185 results found
Vasquez N, Knight SL, Susser J, et al., 2015, Pelvic floor muscle training in spinal cord injury and its impact on neurogenic detrusor over-activity and incontinence, SPINAL CORD, Vol: 53, Pages: 887-889, ISSN: 1362-4393
Ellaway PH, Taylor A, Durbaba R, 2015, Muscle spindle and fusimotor activity in locomotion, JOURNAL OF ANATOMY, Vol: 227, Pages: 157-166, ISSN: 0021-8782
Macklin RA, Brooke VJ, Calabro FJ, et al., 2015, Discrepancies between clinical assessments of sensory function and electrical perceptual thresholds after incomplete chronic cervical spinal cord injury, Spinal Cord, Vol: 54, Pages: 16-23, ISSN: 1476-5624
Study design: Prospective experimental.Objectives: To compare sensory function as revealed by light touch and pin prick tests of the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) and the electrical perceptual threshold (EPT) exams in individuals with chronic incomplete cervical spinal cord injury (SCI).Setting: Pittsburgh, United States.Methods: EPT was tested using cutaneous electrical stimulation (0.5 ms pulse width, 3 Hz) in 32 healthy controls and in 17 participants with SCI over key points on dermatomes C2 to T4 on each side of the body. Light touch and pin prick ISNCSCI scores were tested at the same key dermatomes in SCI participants.Results: In controls, EPT values were higher in older males (1.26±0.2 mA, mean±s.d.) compared with younger males (1.0±0.2 mA) and older females (0.9±0.2 mA), regardless of the dermatome and side tested. Fifteen out of the seventeen SCI participants showed that the level of sensory impairment detected by the EPT was below the level detected by the ISNCSCI (mean=4.5±2.4, range 1–9). The frequency distribution of EPTs was similar to older male controls in dermatomes above but not below the ISNCSCI sensory level. The difference between EPT and ISNCSCI sensory level was negatively correlated with the time post injury.Conclusions: The results show that, in the chronic stage of cervical SCI, the EPT reveals spared sensory function at lower (~5) spinal segments compared with the ISNCSCI sensory exam. It is hence found that the EPT is a sensitive tool to assess recovery of sensory function after chronic SCI.
Vasquez N, Balasubramaniam V, Kuppuswamy A, et al., 2015, The Interaction of Cortico-Spinal Pathways and Sacral Sphincter Reflexes in Subjects with Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury: A Pilot Study, NEUROUROLOGY AND URODYNAMICS, Vol: 34, Pages: 349-355, ISSN: 0733-2467
Ellaway PH, Vásquez N, Craggs M, 2014, Induction of central nervous system plasticity by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to promote sensorimotor recovery in incomplete spinal cord injury., Front Integr Neurosci, Vol: 8, ISSN: 1662-5145
Cortical and spinal cord plasticity may be induced with non-invasive transcranial magnetic stimulation to encourage long term potentiation or depression of neuronal circuits. Such plasticity inducing stimulation provides an attractive approach to promote changes in sensorimotor circuits that have been degraded by spinal cord injury (SCI). If residual corticospinal circuits can be conditioned appropriately there should be the possibility that the changes are accompanied by functional recovery. This article reviews the attempts that have been made to restore sensorimotor function and to obtain functional benefits from the application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the cortex following incomplete spinal cord injury. The confounding issues that arise with the application of rTMS, specifically in SCI, are enumerated. Finally, consideration is given to the potential for rTMS to be used in the restoration of bladder and bowel sphincter function and consequent functional recovery of the guarding reflex.
