340 results found
Feary J, Cullinan P, 2022, Heavy Metals, Encyclopedia of Respiratory Medicine, Publisher: Elsevier, Pages: 458-469
Boos C, Schofield S, Cullinan P, et al., 2021, Association between combat-related traumatic injury and cardiovascular risk, Heart, ISSN: 1355-6037
Objective The association between combat-related traumatic injury (CRTI) and cardiovascular risk is uncertain. This study aimed to investigate the association between CRTI and both metabolic syndrome (MetS) and arterial stiffness.Methods This was a prospective observational cohort study consisting of 579 male adult UK combat veterans (UK-Afghanistan War 2003–2014) with CRTI who were frequency-matched to 565 uninjured men by age, service, rank, regiment, deployment period and role-in-theatre. Measures included quantification of injury severity (New Injury Severity Score (NISS)), visceral fat area (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), arterial stiffness (heart rate-adjusted central augmentation index (cAIx) and pulse wave velocity (PWV)), fasting venous blood glucose, lipids and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP).Results Overall the participants were 34.1±5.4 years, with a mean (±SD) time from injury/deployment of 8.3±2.1 years. The prevalence of MetS (18.0% vs 11.8%; adjusted risk ratio 1.46, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.94, p<0.0001) and the mean cAIx (17.61%±8.79% vs 15.23%±8.19%, p<0.0001) were higher among the CRTI versus the uninjured group, respectively. Abdominal waist circumference, visceral fat area, triglycerides, estimated insulin resistance and hs-CRP levels were greater and physical activity and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol lower with CRTI. There were no significant between-group differences in blood glucose, blood pressure or PWV. CRTI, injury severity (↑NISS), age, socioeconomic status (SEC) and physical activity were independently associated with both MetS and cAIx.Conclusions CRTI is associated with an increased prevalence of MetS and arterial stiffness, which are also influenced by age, injury severity, physical activity and SEC. The longitudinal impact of CRTI on clinical cardiovascular events needs further examination.
Nafees A, De Matteis S, Amaral A, et al., 2021, Impact of using different predictive equations on the prevalence of chronic byssinosis in textile workers in Pakistan, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN: 1351-0711
Objective Byssinosis remains a significant problem among textile workers in low/middle-income countries. Here we share our experience of using different prediction equations for assessing ‘chronic’ byssinosis according to the standard WHO classification using measurements of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1).Methods We enrolled 1910 workers in a randomised controlled trial of an intervention to improve the health of textile workers in Pakistan. We included in analyses the 1724 (90%) men who performed pre-bronchodilator spirometry tests of acceptable quality. We compared four different equations for deriving lung function percentage predicted values among those with symptoms-based byssinosis: the third US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III, with ‘North Indian and Pakistani’ conversion factor); the Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI, ‘other or mixed ethnicities’); a recent equation derived from survey of a western Indian population; and one based on an older and smaller survey of Karachi residents.Results 58 men (3.4%) had symptoms-based byssinosis according to WHO criteria. Of these, the proportions with a reduced FEV1 (<80% predicted) identified using NHANES and GLI; Indian and Pakistani reference equations were 40%, 41%, 14% and 12%, respectively. Much of this variation was eliminated when we substituted FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio (<lower limit of normality) as a measure of airway obstruction.Conclusion Accurate measures of occupational disease frequency and distribution require approaches that are both standardised and meaningful. We should reconsider the WHO definition of ‘chronic’ byssinosis based on changes in FEV1, and instead use the FEV1/FVC.
Nafees AA, Iqbal AR, Cullinan P, et al., 2021, Use of low-cost particle counters for cotton dust exposure assessment in textile mills in low- and middle-income countries, Annals of Work Exposures and Health, ISSN: 2398-7308
OBJECTIVE: There is a lack of consensus on methods for cotton dust measurement in the textile industry, and techniques vary between countries-relying mostly on cumbersome, traditional approaches. We undertook comparisons of standard, gravimetric methods with low-cost optical particle counters for personal and area dust measurements in textile mills in Pakistan. METHODS: We included male textile workers from the weaving sections of seven cotton mills in Karachi. We used the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) sampler with a Casella Apex 2 standard pump and the Purple Air (PA-II-SD) for measuring personal exposures to inhalable airborne particles (n = 31). We used the Dylos DC1700 particle counter, in addition to the two above, for area-level measurements (n = 29). RESULTS: There were no significant correlations between the IOM and PA for personal dust measurements using the original (r = -0.15, P = 0.4) or log-transformed data (r = -0.32, P = 0.07). Similarly, there were no significant correlations when comparing the IOM with either of the particle counters (PA and Dylos) for area dust measurements, using the original (r = -0.07, P = 0.7; r = 0.10, P = 0.6) or log-transformed data (r = -0.09, P = 0.6; r = 0.07, P = 0.7). CONCLUSION: Our findings show a lack of correlation between the gravimetric method and the use of particle counters in both personal and area measurements of cotton dust, precluding their use for measuring occupational exposures to airborne dust in textile mills. There continues to be a need to develop low-cost instruments to help textile industries in low- and middle-income countries to perform cotton dust exposure assessment.
