Imperial College London

ProfessorPaulElliott

Faculty of MedicineSchool of Public Health

Chair in Epidemiology and Public Health Medicine
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 3328p.elliott Website

 
 
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Assistant

 

Miss Jennifer Wells +44 (0)20 7594 3328

 
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Location

 

154Norfolk PlaceSt Mary's Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

616 results found

Ghosh RE, Ashworth DC, Hansell AL, Garwood K, Elliott P, Toledano MBet al., 2016, Routinely collected English birth data sets: comparisons and recommendations for reproductive epidemiology., Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal edition, Vol: 101, Pages: F451-F457, ISSN: 1359-2998

BACKGROUND: In England there are four national routinely collected data sets on births: Office for National Statistics (ONS) births based on birth registrations; Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) deliveries (mothers' information); HES births (babies' information); and NHS Numbers for Babies (NN4B) based on ONS births plus gestational age and ethnicity information. This study describes and compares these data, with the aim of recommending the most appropriate data set(s) for use in epidemiological research and surveillance. METHODS: We assessed the completeness and quality of the data sets in relation to use in epidemiological research and surveillance and produced detailed descriptive statistics on common reproductive outcomes for each data set including temporal and spatial trends. RESULTS: ONS births is a high quality complete data set but lacks interpretive and clinical information. HES deliveries showed good agreement with ONS births but HES births showed larger amounts of missing or unavailable data. Both HES data sets had improved quality from 2003 onwards, but showed some local spatial variability. NN4B showed excellent agreement with ONS and HES deliveries for the years available (2006-2010). Annual number of births increased by 17.6% comparing 2002 with 2010 (ONS births). Approximately 6% of births were of low birth weight (2.6% term low birth weight) and 0.5% were stillbirths. CONCLUSIONS: Routinely collected data on births provide a valuable resource for researchers. ONS and NN4B offer the most complete and accurate record of births. Where more detailed clinical information is required, HES deliveries offers a high quality data set that captures the majority of English births.

Journal article

Gibson R, Eriksen R, Chan Q, Vergnaud AC, Singh D, Heard A, Spear J, Aresu M, McRobie D, Elliott P, Frost Get al., 2016, Sex differences in the relationship between work patterns and diet in British police force employees: a nested cross-sectional study, Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, Vol: 75, Pages: E20-E20, ISSN: 0029-6651

Journal article

Pattaro C, Teumer A, Gorski M, Chu AY, Li M, Mijatovic V, Garnaas M, Tin A, Sorice R, Li Y, Taliun D, Olden M, Foster M, Yang Q, Chen MH, Pers TH, Johnson AD, Ko YA, Fuchsberger C, Tayo B, Nalls M, Feitosa MF, Isaacs A, Dehghan A, d'Adamo P, Adeyemo A, Dieffenbach AK, Zonderman AB, Nolte IM, van der Most PJ, Wright AF, Shuldiner AR, Morrison AC, Hofman A, Smith AV, Dreisbach AW, Franke A, Uitterlinden AG, Metspalu A, Tonjes A, Lupo A, Robino A, Johansson Å, Demirkan A, Kollerits B, Freedman BI, Ponte B, Oostra BA, Paulweber B, Krämer BK, Mitchell BD, Buckley BM, Peralta CA, Hayward C, Helmer C, Rotimi CN, Shaffer CM, Müller C, Sala C, van Duijn CM, Saint-Pierre A, Ackermann D, Shriner D, Ruggiero D, Toniolo D, Lu Y, Cusi D, Czamara D, Ellinghaus D, Siscovick DS, Ruderfer D, Gieger C, Grallert H, Rochtchina E, Atkinson EJ, Holliday EG, Boerwinkle E, Salvi E, Bottinger EP, Murgia F, Rivadeneira F, Ernst F, Kronenberg F, Hu FB, Navis GJ, Curhan GC, Ehret GB, Homuth G, Coassin S, Thun GA, Pistis G, Gambaro G, Malerba G, Montgomery GW, Eiriksdottir G, Jacobs G, Li G, Wichmann HE, Campbell H, Schmidt H, Wallaschofski H, Völzke H, Brenner H, Kroemer HK, Kramer H, Lin H, Mateo Leach I, Ford I, Guessous I, Rudan I, Prokopenko I, Borecki I, Heid IM, Kolcic I, Persico I, Jukema JW, Wilson JF, Felix JF, Divers J, Lambert JC, Stafford JM, Gaspoz JM, Smith JA, Faul JD, Wang JJ, Ding J, Hirschhorn JN, Attia J, Whitfield JB, Chalmers J, Viikari J, Coresh J, Denny JC, Karjalainen J, Fernandes JK, Endlich K, Butterbach K, Keene KL, Lohman K, Portas L, Launer LJ, Lyytikäinen LP, Yengo L, Franke L, Ferrucci L, Rose LM, Kedenko L, Rao M, Struchalin M, Kleber ME, Cavalieri M, Haun M, Cornelis MC, Ciullo M, Pirastu M, de Andrade M, McEvoy MA, Woodward M, Adam M, Cocca M, Nauck M, Imboden M, Waldenberger M, Pruijm M, Metzger M, Stumvoll M, Evans MK, Sale MM, Kähönen M, Boban M, Bochud M, Rheinberger M, Verweij N, Bouatia-Naji N, Martin NG, Hastie N, Probst-Hensch N, Soranzo N, Devuyst O Ret al., 2016, Genetic associations at 53 loci highlight cell types and biological pathways relevant for kidney function., Nat Commun, Vol: 7

