of transient motion on lubricant film formation. Central film thickness was measured as a function of time for a series of transient entrainment conditions; start-up motion, steady-state and non-steady-state uni-directional sliding, and bi-directional sliding. The size of the inlet aggregations was found to be dependent upon the type of transient condition. Thick protective protein films were observed to build up within the main contact region for all uni-directional tests. In contrast the inlet aggregation was not observed for bi-directional tests. Contact film thickness and wear was found to be directly proportional to the presence of the inlet protein phase. The inlet phase and contact films were found to be fragile when disrupted by surface scratches or subjected to reversal of the sliding direction.
Myant C, Cann P, 2014, On the matter of synovial fluid lubrication: implications for Metal-on-Metal hip tribology, Journal of The Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, Vol: 34, Pages: 338-348, ISSN: 1751-6161
Artificial articular joints present an interesting, and difficult, tribological problem. These bearing contacts undergo complex transient loading and multi axes kinematic cycles, over extremely long periods of time (>10 years). Despite extensive research, wear of the bearing surfaces, particularly metal–metal hips, remains a major problem. Comparatively little is known about the prevailing lubrication mechanism in artificial joints which is a serious gap in our knowledge as this determines film formation and hence wear. In this paper we review the accepted lubrication models for artificial hips and present a new concept to explain film formation with synovial fluid. This model, recently proposed by the authors, suggests that interfacial film formation is determined by rheological changes local to the contact and is driven by aggregation of synovial fluid proteins. The implications of this new mechanism for the tribological performance of new implant designs and the effect of patient synovial fluid properties are discussed.
Parkes M, Myant C, Cann PM, et al., 2014, The effect of buffer solution choice on protein adsorption and lubrication, Tribology International, Vol: 72, Pages: 108-117, ISSN: 0301-679X
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