van der Plaat DA, Edge R, Coggon D, et al., 2021, Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on sickness absence for mental ill health in National Health Service staff, BMJ OPEN, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2044-6055
Bloom CI, Cullinan P, Wedzicha JA, 2021, Asthma phenotypes and COVID-19 risk: a population-based observational study, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, ISSN: 1073-449X
Rationale: Studies have suggested some asthma patients are at risk of severe COVID-19, but they have had limited data on asthma phenotype and have not considered if risks are specific to COVID-19. Objectives: Determine the effect of asthma phenotype on three levels of COVID-19 outcomes. Compare hospitalisation rates to influenza and pneumonia. Methods: Electronic medical records were used to identify asthma patients and match them to the general population. Patient-level data were linked to Public Health England SARS-CoV-2 test data, hospital, and mortality data. Asthma was phenotyped by medication, exacerbation history, and type-2 inflammation. The risk of each outcome, adjusted for major risk factors, was measured using Cox regression. Measurements and Main Results: 434,348 asthma and 748,327 matched patients were included. All asthma patients had a significantly increased risk of a GP-diagnosis of COVID-19. Asthma with regular inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) use (HR=1.27, 95%CI=1.01-1.61), intermittent ICS + add-on asthma medication use (HR=2.00, 95%CI=1.43-2.79), regular ICS + add-on use (HR=1.63, 95 CI=1.37-1.94), or with frequent exacerbations (HR=1.82, 95% CI=1.34-2.47) was significantly associated with hospitalisation. These phenotypes were significantly associated with influenza and pneumonia hospitalisations. Only patients with regular ICS + add-on asthma therapy (HR=1.70, 95%CI=1.27-2.26) or frequent exacerbations (HR=1.66, 95%CI=1.03-2.68) had a significantly higher risk of ICU admission or death. Atopy and blood eosinophil count were not associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes. Conclusions: More severe asthma was associated with more severe COVID-19 outcomes, but type-2 inflammation was not. The risk of COVID-19 hospitalisation appeared to be similar to the risk with influenza or pneumonia.
Edge R, van der Plaat DA, Parsons V, et al., 2021, Ethnic differences in risk of severe Covid-19: To what extent are they driven by exposure?, Journal of Public Health, ISSN: 1741-3842
BackgroundThis study quantifies the risk of Covid-19 among ethnic groups of healthcare staff during the first pandemic wave in England.MethodsWe analysed data on 959 356 employees employed by 191 National Health Service trusts during 1 January 2019 to 31 July 2020, comparing rates of Covid-19 sickness absence in different ethnic groups.ResultsIn comparison with White ethnic groups, the risk of short-duration Covid-19 sickness absence was modestly elevated in South Asian but not Black groups. However, all Black and ethnic minority groups were at higher risk of prolonged Covid-19 sickness absence. Odds ratios (ORs) relative to White ethnicity were more than doubled in South Asian groups (Indian OR 2.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.36–2.63; Pakistani OR 2.38, 2.15–2.64; Bangladeshi OR 2.38, 1.98–2.86), while that for Black African ethnicity was 1.82 (1.71–1.93). In nursing/midwifery staff, the association of ethnicity with prolonged Covid-19 sickness absence was strong; the odds of South Asian nurses/midwives having a prolonged episode of Covid-19 sickness absence were increased 3-fold (OR 3.05, 2.82–3.30).ConclusionsResidual differences in risk of short term Covid-19 sickness absences among ethnic groups may reflect differences in non-occupational exposure to SARS-CoV-2. Our results indicate ethnic differences in vulnerability to Covid-19, which may be only partly explained by medical comorbidities.