Reduced glomerular filtration rate defines chronic kidney disease and is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), combining data across 133,413 individuals with replication in up to 42,166 individuals. We identify 24 new and confirm 29 previously identified loci. Of these 53 loci, 19 associate with eGFR among individuals with diabetes. Using bioinformatics, we show that identified genes at eGFR loci are enriched for expression in kidney tissues and in pathways relevant for kidney development and transmembrane transporter activity, kidney structure, and regulation of glucose metabolism. Chromatin state mapping and DNase I hypersensitivity analyses across adult tissues demonstrate preferential mapping of associated variants to regulatory regions in kidney but not extra-renal tissues. These findings suggest that genetic determinants of eGFR are mediated largely through direct effects within the kidney and highlight important cell types and biological pathways.

Journal article

Chan Q, Stamler J, Griep LM, Daviglus ML, Horn LV, Elliott Pet al., 2015, An Update on Nutrients and Blood Pressure., Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis, Vol: 23, Pages: 276-289, ISSN: 1880-3873

Adverse blood pressure (BP) is a major independent risk factor for epidemic cardiovascular diseases affecting almost one-quarter of the adult population worldwide. Dietary intake is a major determinant in the development and progression of high BP. Lifestyle modifications, including recommended dietary guidelines, are advocated by the American Society of Hypertension, the International Society of Hypertension, the Japanese Society of Hypertension, and many other organisations for treating all hypertensive people, prior to initiating drug therapy and as an adjunct to medication in persons already on drug therapy. Lifestyle modification can also reduce high BP and prevent development of hypertension. This review synthesizes results from the International Study of Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP), a cross-sectional epidemiological study of 4,680 men and women aged 40-59 years from Japan, the People's Republic of China, the United Kingdom, and the United States, published over the past few years on cross cultural BP differences. INTERMAP has previously reported that intakes of vegetable protein, glutamic acid, total and insoluble fibre, total polyunsaturated fatty acid and linoleic acid, total n-3 fatty acid and linolenic acid, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, and non-heme iron were inversely related to BP. Direct associations of sugars (fructose, glucose, and sucrose) and sugar-sweetened beverages (especially combined with high sodium intake), cholesterol, glycine, alanine, and oleic acid from animal sources with BP were also reported by the INTERMAP Study.

Journal article

Al Kuwari H, Al Thani A, Al Marri A, Al Kaabi A, Abderrahim H, Afifi N, Qafoud F, Chan Q, Tzoulaki I, Downey P, Ward H, Murphy N, Riboli E, Elliott Pet al., 2015, The Qatar Biobank: background and methods, BMC Public Health, Vol: 15, ISSN: 1471-2458

Background: The Qatar Biobank aims to collect extensive lifestyle, clinical, and biological information from up to60,000 men and women Qatari nationals and long-term residents (individuals living in the country for ≥15 years)aged ≥18 years (approximately one-fifth of all Qatari citizens), to follow up these same individuals over the longterm to record any subsequent disease, and hence to study the causes and progression of disease, and diseaseburden, in the Qatari population.Methods: Between the 11th-December-2012 and 20th-February-2014, 1209 participants were recruited into the pilotstudy of the Qatar Biobank. At recruitment, extensive phenotype information was collected from each participant,including information/measurements of socio-demographic factors, prevalent health conditions, diet, lifestyle,anthropometry, body composition, bone health, cognitive function, grip strength, retinal imaging, total body dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry, and measurements of cardiovascular and respiratory function. Blood, urine, and salivawere collected and stored for future research use. A panel of 66 clinical biomarkers was routinely measured onfresh blood samples in all participants. Rates of recruitment are to be progressively increased in the coming periodand the recruitment base widened to achieve a cohort of consented individuals broadly representative of theeligible Qatari population. In addition, it is planned to add additional measures in sub-samples of the cohort,including Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain, heart and abdomen.Results: The mean time for collection of the extensive phenotypic information and biological samples from eachparticipant at the baseline recruitment visit was 179 min. The 1209 pilot study participants (506 men and 703women) were aged between 28–80 years (median 39 years); 899 (74.4 %) were Qatari nationals and 310 (25.6 %)were long-term residents. Approximately two-thirds of pilot participants were educated to graduate leve

Journal article

Vimaleswaran KS, Cavadino A, Verweij N, Nolte IM, Leach IM, Auvinen J, Veijola J, Elliott P, Penninx BW, Snieder H, Jarvelin M-R, van der Harst P, Cohen RD, Boucher BJ, Hyppoenen Eet al., 2015, Interactions between uncoupling protein 2 gene polymorphisms, obesity and alcohol intake on liver function: a large meta-analysed population-based study, European Journal of Endocrinology, Vol: 173, Pages: 863-872, ISSN: 1479-683X

Background and objective Given the role of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) in the accumulation of fat in the hepatocytes and in the enhancement of protective mechanisms in acute ethanol intake, we hypothesised that UCP2 polymorphisms are likely to cause liver disease through their interactions with obesity and alcohol intake. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the interaction between tagging polymorphisms in the UCP2 gene (rs2306819, rs599277 and rs659366), alcohol intake and obesity traits such as BMI and waist circumference (WC) on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in a large meta-analysis of data sets from three populations (n=20 242).Design and methods The study populations included the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (n=4996), Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (n=1883) and LifeLines Cohort Study (n=13 363). Interactions between the polymorphisms and obesity and alcohol intake on dichotomised ALT and GGT levels were assessed using logistic regression and the likelihood ratio test.Results In the meta-analysis of the three cohorts, none of the three UCP2 polymorphisms were associated with GGT or ALT levels. There was no evidence for interaction between the polymorphisms and alcohol intake on GGT and ALT levels. In contrast, the association of WC and BMI with GGT levels varied by rs659366 genotype (Pinteraction=0.03 and 0.007, respectively; adjusted for age, gender, high alcohol intake, diabetes, hypertension and serum lipid concentrations).Conclusion In conclusion, our findings in 20 242 individuals suggest that UCP2 gene polymorphisms may cause liver dysfunction through the interaction with body fat rather than alcohol intake.