Vasquez N, Gall A, Ellaway PH, et al., 2013, Light touch and pin prick disparity in the International Standard for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI), SPINAL CORD, Vol: 51, Pages: 375-378, ISSN: 1362-4393
Ellaway PH, Catley M, 2013, Reliability of the electrical perceptual threshold and Semmes-Weinstein monofilament tests of cutaneous sensibility, SPINAL CORD, Vol: 51, Pages: 120-125, ISSN: 1362-4393
Boakye M, Harkema S, Ellaway PH, et al., 2012, Quantitative testing in spinal cord injury: overview of reliability and predictive validity, JOURNAL OF NEUROSURGERY-SPINE, Vol: 17, Pages: 141-150, ISSN: 1547-5654
Curt A, Ellaway PH, 2012, Clinical neurophysiology in the prognosis and monitoring of traumatic spinal cord injury., Handb Clin Neurol, Vol: 109, Pages: 63-75, ISSN: 0072-9752
Preclinical studies for the repair of spinal cord injury (SCI) and potential therapies for accessing the inherent plasticity of the central nervous system (CNS) to promote recovery of function are currently moving into the translational stage. These emerging clinical trials of therapeutic interventions for the repair of SCI require improved assessment techniques and quantitative outcome measures to supplement the American Spinal Injuries Association (ASIA) Impairment Scales. This chapter attempts to identify those electrophysiological techniques that show the most promise for provision of objective and quantitative measures of sensory, motor, and autonomic function in SCI. Reviewed are: (1) somatosensory evoked potentials, including dermatomal somatosensory evoked potentials, and the electrical perceptual threshold as tests of the dorsal (posterior) column pathway; (2) laser evoked potentials and contact heat evoked potentials as tests of the anterior spinothalamic tract; (3) motor evoked potentials in limb muscles, in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex as tests of the corticospinal tract, and the application of the technique to assessment of trunk and sphincter muscles; and (4) the sympathetic skin response as a test of spinal cord access to the sympathetic chain.
Kuppuswamy A, Balasubramaniam AV, Maksimovic R, et al., 2011, Action of 5 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on sensory, motor and autonomic function in human spinal cord injury, CLINICAL NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, Vol: 122, Pages: 2452-2461, ISSN: 1388-2457
Ellaway PH, Kuppuswamy A, Balasubramaniam AV, et al., 2011, Development of quantitative and sensitive assessments of physiological and functional outcome during recovery from spinal cord injury: A Clinical Initiative, BRAIN RESEARCH BULLETIN, Vol: 84, Pages: 343-357, ISSN: 0361-9230
Ellaway PH, Kuppuswamy A, Nicotra A, et al., 2010, Sweat production and the sympathetic skin response: Improving the clinical assessment of autonomic function, AUTONOMIC NEUROSCIENCE-BASIC & CLINICAL, Vol: 155, Pages: 109-114, ISSN: 1566-0702
King NKK, Savic G, Frankel H, et al., 2009, Reliability of Cutaneous Electrical Perceptual Threshold in the Assessment of Sensory Perception in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury, JOURNAL OF NEUROTRAUMA, Vol: 26, Pages: 1061-1068, ISSN: 0897-7151
Nicotra A, Kuppuswamy A, King NK, et al., 2008, Central pathways of sympathetic skin response: an exploratory image-guided repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation study in healthy subjects, 12th Congress of the European-Federation-of-Neurological-Societies, Publisher: WILEY-BLACKWELL, Pages: 53-53, ISSN: 1351-5101
Kuppuswamy A, Catley M, King NKK, et al., 2008, Cortical control of erector spinae muscles during arm abduction in humans, GAIT & POSTURE, Vol: 27, Pages: 478-484, ISSN: 0966-6362
Durbaba R, Taylor A, Ellaway PH, et al., 2007, Spinal projection of spindle afferents of the longissimus lumborum muscles of the cat, JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LONDON, Vol: 580, Pages: 659-675, ISSN: 0022-3751
Lammertse D, Tuszynski MH, Steeves JD, et al., 2007, Guidelines for the conduct of clinical trials for spinal cord injury as developed by the ICCP panel: clinical trial design, SPINAL CORD, Vol: 45, Pages: 232-242, ISSN: 1362-4393
Tuszynski MH, Steeves JD, Fawcett JW, et al., 2007, Guidelines for the conduct of clinical trials for spinal cord injury as developed by the ICCP Panel: clinical trial inclusion exclusion criteria and ethics, SPINAL CORD, Vol: 45, Pages: 222-231, ISSN: 1362-4393
Fawcett JW, Curt A, Steeves JD, et al., 2007, Guidelines for the conduct of clinical trials for spinal cord injury as developed by the ICCP panel: spontaneous recovery after spinal cord injury and statistical power needed for therapeutic clinical trials, SPINAL CORD, Vol: 45, Pages: 190-205, ISSN: 1362-4393