Edge R, van der Plaat DA, Parsons V, et al., 2021, Changing patterns of sickness absence among healthcare workers in England during the COVID-19 pandemic, Journal of Public Health (Oxford), ISSN: 1741-3842
BACKGROUND: Patterns of sickness absence shed useful light on disease occurrence and illness-related behaviours in working populations. METHODS: We analysed prospectively collected, pseudonymized data on 959 356 employees who were continuously employed by National Health Service trusts in England from 1 January 2019 to 31 July 2020, comparing the frequency of new sickness absence in 2020 with that at corresponding times in 2019. RESULTS: After exclusion of episodes directly related to COVID-19, the overall incidence of sickness absence during the initial 10 weeks of the pandemic (March-May 2020) was more than 20% lower than in corresponding weeks of 2019. Trends for specific categories of illness varied substantially, with a fall by 24% for cancer, but an increase for mental illness. A doubling of new absences for pregnancy-related disorders during May-July of 2020 was limited to women with earlier COVID-19 sickness absence. CONCLUSIONS: Various factors will have contributed to the large and divergent changes that were observed. The findings reinforce concerns regarding delays in diagnosis and treatment of cancers and support a need to plan for a large backlog of treatment for many other diseases. Further research should explore the rise in absence for pregnancy-related disorders among women with earlier COVID-19 sickness absence.
van der Plaat DA, Madan I, Coggon D, et al., 2021, Risks of COVID-19 by occupation in NHS workers in England, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN: 1351-0711
OBJECTIVE: To quantify occupational risks of COVID-19 among healthcare staff during the first wave (9 March 2020-31 July 2020) of the pandemic in England. METHODS: We used pseudonymised data on 902 813 individuals employed by 191 National Health Service trusts to explore demographic and occupational risk factors for sickness absence ascribed to COVID-19 (n=92 880). We estimated ORs by multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: With adjustment for employing trust, demographic characteristics and previous frequency of sickness absence, risk relative to administrative/clerical occupations was highest in 'additional clinical services' (care assistants and other occupations directly supporting those in clinical roles) (OR 2.31 (2.25 to 2.37)), registered nursing and midwifery professionals (OR 2.28 (2.23 to 2.34)) and allied health professionals (OR 1.94 (1.88 to 2.01)) and intermediate in doctors and dentists (OR 1.55 (1.50 to 1.61)). Differences in risk were higher after the employing trust had started to care for documented patients with COVID-19, and were reduced, but not eliminated, following additional adjustment for exposure to infected patients or materials, assessed by a job-exposure matrix. For prolonged COVID-19 sickness absence (episodes lasting >14 days), the variation in risk by staff group was somewhat greater. CONCLUSIONS: After allowance for possible bias and confounding by non-occupational exposures, we estimated that relative risks for COVID-19 among most patient-facing occupations were between 1.5 and 2.5. The highest risks were in those working in additional clinical services, nursing and midwifery and in allied health professions. Better protective measures for these staff groups should be a priority. COVID-19 may meet criteria for compensation as an occupational disease in some healthcare occupations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN36352994.
Yang Z, Lin Y, Wang S, et al., 2021, Urinary Amino-Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Residents: Finding a Biomarker for Residential Exposure to Diesel Traffic, ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 55, Pages: 10569-10577, ISSN: 0013-936X
Archangelidi O, Cullinan P, Simmonds NJ, et al., 2021, Incidence and risk factors of cancer in individuals with cystic fibrosis in the UK; a case-control study., Journal of Cystic Fibrosis, ISSN: 1569-1993
To assess cancer incidence in the UK cystic fibrosis (CF) population and determine the associated risk factors, we undertook a nested case-control study of patients with CF, registered with the UK CF Registry. Each case with a first reported cancer between 1999 and 2017 was matched with up to 4 controls: by age (±2-years) and year of cancer diagnosis. Conditional logistic regressions were adjusted for sex, lung function (FEV1%), CF related diabetes (CFRD), F508del status, transplant status, DIOS, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, meconium ileus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, pancreatic insufficiency, proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use, IV antibiotic days and BMI. Results: From 12,886 registered patients, 146 (1.1%) cases of malignancy were identified with 14.3% of cases occurring post solid organ transplant. Site of primary cancer was available for 98 patients: 22% were gastro-intestinal in origin (77% lower, 23% upper GI), 13% skin, 13% breast and 11% lymphomas/leukaemia. In univariable analysis, transplantation increased the odds of reporting any cancer by 2.46 times (95%CI: 1.3-4.6). CFRD also increased the odds of reporting any cancer (OR 2.35; CI: 1.37-4.0) and PPI use (OR 2.0; CI 1.28-3.19). In the multivariable models significant associations with CFRD and transplant remained, while PA infection, PPI use and being overweight showed increased, but statistically insignificant risks. The incidence of GI cancer was strongly associated with CFRD (OR=4.04; 1.47-11.1). Conclusions: We observed a high incidence of lower GI cancers in our cohort which was significantly affected by the presence of CFRD. Screening for gastrointestinal cancers could benefit patients at higher risk.