Journal article

Toledano MB, Smith RB, Chang I, Douglass M, Elliott Pet al., 2015, Cohort profile: UK COSMOS – a UK cohort for study of environment and health, International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol: 46, Pages: 775-787, ISSN: 1464-3685

Journal article

Aljuraiban GS, Griep LMO, Chan Q, Daviglus ML, Stamler J, Van Horn L, Elliott P, Frost GSet al., 2015, Total, insoluble and soluble dietary fibre intake in relation to blood pressure: the INTERMAP Study - CORRIGENDUM, British Journal of Nutrition, Vol: 114, Pages: 1534-1534, ISSN: 1475-2662

Journal article

Kato N, Loh M, Takeuchi F, Verweij N, Wang X, Zhang W, Kelly TN, Saleheen D, Lehne B, Leach IM, Drong AW, Abbott J, Wahl S, Tan S-T, Scott WR, Campanella G, Chadeau-Hyam M, Afzal U, Ahluwalia TS, Bonder MJ, Chen P, Dehghan A, Edwards TL, Esko T, Go MJ, Harris SE, Hartiala J, Kasela S, Kasturiratne A, Khor C-C, Kleber ME, Li H, Mok ZY, Nakatochi M, Sapari NS, Saxena R, Stewart AFR, Stolk L, Tabara Y, Teh AL, Wu Y, Wu J-Y, Zhang Y, Aits I, Alves ADSC, Das S, Dorajoo R, Hopewell JC, Kim YK, Koivula RW, Luan J, Lyytikainen L-P, Nguyen QN, Pereira MA, Postmus I, Raitakari OT, Bryan MS, Scott RA, Sorice R, Tragante V, Traglia M, White J, Yamamoto K, Zhang Y, Adair LS, Ahmed A, Akiyama K, Asif R, Aung T, Barroso I, Bjonnes A, Braun TR, Cai H, Chang L-C, Chen C-H, Cheng C-Y, Chong Y-S, Collins R, Courtney R, Davies G, Delgado G, Do LD, Doevendans PA, Gansevoort RT, Gao Y-T, Grammer TB, Grarup N, Grewal J, Gu D, Wander GS, Hartikainen A-L, Hazen SL, He J, Heng C-K, Hixson JE, Hofman A, Hsu C, Huang W, Husemoen LLN, Hwang J-Y, Ichihara S, Igase M, Isono M, Justesen JM, Katsuy T, Kibriya MG, Kim YJ, Kishimoto M, Koh W-P, Kohara K, Kumari M, Kwek K, Lee NR, Lee J, Liao J, Lieb W, Liewald DCM, Matsubara T, Matsushita Y, Meitinger T, Mihailov E, Milani L, Mills R, Mononen N, Mueller-Nurasyid M, Nabika T, Nakashima E, Ng HK, Nikus K, Nutile T, Ohkubo T, Ohnaka K, Parish S, Paternoster L, Peng H, Peters A, Pham ST, Pinidiyapathirage MJ, Rahman M, Rakugi H, Rolandsson O, Rozario MA, Ruggiero D, Sala CF, Sarju R, Shimokawa K, Snieder H, Sparso T, Spiering W, Starr JM, Stott DJ, Stram DO, Sugiyama T, Szymczak S, Tang WHW, Tong L, Trompet S, Turjanmaa V, Ueshima H, Uitterlinden AG, Umemura S, Vaarasmaki M, van Dam RM, van Gilst WH, van Veldhuisen DJ, Viikari JS, Waldenberger M, Wang Y, Wang A, Wilson R, Wong T-Y, Xiang Y-B, Yamaguchi S, Ye X, Young RD, Young TL, Yuan J-M, Zhou X, Asselbergs FW, Ciullo M, Clarke R, Deloukas P, Franke A, Franks PW, Franks S, Friedlander Y, Gross MD, Guoet al., 2015, Trans-ancestry genome-wide association study identifies 12 genetic loci influencing blood pressure and implicates a role for DNA methylation, Nature Genetics, Vol: 47, Pages: 1282-1293, ISSN: 1546-1718

We carried out a trans-ancestry genome-wide association and replication study of blood pressure phenotypes among up to 320,251 individuals of East Asian, European and South Asian ancestry. We find genetic variants at 12 new loci to be associated with blood pressure (P = 3.9 × 10−11 to 5.0 × 10−21). The sentinel blood pressure SNPs are enriched for association with DNA methylation at multiple nearby CpG sites, suggesting that, at some of the loci identified, DNA methylation may lie on the regulatory pathway linking sequence variation to blood pressure. The sentinel SNPs at the 12 new loci point to genes involved in vascular smooth muscle (IGFBP3, KCNK3, PDE3A and PRDM6) and renal (ARHGAP24, OSR1, SLC22A7 and TBX2) function. The new and known genetic variants predict increased left ventricular mass, circulating levels of NT-proBNP, and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality (P = 0.04 to 8.6 × 10−6). Our results provide new evidence for the role of DNA methylation in blood pressure regulation.