Steeves JD, Lammertse D, Curt A, et al., 2007, Guidelines for the conduct of clinical trials for spinal cord injury (SCI) as developed by the ICCP panel: clinical trial outcome measures, SPINAL CORD, Vol: 45, Pages: 206-221, ISSN: 1362-4393
Savic G, Bergstrom EMK, Davey NJ, et al., 2007, Quantitative sensory tests (perceptual thresholds) in patients with spinal cord injury, JOURNAL OF REHABILITATION RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, Vol: 44, Pages: 77-82, ISSN: 0748-7711
Ellaway PH, Catley M, Davey NJ, et al., 2007, Review of physiological motor outcome measures in spinal cord injury using transcranial magnetic stimulation and spinal reflexes., J Rehabil Res Dev, Vol: 44, Pages: 69-76
This article reviews methods that have been developed as part of a clinical initiative on improving outcome measures for motor function assessment in subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI). Physiological motor outcome measures originally developed for limbs-transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex to elicit motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) and mechanical stimulation to elicit spinal reflexes-have been extended to muscles of the trunk. The impetus for this development is the lack of a motor component in the American Spinal Injury Association clinical assessment for the thoracic myotomes. The application of TMS to the assessment of limb muscles is reviewed, followed by consideration of its application to the assessment of paravertebral and intercostal muscles. Spinal reflex testing of paravertebral muscles is also described. The principal markers for the thoracic SCI motor level that have emerged from this clinical initiative are (1) the threshold of MEPs in paravertebral muscles in response to TMS of the motor cortex, (2) the facilitation pattern and latency of MEPs in intercostal muscles during voluntary expiratory effort, and (3) the absence of long-latency reflex responses and the exaggeration of short-latency reflex responses in paravertebral muscles.
Savic G, Bergstrom EMK, Davey NJ, et al., 2007, Quantitative sensory tests (perceptual thresholds) in patients with spinal cord injury, 57th Annual Meeting of the American-Academy-of-Neurology, Pages: 77-82
This article was presented at the Premeeting Workshop on Outcome Measures at the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Annual Scientific Meeting in Dallas, Texas, in May 2005. The article summarizes preliminary findings of three quantitative sensory tests that were evaluated as part of the International Spinal Research Trust Clinical Initiative study: perceptual thresholds to electrical, vibration, and thermal stimulation. The results gathered so far suggest that the three tests are simple, reproducible, and applicable in a clinical setting. The tests seem to add resolution and sensitivity to the standard clinical testing and could be useful adjuncts in longitudinal monitoring of spinal cord injury for research purposes.
Ellaway PH, Catley M, Davey NJ, et al., 2007, Review of physiological motor outcome measures in spinal cord injury using transcranial magnetic stimulation and spinal reflexes, 57th Annual Meeting of the American-Academy-of-Neurology, Publisher: JOURNAL REHAB RES & DEV, Pages: 69-75, ISSN: 0748-7711
Gaunt RA, Prochazka A, Mushahwar VK, et al., 2006, Intraspinal microstimulation excites multisegmental sensory afferents at lower stimulus levels than local α-motoneuron responses, JOURNAL OF NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, Vol: 96, Pages: 2995-3005, ISSN: 0022-3077
Nicotra A, Ellaway PH, 2006, Thermal perception thresholds: assessing the level of human spinal cord injury, SPINAL CORD, Vol: 44, Pages: 617-624, ISSN: 1362-4393
Savic G, Bergstroem EMK, Frankel HL, et al., 2006, Perceptual threshold to cutaneous electrical stimulation in patients with spinal cord injury, SPINAL CORD, Vol: 44, Pages: 560-566, ISSN: 1362-4393
Taylor A, Durbaba R, Ellaway PH, et al., 2006, Static and dynamic γ-motor output to ankle flexor muscles during locomotion in the decerebrate cat, JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LONDON, Vol: 571, Pages: 711-723, ISSN: 0022-3751
Durbaba R, Taylor A, Ellaway PH, et al., 2006, Classification of longissimus lumborum muscle spindle afferents in the anaesthetized cat, JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LONDON, Vol: 571, Pages: 489-498, ISSN: 0022-3751
Kuppuswamy A, Theodorou S, Catley M, et al., 2005, Motor neurone excitability in back muscles assessed using mechanically evoked reflexes in spinal cord injured patients, JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY NEUROSURGERY AND PSYCHIATRY, Vol: 76, Pages: 1259-1263, ISSN: 0022-3050
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