Bloom CI, Drake TM, Docherty AB, et al., 2021, Risk of adverse outcomes in patients with underlying respiratory conditions admitted to hospital with COVID-19: a national, multicentre prospective cohort study using the ISARIC WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol UK, The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, Vol: 9, Pages: 699-711, ISSN: 2213-2600
BackgroundStudies of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 have found varying mortality outcomes associated with underlying respiratory conditions and inhaled corticosteroid use. Using data from a national, multicentre, prospective cohort, we aimed to characterise people with COVID-19 admitted to hospital with underlying respiratory disease, assess the level of care received, measure in-hospital mortality, and examine the effect of inhaled corticosteroid use.MethodsWe analysed data from the International Severe Acute Respiratory and emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC) WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol UK (CCP-UK) study. All patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 across England, Scotland, and Wales between Jan 17 and Aug 3, 2020, were eligible for inclusion in this analysis. Patients with asthma, chronic pulmonary disease, or both, were identified and stratified by age (<16 years, 16–49 years, and ≥50 years). In-hospital mortality was measured by use of multilevel Cox proportional hazards, adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, and medications (inhaled corticosteroids, short-acting β-agonists [SABAs], and long-acting β-agonists [LABAs]). Patients with asthma who were taking an inhaled corticosteroid plus LABA plus another maintenance asthma medication were considered to have severe asthma.Findings75 463 patients from 258 participating health-care facilities were included in this analysis: 860 patients younger than 16 years (74 [8·6%] with asthma), 8950 patients aged 16–49 years (1867 [20·9%] with asthma), and 65 653 patients aged 50 years and older (5918 [9·0%] with asthma, 10 266 [15·6%] with chronic pulmonary disease, and 2071 [3·2%] with both asthma and chronic pulmonary disease). Patients with asthma were significantly more likely than those without asthma to receive critical care (patients aged 16–49 years: adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1·20 [95% CI
Ratanachina J, Amaral A, De Matteis S, et al., 2021, Farming, pesticide exposure and respiratory health: a cross-sectional study in Thailand, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN: 1351-0711
Objective: To assess the association of lung function and respiratory symptoms with farming, particularly pesticide use, in an agricultural province in Thailand.Methods: We undertook a cross-sectional survey of adults aged 40–65 in Nan province, Thailand, between May and August 2019. We randomly recruited 345 villagers and enriched the sample with 82 government employees. All participants performed post-bronchodilator spirometry and completed a questionnaire covering information on respiratory symptoms, farming activities, pesticide use and known risk factors for respiratory disease. Associations of respiratory outcomes with farming and pesticide exposures were examined by multivariable regression analysis.Results: The response rate was 94%. The prevalence of chronic airflow obstruction among villagers was 5.5%. Villagers had, on average, a lower percent predicted post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) than government employees (98.3% vs 100.3%; p=0.04). There was no evidence of association of lung function with farming activities, the use of specific herbicides (glyphosate and paraquat), insecticides (organophosphates and pyrethroids) or fungicides. The exceptions were poultry farming, associated with chronic cough and an increase of FEV1/FVC, and atrazine, for which duration (p-trend <0.01), intensity (p-trend <0.01) and cumulative hours (p-trend=0.01) of use were all associated with higher FEV1/FVC in an exposure–response manner. Cumulative hours (−280 mL/hour), low duration (−270 mL/year) and intensity (−270 mL/hour/year) of atrazine use were associated with lower FVC.Conclusions: Chronic airflow obstruction is uncommon among villagers of an agricultural province in Nan, Thailand. Farming and pesticide use are unlikely to be major causes of respiratory problems there.