Journal article

Newton JN, Briggs ADM, Murray CJL, Dicker D, Foreman KJ, Wang H, Naghavi M, Forouzanfar MH, Ohno SL, Barber RM, Vos T, Stanaway JRD, Schmidt JC, Hughes AJ, Fay DFJ, Ecob R, Gresser C, McKee M, Rutter H, Abubakar I, Ali R, Anderson HR, Banerjee A, Bennett DA, Bernabe E, Bhui KS, Biryukov SM, Bourne RR, Brayne CEG, Bruce NG, Brugha TS, Burch M, Capewell S, Casey D, Chowdhury R, Coates MM, Cooper C, Critchley JA, Dargan PI, Dherani MK, Elliott P, Ezzati M, Fenton KA, Fraser MS, Fuerst T, Greaves F, Green MA, Gunnell DJ, Hannigan BM, Hay RJ, Hay SI, Hemingway H, Larson HJ, Looker KJ, Lunevicius R, Lyons RA, Marcenes W, Mason-Jones AJ, Matthews FE, Moller H, Murdoch ME, Newton CR, Pearce N, Piel FB, Pope D, Rahimi K, Rodriguez A, Scarborough P, Schumacher AE, Shiue I, Smeeth L, Tedstone A, Valabhji J, Williams HC, Wolfe CDA, Woolf AD, Davis ACJet al., 2015, Changes in health in England, with analysis by English regions and areas of deprivation, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013, Lancet, Vol: 386, Pages: 2257-2274, ISSN: 1474-547X

Journal article

Aljuraiban GS, Oude Griep LM, Chan Q, Daviglus ML, Stamler J, Van Horn L, Elliott P, Frost GSet al., 2015, Total, insoluble and soluble dietary fibre intake in relation to blood pressure: the INTERMAP Study., British Journal of Nutrition, Vol: 114, Pages: 1480-1486, ISSN: 1475-2662

Prospective cohort studies have shown inverse associations between fibre intake and CVD, possibly mediated by blood pressure (BP). However, little is known about the impact of types of fibre on BP. We examined cross-sectional associations with BP of total, insoluble and soluble fibre intakes. Data were used from the INTERnational study on MAcro/micronutrients and blood Pressure (INTERMAP) study, including 2195 men and women aged between 40 and 59 years from the USA. During four visits, eight BP, four 24 h dietary recalls and two 24 h urine samples were collected. Linear regression models adjusted for lifestyle and dietary confounders to estimate BP differences per 2 sd higher intakes of total and individual types of fibre were calculated. After multivariable adjustment, total fibre intake higher by 6·8 g/4184 kJ (6·8 g/1000 kcal) was associated with a 1·69 mmHg lower systolic blood pressure (SBP; 95 % CI -2·97, -0·41) and attenuated to -1·01 mmHg (95 % CI -2·35, 0·34) after adjustment for urinary K. Insoluble fibre intake higher by 4·6 g/4184 kJ (4·6 g/1000 kcal) was associated with a 1·81 mmHg lower SBP (95 % CI -3·65, 0·04), additionally adjusted for soluble fibre and urinary K excretion, whereas soluble fibre was not associated with BP. Raw fruit was the main source of total and insoluble fibre, followed by whole grains and vegetables. In conclusion, higher intakes of fibre, especially insoluble, may contribute to lower BP, independent of nutrients associated with higher intakes of fibre-rich foods.

Journal article

Ezzati M, Obermeyer Z, Tzoulaki I, Mayosi BM, Elliott P, Leon DAet al., 2015, Contributions of risk factors and medical care to cardiovascular mortality trends, NATURE REVIEWS CARDIOLOGY, Vol: 12, Pages: 508-530, ISSN: 1759-5002

Journal article

Yan L, Bi Z, Tang J, Wang L, Yang Q, Guo X, Cogswell ME, Zhang X, Hong Y, Engelgau M, Zhang J, Elliott P, Angell SY, Ma Jet al., 2015, Relationships Between Blood Pressure and 24-Hour Urinary Excretion of Sodium and Potassium by Body Mass Index Status in Chinese Adults, Journal of Clinical Hypertension, Vol: 17, Pages: 916-925, ISSN: 1751-7176

This study examined the impact of overweight/obesity on sodium, potassium, and blood pressure associations using the Shandong-Ministry of Health Action on Salt Reduction and Hypertension (SMASH) project baseline survey data. Twenty-four–hour urine samples were collected in 1948 Chinese adults aged 18 to 69 years. The observed associations of sodium, potassium, sodium-potassium ratio, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were stronger in the overweight/obese population than among those of normal weight. Among overweight/obese respondents, each additional standard deviation (SD) higher of urinary sodium excretion (SD=85 mmol) and potassium excretion (SD=19 mmol) was associated with a 1.31 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 0.37–2.26) and −1.43 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, −2.23 to −0.63) difference in SBP, and each higher unit in sodium-potassium ratio was associated with a 0.54 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 0.34–0.75) increase in SBP. The association between sodium, potassium, sodium-potassium ratio, and prevalence of hypertension among overweight/obese patients was similar to that of SBP. Our study indicated that the relationships between BP and both urinary sodium and potassium might be modified by BMI status in Chinese adults.

Journal article

Campanella G, Polidoro S, Di Gaetano C, Fiorito G, Guarrera S, Krogh V, Palli D, Panico S, Sacerdote C, Tumino R, Elliott P, Matullo G, Chadeau-Hyam M, Vineis Pet al., 2015, Epigenetic signatures of internal migration in Italy, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, Vol: 44, Pages: 1442-1449, ISSN: 0300-5771

Journal article

Morley DW, de Hoogh K, Fecht D, Fabbri F, Bell M, Goodman PS, Elliott P, Hodgson S, Hansell AL, Gulliver Jet al., 2015, International scale implementation of the CNOSSOS-EU road traffic noise prediction model for epidemiological studies, Environmental Pollution, Vol: 206, Pages: 332-341, ISSN: 0269-7491

The EU-FP7-funded BioSHaRE project is using individual-level data pooled from several national cohort studies in Europe to investigate the relationship of road traffic noise and health. The detailed input data (land cover and traffic characteristics) required for noise exposure modelling are not always available over whole countries while data that are comparable in spatial resolution between different countries is needed for harmonised exposure assessment. Here, we assess the feasibility using the CNOSSOS-EU road traffic noise prediction model with coarser input data in terms of model performance. Starting with a model using the highest resolution datasets, we progressively introduced lower resolution data over five further model runs and compared noise level estimates to measurements. We conclude that a low resolution noise model should provide adequate performance for exposure ranking (Spearman's rank = 0.75; p < 0.001), but with relatively large errors in predicted noise levels (RMSE = 4.46 dB(A)).

Journal article

Toledano MB, Smith RB, Brook JP, Douglass M, Elliott Pet al., 2015, How to Establish and Follow up a Large Prospective Cohort Study in the 21st Century - Lessons from UK COSMOS., PLOS One, ISSN: 1932-6203

Journal article

Chambers JC, Loh M, Lehne B, Drong A, Kriebel J, Motta V, Wahl S, Elliott HR, Rota F, Scott WR, Zhang W, Tan S-T, Campanella G, Chadeau-Hyam M, Yengo L, Richmond RC, Adamowicz-Brice M, Afzal U, Bozaoglu K, Mok ZY, Ng HK, Pattou F, Prokisch H, Rozario MA, Tarantini L, Abbott J, Ala-Korpela M, Albetti B, Ammerpohl O, Bertazzi PA, Blancher C, Caiazzo R, Danesh J, Gaunt TR, de Lusignan S, Gieger C, Illig T, Jha S, Jones S, Jowett J, Kangas AJ, Kasturiratne A, Kato N, Kotea N, Kowlessur S, Pitkaeniemi J, Punjabi P, Saleheen D, Schafmayer C, Soininen P, Tai E-S, Thorand B, Tuomilehto J, Wickremasinghe AR, Kyrtopoulos SA, Aitman TJ, Herder C, Hampe J, Cauchi S, Relton CL, Froguel P, Soong R, Vineis P, Jarvelin M-R, Scott J, Grallert H, Bollati V, Elliott P, McCarthy MI, Kooner JSet al., 2015, Epigenome-wide association of DNA methylation markers in peripheral blood from Indian Asians and Europeans with incident type 2 diabetes: a nested case-control study, The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, Vol: 3, Pages: 526-534, ISSN: 2213-8587

BackgroundIndian Asians, who make up a quarter of the world's population, are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether DNA methylation is associated with future type 2 diabetes incidence in Indian Asians and whether differences in methylation patterns between Indian Asians and Europeans are associated with, and could be used to predict, differences in the magnitude of risk of developing type 2 diabetes.MethodsWe did a nested case-control study of DNA methylation in Indian Asians and Europeans with incident type 2 diabetes who were identified from the 8-year follow-up of 25 372 participants in the London Life Sciences Prospective Population (LOLIPOP) study. Patients were recruited between May 1, 2002, and Sept 12, 2008. We did epigenome-wide association analysis using samples from Indian Asians with incident type 2 diabetes and age-matched and sex-matched Indian Asian controls, followed by replication testing of top-ranking signals in Europeans. For both discovery and replication, DNA methylation was measured in the baseline blood sample, which was collected before the onset of type 2 diabetes. Epigenome-wide significance was set at p<1 × 10−7. We compared methylation levels between Indian Asian and European controls without type 2 diabetes at baseline to estimate the potential contribution of DNA methylation to increased risk of future type 2 diabetes incidence among Indian Asians.Findings1608 (11·9%) of 13 535 Indian Asians and 306 (4·3%) of 7066 Europeans developed type 2 diabetes over a mean of 8·5 years (SD 1·8) of follow-up. The age-adjusted and sex-adjusted incidence of type 2 diabetes was 3·1 times (95% CI 2·8–3·6; p<0·0001) higher among Indian Asians than among Europeans, and remained 2·5 times (2·1–2·9; p<0·0001) higher after adjustment for adiposity, physical activity, family history of type 2 diabetes, and baselin

Journal article

Elliott P, Posma JM, Chan Q, Garcia-Perez I, Wijeyesekera A, Bictash M, Ebbels TMD, Ueshima H, Zhao L, van Horn L, Daviglus M, Stamler J, Holmes E, Nicholson JKet al., 2015, Urinary metabolic signatures of human adiposity, Science Translational Medicine, Vol: 7, Pages: 1-16, ISSN: 1946-6234