van der Plaat D, Edge R, Coggon D, et al., 2021, Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on sickness absence for mental ill health in National Health Service staff, Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Abstract Objective: To explore the patterns of sickness absence in National Health Service (NHS) staff attributable to mental ill health during the first wave of the Covid19 epidemic in March to July 2020 Design: Case-referent analysis of a secondary data set Setting: NHS Trusts in England Participants: Pseudonymised data on 959,356 employees who were continuously employed by NHS trusts during 1 January 2019 to 31 July 2020 Main Outcome Measures: Trends in the burden of sickness absence due to mental ill health from 2019 to 2020 according to demographic, regional and occupational characteristics. Results: Over the study period, 164,202 new sickness absence episodes for mental ill health were recorded in 12.5% (119,525) of the study sample. There was a spike of sickness absence for mental ill health in March-April 2020 (899,730 days lost) compared with 519,807 days in March and April 2019; the surge was driven by an increase in new episodes of long-term absence and had diminished by May and June 2020. The increase was greatest in those aged >60 years (227%) and among employees of Asian and Black ethnic origin (109%-136%). Among doctors and dentists the number of days absent declined by 12.7%. The biggest increase was in London (122%) and the smallest in the East Midlands (43.7%); the variation between regions reflected the rates of Covid19 sickness absence during the same period. Conclusion: Although the Covid19 epidemic led to an increase in sickness absence attributed to mental ill health in NHS staff, this had substantially declined by May and June 2020, corresponding with the decrease in pressures at work as the first wave of the epidemic subsided.
Bloom CI, Cullinan P, Wedzicha JA, 2021, Assessing Factors Associated with COVID19 Risk in Asthma, International Conference of the American-Thoracic-Society (ATS), Publisher: AMER THORACIC SOC, ISSN: 1073-449X
Walsh JA, Barker RE, Kon SSC, et al., 2021, Gait speed and adverse outcomes following hospitalised exacerbation of COPD, European Respiratory Journal, Vol: 58, ISSN: 0903-1936
Four-metre gait speed (4MGS) is a simple physical performance measure and surrogate marker of frailty that is associated with adverse outcomes in older adults. We aimed to assess the ability of 4MGS to predict prognosis in patients hospitalised with acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD).213 participants hospitalised with AECOPD (52% male, mean age and FEV1, 72 years and 35% predicted) were enrolled. 4MGS and baseline demographics were recorded at hospital discharge. All-cause readmission and mortality were collected for 1 y after discharge, and multivariable Cox-proportional hazards regression were performed. Kaplan-Meier and Competing risk analysis was conducted comparing time to all-cause readmission and mortality between 4MGS quartiles.111 participants (52%) were readmitted, and 35 (16%) died during the follow-up period. 4MGS was associated with all-cause readmission, with an adjusted subdistribution hazard ratio of 0.868 (95% CI 0.797-0.945; p=0.001) per 0.1 m·s-1 increase in gait speed, and with all-cause mortality with an adjusted subdistribution hazard ratio of 0.747 (95% CI: 0.622-0.898; p=0.002) per 0.1 m·s-1 increase in gait speed. Readmission and mortality models incorporating 4MGS had higher discrimination than age or FEV1% predicted alone, with areas under the receiver operator characteristic curves of 0.73 and 0.80 respectively. Kaplan-Meier and Competing Risk curves demonstrated that those in slower gait speed quartiles had reduced time to readmission and mortality (log rank both p<0.001).4MGS provides a simple means of identifying at-risk patients with COPD at hospital discharge. This provides valuable information to plan post-discharge care and support.
van der Plaat D, Madan I, Coggon D, et al., 2021, Occupational risks of COVID-19 in NHS workers in England, Publisher: medRxiv
Objective To quantify occupational risks of Covid-19 among healthcare staff during the first wave of the pandemic in EnglandMethods Using pseudonymised data on 902,813 individuals continuously employed by 191 National Health Service trusts during 1.1.19 to 31.7.20, we explored demographic and occupational risk factors for sickness absence ascribed to Covid-19 during 9.3.20 to 31.7.20 (n = 92,880). We estimated odds ratios (ORs) by multivariate logistic regression.Results With adjustment for employing trust, demographic characteristics, and previous frequency of sickness absence, risk relative to administrative/clerical occupations was highest in additional clinical services (a group that included care assistants) (OR 2.31), registered nursing and midwifery professionals (OR 2.28) and allied health professionals (OR 1.94), and intermediate in doctors and dentists (OR 1.55). Differences in risk were higher after the employing trust had started to care for documented Covid-19 patients, and were reduced, but not eliminated, following additional adjustment for exposure to infected patients or materials, assessed by a job-exposure matrix. For prolonged Covid-19 sickness absence (episodes lasting >14 days), the variation in risk by staff group was somewhat greater.Conclusions After allowance for possible bias and confounding by non-occupational exposures, we estimated that relative risks for Covid-19 among most patient-facing occupations were between 1.5 and 2.5. The highest risks were in those working in additional clinical services, nursing and midwifery and in allied health professions. Better protective measures for these staff groups should be a priority. Covid-19 may meet criteria for compensation as an occupational disease in some healthcare occupations.