Obesity is a major public health problem worldwide. We used 24-hour urinary metabolic profiling by proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and ion exchange chromatography to characterize the metabolic signatures of adiposity in the U.S. (n = 1880) and UK (n = 444) cohorts of the INTERMAP (International Study of Macro- and Micronutrients and Blood Pressure) epidemiologic study. Metabolic profiling of urine samples collected over two 24-hour time periods 3 weeks apart showed reproducible patterns of metabolite excretion associated with adiposity. Exploratory analysis of the urinary metabolome using 1H NMR spectroscopy of the U.S. samples identified 29 molecular species, clustered in interconnecting metabolic pathways, that were significantly associated (P = 1.5 × 10−5 to 2.0 × 10−36) with body mass index (BMI); 25 of these species were also found in the UK validation cohort. We found multiple associations between urinary metabolites and BMI including urinary glycoproteins and N-acetyl neuraminate (related to renal function), trimethylamine, dimethylamine, 4-cresyl sulfate, phenylacetylglutamine and 2-hydroxyisobutyrate (gut microbial co-metabolites), succinate and citrate (tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates), ketoleucine and the ketoleucine/leucine ratio (linked to skeletal muscle mitochondria and branched-chain amino acid metabolism), ethanolamine (skeletal muscle turnover), and 3-methylhistidine (skeletal muscle turnover and meat intake). We mapped the multiple BMI-metabolite relationships as part of an integrated systems network that describes the connectivities between the complex pathway and compartmental signatures of human adiposity.

Journal article

Aljuraiban GS, Chan Q, Oude Griep L, Brown IJ, Daviglus ML, Stamler J, Van Horn L, Elliott P, Frost GSet al., 2015, The impact of eating frequency and time of intake on nutrient quality and body mass index: The INTERMAP Study, a population-based study, Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Vol: 115, Pages: 528-536.e1, ISSN: 2212-2672

BackgroundEpidemiologic evidence is sparse on the effect of dietary behaviors and diet quality on body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m2), which can be important drivers of the obesity epidemic.ObjectiveThis study investigated the relationships of frequency of eating and time of intake to energy density, nutrient quality, and BMI using data from the International Study on Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure including 2,696 men and women aged 40 to 59 years from the United States and the United Kingdom.DesignThe International Study on Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure is a cross-sectional investigation with four 24-hour dietary recalls and BMI measurements conducted between 1996 and 1999. Consumption of solid foods was aggregated into eating occasion. Nutrient density is expressed using the Nutrient Rich Food Index 9.3. The ratio of evening/morning energy intake was calculated; mean values of four visits were used.Statistical analyses performedCharacteristics across eating occasion categories are presented as adjusted mean with corresponding 95% CI. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine associations of eating occasions, ratio of evening/morning energy intake, dietary energy density, and Nutrient Rich Food Index 9.3 with BMI.ResultsCompared to participants with fewer than four eating occasions in 24 hours, those with six or more eating occasions in 24 hours had lower mean BMI (27.3 vs 29.0), total energy intake (2,129 vs 2,472 kcal/24 hours), dietary energy density (1.5 vs 2.1 kcal/g), and higher Nutrient Rich Food Index 9.3 (34.3 vs 28.1). In multiple regression analyses, higher evening intake relative to morning intake was directly associated with BMI; however, this did not influence the relationship between eating frequency and BMI.ConclusionsOur results suggest that a larger number of small meals may be associated with improved diet quality and lower BMI. This may have implications for behavioral approaches to controlling the obesity

Journal article

Sudlow C, Gallacher J, Allen N, Beral V, Burton P, Danesh J, Downey P, Elliott P, Green J, Landray M, Liu B, Matthews P, Ong G, Pell J, Silman A, Young A, Sprosen T, Peakman T, Collins Ret al., 2015, UK Biobank: An Open Access Resource for Identifying the Causes of a Wide Range of Complex Diseases of Middle and Old Age, PLOS Medicine, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1549-1277

UK Biobank is a very large and detailed prospective study with over 500,000 participantsaged 40–69 years when recruited in 2006–2010.• The study has collected and continues to collect extensive phenotypic and genotypic detailabout its participants, including data from questionnaires, physical measures, sampleassays, accelerometry, multimodal imaging, genome-wide genotyping and longitudinalfollow-up for a wide range of health-related outcomes.• Wide consultation; input from scientific, management, legal, and ethical partners; andindustrial-scale, centralised processes have been essential to the development ofthis resource.• UK Biobank is available for open access, without the need for collaboration, to any bonafide researcher who wishes to use it to conduct health-related research for the benefit ofthe public.

Journal article

Ligthart S, de Vries PS, Uitterlinden AG, Hofman A, Franco OH, Chasman DI, Dehghan Aet al., 2015, Pleiotropy among Common Genetic Loci Identified for Cardiometabolic Disorders and C-Reactive Protein, PLOS ONE, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1932-6203

Journal article

Lehne B, Drong AW, Loh M, Zhang W, Scott WR, Tan S-T, Afzal U, Scott J, Jarvelin M-R, Elliott P, McCarthy MI, Kooner JS, Chambers JCet al., 2015, A coherent approach for analysis of the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip improves data quality and performance in epigenome-wide association studies, Genome Biology, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1474-760X

DNA methylation plays a fundamental role in the regulation of the genome, but the optimal strategy for analysis ofgenome-wide DNA methylation data remains to be determined. We developed a comprehensive analysis pipelinefor epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, basedon 2,687 individuals, with 36 samples measured in duplicate. We propose new approaches to quality control, datanormalisation and batch correction through control-probe adjustment and establish a null hypothesis for EWASusing permutation testing. Our analysis pipeline outperforms existing approaches, enabling accurate identificationof methylation quantitative trait loci for hypothesis driven follow-up experiments.

Journal article

Shungin D, Winkler TW, Croteau-Chonka DC, Ferreira T, Lockes AE, Maegi R, Strawbridge RJ, Pers TH, Fischer K, Justice AE, Workalemahu T, Wu JMW, Buchkovich ML, Heard-Costa NL, Roman TS, Drong AW, Song C, Gustafsson S, Day FR, Esko T, Fall T, Kutalik Z, Luan J, Randall JC, Scherag A, Vedantam S, Wood AR, Chen J, Fehrmann R, Karjalainen J, Kahali B, Liu C-T, Schmidt EM, Absher D, Amin N, Anderson D, Beekman M, Bragg-Gresham JL, Buyske S, Demirkan A, Ehret GB, Feitosa MF, Goel A, Jackson AU, Johnson T, Kleber ME, Kristiansson K, Mangino M, Leach IM, Medina-Gomez C, Palmer CD, Pasko D, Pechlivaniss S, Peters MJ, Prokopenko I, Stancakova A, Sung YJ, Tanakam T, Teumer A, Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk JV, Yengo L, Zhang W, Albrecht E, Arnlov J, Arscott GM, Bandinelli S, Barrett A, Bellis C, Bennett AJ, Berne C, Blueher M, Buhringer S, Bonnet F, Boettcher Y, Bruinenberg M, Carba DB, Caspersen IH, Clarke R, Daw EW, Deelen J, Deelman E, Delgado G, Doney ASF, Eklund N, Erdos MR, Estrada K, Eury E, Friedrichs N, Garcia ME, Giedraitis V, Gigante B, Go AS, Golay A, Grallert H, Grammer TB, Graessler J, Grewal J, Groves CJ, Haller T, Hallmans G, Hartman CA, Hassinen M, Hayward C, Heikkila K, Herzig K-H, Helmer Q, Hillege HL, Holmen O, Hunt SC, Isaacs A, Ittermann T, James AL, Johansson I, Juliusdottir T, Kalafati I-P, Kinnunen L, Koenig W, Kooner IK, Kratzer W, Lamina C, Leander K, Lee NR, Lichtner P, Lind L, Lindstrom J, Lobbens S, Lorentzon M, Mach F, Magnusson PKE, Mahajan A, McArdle WL, Menni C, Merger S, Mihailov E, Milani L, Mills R, Moayyeri A, Monda KL, Mooijaart SP, Muehleisen TW, Mulas A, Mueller G, Mueller-Nurasyid M, Nagaraja R, Nalls MA, Narisu N, Glorioso N, Nolte IM, Olden M, Rayner NW, Renstrom F, Ried JS, Robertson NR, Rose LM, Sanna S, Scharnagl H, Scholtens S, Sennblad B, Seufferlein T, Sitlani CM, Smith AV, Stirrups K, Stringham HM, Sundstrom J, Swertz MA, Swift AJ, Syvanen A-C, Tayo BO, Thorand B, Thorleifsson G, Tomaschitz A, Troffa C, van Oort FVA, Verweij N, Vonk JMet al., 2015, New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution, NATURE, Vol: 518, Pages: 187-U378, ISSN: 0028-0836

Journal article

Locke AE, Kahali B, Berndt SI, Justice AE, Pers TH, Day FR, Powell C, Vedantam S, Buchkovich ML, Yang J, Croteau-Chonka DC, Esko T, Fall T, Ferreira T, Gustafsson S, Kutalik Z, Luan J, Maegi R, Randall JC, Winkler TW, Wood AR, Workalemahu T, Faul JD, Smith JA, Zhao JH, Zhao W, Chen J, Fehrmann R, Hedman AK, Karjalainen J, Schmidt EM, Absher D, Amin N, Anderson D, Beekman M, Bolton JL, Bragg-Gresham L, Buyske S, Demirkan A, Deng G, Ehret GB, Feenstra B, Feitosa MF, Fischer K, Goel A, Gong J, Jackson AU, Kanoni S, Kleber ME, Kristiansson K, Lim U, Lotay V, Mangino M, Leach IM, Medina-Gomez C, Medland SE, Nalls MA, Palmer CD, Pasko D, Pechlivanis S, Peters MJ, Prokopenko I, Shungin D, Stancakova A, Strawbridge RJ, Sung YJ, Tanaka T, Teumer A, Trompet S, van der Laan SW, van Settee J, Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk JV, Wang Z, Yengo L, Zhang W, Isaacs A, Albrecht E, Arnlov J, Arscott GM, Attwood AP, Bandinelli S, Barrett A, Bas IN, Bellis C, Bennett AJ, Berne C, Blagieva R, Blueher M, Bohringer S, Bonnycastle LL, Boettcher Y, Boyd HA, Bruinenberg M, Caspersen IH, Chen Y-DI, Clarke R, Daw EW, de Craen AJM, Delgado G, Dimitriou M, Doney ASF, Eklund N, Estrada K, Eury E, Folkersen L, Fraser RM, Garcia ME, Geller F, Giedraitis V, Gigante B, Go AS, Golay A, Goodall AH, Gordon SD, Gorski M, Grabe H-J, Grallert H, Grammer TB, Graessler J, Gronberg H, Groves CJ, Gusto G, Haessler J, Hall P, Haller T, Hallmans G, Hartman CA, Hassinen M, Hayward C, Heard-Costa NL, Helmer Q, Hengstenberg C, Holmen O, Hottenga J-J, James AL, Jeff JM, Johansson A, Jolley J, Juliusdottir T, Kinnunen L, Koenig W, Koskenvuo M, Kratzer W, Laitinen J, Lamina C, Leander K, Lee NR, Lichtner P, Lind L, Lindstrom J, Lo KS, Lobbens S, Lorbeer R, Lu Y, Mach F, Magnusson PKE, Mahajan A, McArdle WL, McLachlan S, Menni C, Merger S, Mihailov E, Milani L, Moayyeri A, Monda KL, Morken MA, Mulas A, Mueller G, Mueller-Nurasyid M, Musk AW, Nagaraja R, Noethen MM, Nolte IM, Pilz S, Rayner NW, Renstrom F, Rettig R, Ried JS, Ripkeet al., 2015, Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology, Nature, Vol: 518, Pages: 197-206, ISSN: 0028-0836