Edge R, van der Plaat D, Parsons V, et al., 2021, Changing patterns of sickness absence among healthcare workers in England during the COVID-19 pandemic, Publisher: medRxiv
Objective To explore impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on patterns of sickness absence among staff employed by the National Health Service (NHS) in England.Methods We analysed prospectively collected, pseudonymised data on 959,356 employees who were continuously employed by NHS trusts during 1 January 2019 to 31 July 2020, comparing the frequency of new sickness absence in 2020 with that at corresponding times in 2019.Results After exclusion of episodes directly related to COVID-19, the overall incidence of sickness absence during the initial 10 weeks of the pandemic (March-May 2020) was more than 20% lower than in corresponding weeks of 2019, but trends for specific categories of illness varied. Marked increases were observed for asthma (122%), infectious diseases (283%) and mental illness (42.3%), while reductions were apparent for gastrointestinal problems (48.4%), genitourinary/gynaecological disorders (33.8%), eye problems (42.7%), injury and fracture (27.7%), back problems (19.6%), other musculoskeletal disorders (29.3%), disorders of ear, nose and throat (32.7%), cough/flu (24.5%) and cancer (24.1%). A doubling of new absences for pregnancy-related disorders during 18 May to 19 July of 2020 was limited to women with earlier COVID-19 sickness absence.Conclusions Various factors will have contributed to the large and divergent changes that were observed. The findings add to concerns regarding delays in diagnosis and treatment of cancers, and support a need to plan for a large backlog of treatment for many other diseases. Further research should explore the rise in absence for pregnancy-related disorders among women with earlier COVID-19 sickness absence.
Wiszniewska M, Dellis P, van Kampen V, et al., 2021, Characterization of Occupational Eosinophilic Bronchitis in a Multicenter Cohort of Subjects with Work-Related Asthma Symptoms, JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY-IN PRACTICE, Vol: 9, Pages: 937-+, ISSN: 2213-2198
Bloom C, Tom D, Docherty A, et al., 2021, Risk of adverse outcomes in patients with underlying respiratory conditions hospitalised with COVID-19 using the ISARIC WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol: a national, multicentre prospective cohort, The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, ISSN: 2213-2600
BackgroundStudies of hospitalised COVID-19 patients have found inconsistencies in mortality associated with underlying respiratory conditions and inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) use. We sought to investigate this relationship using a national, multicentre, prospective cohort. MethodsProspective, multicentre UK cohort of hospitalised COVID-19 patients. Patients with asthma, chronic pulmonary disease (CPD), or both, were identified and stratified by age (years): <16, 16-49 and ≥50. In-hospital mortality was measured using multilevel Cox proportional hazards, adjusting for demographics, comorbidities and medications (ICS, short-acting-beta-agonists (SABA), long-acting-beta-agonists (LABA)). Asthma patients using ICS+LABA+another asthma medication were considered ‘severe’.Findings75,463 patients were included: <16 years, 860 patients (8.6% asthma); 16-49 years, 8,950 patients (20.9% asthma), ≥50 years, 65,653 patients (9.0% asthma, 15.6% CPD, 3.2% asthma & CPD). Asthma patients were significantly more likely to receive critical care, CPD patients were significantly less likely to. In patients 16-49 years, only those with severe asthma had a significant increase in mortality (adjusted HR (95%CI): no therapy=1.21 (0.78-1.88), SABA-only=1.03 (0.66-1.62), ICS-only=1.01 (0.68-1.51), ICS+LABA=1.06 (0.70-1.61), severe=2.07 (1.35-3.18)). In patients ≥50 years, there was increased mortality associated with CPD and severe asthma. ICS use was associated with lower mortality (adjusted HR (95% CI): asthma+no_ICS=0.97 (0.90-1.04), asthma+ICS=0.87 (0.81-0.93), CPD+no_ICS=1.16 (1.11-1.21), CPD+ICS=1.10 (1.04-1.17), asthma+CPD+no_ICS=1.13 (1.00-1.27), asthma+CPD+ICS=0.98 (0.89-1.07).InterpretationUnderlying respiratory conditions are common in hospitalised COVID-19 patients. Regardless of admission severity and comorbidities, asthma patients were more likely to receive critical care than patients without underlying respiratory disease; CPD patients were less
Reynolds C, Feary J, Cullinan P, 2020, Occupational contributions to interstitial lung disease, Clinics in Chest Medicine, Vol: 41, Pages: 697-707, ISSN: 0272-5231
Cullinan P, Vandenplas O, Bernstein D, 2020, Assessment and management of occupational asthma, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice, Vol: 8, Pages: 3264-3276, ISSN: 2213-2198
Exposures at work can give rise to different phenotypes of “work-related asthma.” The focus of this review is on the diagnosis and management of sensitizer-induced occupational asthma (OA) caused by either a high- or low-molecular-weight agent encountered in the workplace. The diagnosis of OA remains a challenge for the clinician because there is no simple test with a sufficiently high level of accuracy. Instead, the diagnostic process combines different procedures in a stepwise manner. These procedures include a detailed clinical history, immunologic testing, measurement of lung function parameters and airway inflammatory markers, as well as various methods that relate changes in these functional and inflammatory indices to workplace exposure. Their diagnostic performances, alone and in combination, are critically reviewed and summarized into evidence-based key messages. A working diagnostic algorithm is proposed that can be adapted to the suspected agent, purpose of diagnosis, and available resources. Current information on the management options of OA is summarized to provide pragmatic guidance to clinicians who have to advise their patients with OA.
Bennett AN, Dyball DM, Boos CJ, et al., 2020, Study protocol for a prospective, longitudinal cohort study investigating the medical and psychosocial outcomes of UK combat casualties from the Afghanistan war: the ADVANCE Study., BMJ Open, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 2044-6055
INTRODUCTION: The Afghanistan war (2003-2014) was a unique period in military medicine. Many service personnel survived injuries of a severity that would have been fatal at any other time in history; the long-term health outcomes of such injuries are unknown. The ArmeD SerVices TrAuma and RehabilitatioN OutComE (ADVANCE) study aims to determine the long-term effects on both medical and psychosocial health of servicemen surviving this severe combat related trauma. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: ADVANCE is a prospective cohort study. 1200 Afghanistan-deployed male UK military personnel and veterans will be recruited and will be studied at 0, 3, 6, 10, 15 and 20 years. Half are personnel who sustained combat trauma; a comparison group of the same size has been frequency matched based on deployment to Afghanistan, age, sex, service, rank and role. Participants undergo a series of physical health tests and questionnaires through which information is collected on cardiovascular disease (CVD), CVD risk factors, musculoskeletal disease, mental health, functional and social outcomes, quality of life, employment and mortality. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The ADVANCE Study has approval from the Ministry of Defence Research Ethics Committee (protocol no:357/PPE/12) agreed 15 January 2013. Its results will be disseminated through manuscripts in clinical/academic journals and presentations at professional conferences, and through participant and stakeholder communications. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: The ADVANCE Study is registered at ISRCTN ID: ISRCTN57285353.
van der Plaat DA, De Matteis S, Sadhra S, et al., 2020, Interaction between occupational exposures and antioxidant geneson chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in UK Biobank, ERS, Publisher: European Medical Group LTD, Pages: 77-78, ISSN: 2054-3166
Coggon D, Croft P, Cullinan P, et al., 2020, Assessment of workers' personal vulnerability to covid-19 using 'covid-age'., Occupational Medicine, Vol: 70, Pages: 461-464, ISSN: 0962-7480
Feary J, Cannon J, Fitzgerald B, et al., 2020, Follow-up survey of patients with occupational asthma., Occupational Medicine, Vol: 70, Pages: 231-234, ISSN: 0962-7480
BACKGROUND: Occupational asthma (OA) is often associated with a poor prognosis and the impact of a diagnosis on an individual's career and income can be significant. AIMS: We sought to understand the consequences of a diagnosis of OA to patients attending our clinic. METHODS: Using a postal questionnaire, we surveyed all patients attending our specialist occupational lung disease clinic 1 year after having received a diagnosis of OA due to a sensitizer (n = 125). We enquired about their current health and employment status and impact of their diagnosis on various aspects of their life. Additional information was collected by review of clinical records. RESULTS: We received responses from 71 (57%) patients; 77% were referred by an occupational health (OH) provider. The median duration of symptoms prior to referral was 18 months (interquartile range (IQR) 8-48). At 1 year, 79% respondents were no longer exposed to the causal agent. Whilst the unexposed patients reported an improvement in symptoms compared with those still exposed (82% versus 53%; P = 0.023), they had poorer outcomes in terms of career, income and how they felt treated by their employer; particularly those not currently employed. Almost all (>90%) of those still employed had been referred by an OH provider compared with 56% of those currently unemployed (P = 0.002)x. CONCLUSIONS: The negative impact of OA on people's careers, livelihood and quality of life should not be underestimated. However, with early detection and specialist care, the prognosis is often good and particularly so for those with access to occupational health.
Mueller W, Cowie H, Horwell CJ, et al., 2020, Standardized epidemiological protocols for populations affected by volcanic eruptions, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Vol: 98, Pages: 362-364, ISSN: 0042-9686
Suojalehto H, Suuronen K, Cullinan P, et al., 2020, Phenotyping occupational asthma caused by acrylates in a multicenter cohort study, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice, Vol: 8, Pages: 971-979.e1, ISSN: 2213-2198
BACKGROUND: While acrylates are well-known skin sensitizers, they are not classified as respiratory sensitizers although several cases of acrylate-induced occupational asthma (OA) have been reported. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the characteristics of acrylate-induced OA in a large series of cases and compare those with OA induced by other low-molecular-weight (LMW) agents. METHODS: Jobs and exposures, clinical and functional characteristics, and markers of airway inflammation were analyzed in an international, multicenter, retrospective cohort of subjects with OA ascertained by a positive inhalation challenge to acrylates (n = 55) or other LMW agents (n = 418) including isocyanates (n = 125). RESULTS: Acrylate-containing glues were the most prevalent products, and industrial manufacturing, dental work, and beauty care were typical occupations causing OA. Work-related rhinitis was more common in acrylate-than in isocyanate-induced asthma (P < .001). The increase in postchallenge fractional exhaled nitric oxide was significantly greater in acrylate-induced OA (26.0; 8.2 to 38.0 parts per billion [ppb]) than in OA induced by other LMW agents (3.0; -1.0 to 10.0 ppb; P < .001) or isocyanates (5.0; 2.0 to 16.0 ppb; P = .010). Multivariable models confirmed that OA induced by acrylates was significantly and independently associated with a postchallenge increase in fractional exhaled nitric oxide (≥17.5 ppb). CONCLUSIONS: Acrylate-induced OA shows specific characteristics, concomitant work-related rhinitis, and exposure-related increases in fractional exhaled nitric oxide, suggesting that acrylates may induce asthma through different immunologic mechanisms compared with mechanisms through which other LMW agents may induce asthma. Our findings reinforce the need for a reevaluation of the hazard classification of acrylates, and further investigation of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying their respiratory sensitizing potential.
Preston GW, Dagnino S, Ponzi E, et al., 2020, Relationships between airborne pollutants, serum albumin adducts and short-term health outcomes in an experimental crossover study, Chemosphere, Vol: 239, ISSN: 1879-1298
Exposure to air pollution can have both short-term and long-term effects on health. However, the relationships between specific pollutants and their effects can be obscured by characteristics of both the pollution and the exposed population. One way of elucidating the relationships is to link exposures and internal changes at the level of the individual. To this end, we combined personal exposure monitoring (59 individuals, Oxford Street II crossover study) with mass-spectrometry-based analyses of putative serum albumin adducts (fixed-step selected reaction monitoring). We attempted to infer adducts' identities using data from another, higher-resolution mass spectrometry method, and were able to detect a semi-synthetic standard with both methods. A generalised least squares regression method was used to test for associations between amounts of adducts and pollution measures (ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter), and between amounts of adducts and short-term health outcomes (measures of lung health and arterial stiffness). Amounts of some putative adducts (e.g., one with a positive mass shift of approximately 143Da) were associated with exposure to pollution (11 associations), and amounts of other adducts were associated with health outcomes (eight associations). Adducts did not appear to provide a link between exposures and short-term health outcomes.
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