Journal article

Chan Q, Stamler J, Elliott P, 2015, Dietary Factors and Higher Blood Pressure in African-Americans, CURRENT HYPERTENSION REPORTS, Vol: 17, ISSN: 1522-6417

Journal article

Iwahori T, Miura K, Ueshima H, Chan Q, Elliott P, Dyer AR, Stamler Jet al., 2015, Relationship of 24-hr Urinary Na/K ratio to 24-hr Urinary Na and K Excretion in Men and Women from Multi-Ethnic General Populations: the INTERSALT Study., 20th IEA World Congress of Epidemiology (WCE), Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Pages: 239-239, ISSN: 0300-5771

Conference paper

Cogswell ME, Maalouf J, Elliott P, Loria CM, Patel S, Bowman BAet al., 2015, Use of Urine Biomarkers to Assess Sodium Intake: Challenges and Opportunities, ANNUAL REVIEW OF NUTRITION, VOL 35, Editors: Bowman, Stover, Publisher: ANNUAL REVIEWS, Pages: 349-+

Book chapter

Wurtz P, Wang Q, Kangas AJ, Richmond RC, Skarp J, Tiainen M, Tynkkynen T, Soininen P, Havulinna AS, Kaakinen M, Viikari JS, Savolainen MJ, Kahonen M, Lehtimaki T, Mannisto S, Blankenberg S, Zeller T, Laitinen J, Pouta A, Mantyselka P, Vanhala M, Elliott P, Pietilainen KH, Ripatti S, Salomaa V, Raitakari OT, Jarvelin M-R, Smith GD, Ala-Korpela Met al., 2014, Metabolic Signatures of Adiposity in Young Adults: Mendelian Randomization Analysis and Effects of Weight Change, PLOS Medicine, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1549-1277

Background: Increased adiposity is linked with higher risk for cardiometabolic diseases. We aimed to determine to whatextent elevated body mass index (BMI) within the normal weight range has causal effects on the detailed systemicmetabolite profile in early adulthood.Methods and Findings: We used Mendelian randomization to estimate causal effects of BMI on 82 metabolic measures in12,664 adolescents and young adults from four population-based cohorts in Finland (mean age 26 y, range 16–39 y; 51%women; mean 6 standard deviation BMI 2464 kg/m2). Circulating metabolites were quantified by high-throughput nuclearmagnetic resonance metabolomics and biochemical assays. In cross-sectional analyses, elevated BMI was adverselyassociated with cardiometabolic risk markers throughout the systemic metabolite profile, including lipoprotein subclasses,fatty acid composition, amino acids, inflammatory markers, and various hormones (p,0.0005 for 68 measures). Metaboliteassociations with BMI were generally stronger for men than for women (median 136%, interquartile range 125%–183%). Agene score for predisposition to elevated BMI, composed of 32 established genetic correlates, was used as the instrument toassess causality. Causal effects of elevated BMI closely matched observational estimates (correspondence 87%63%;R2 = 0.89), suggesting causative influences of adiposity on the levels of numerous metabolites (p,0.0005 for 24 measures),including lipoprotein lipid subclasses and particle size, branched-chain and aromatic amino acids, and inflammation-relatedglycoprotein acetyls. Causal analyses of certain metabolites and potential sex differences warrant stronger statistical power.Metabolite changes associated with change in BMI during 6 y of follow-up were examined for 1,488 individuals. Change inBMI was accompanied by widespread metabolite changes, which had an association pattern similar to that of the crosssectionalobservations, yet with greater metabolic effects (corresp

Journal article

Molitor J, Brown IJ, Chan Q, Papathomas M, Liverani S, Molitor N, Richardson S, Van Horn L, Daviglus ML, Dyer A, Stamler J, Elliott Pet al., 2014, Blood Pressure Differences Associated With Optimal Macronutrient Intake Trial for Heart Health (OMNIHEART)-Like Diet Compared With a Typical American Diet, HYPERTENSION, Vol: 64, Pages: 1198-U86, ISSN: 0194-911X

Journal article

Okuda N, Stamler J, Brown IJ, Ueshima H, Miura K, Okayama A, Saitoh S, Nakagawa H, Sakata K, Yoshita K, Zhao L, Elliott Pet al., 2014, Individual efforts to reduce salt intake in China, Japan, UK, USA: what did people achieve? The INTERMAP Population Study, JOURNAL OF HYPERTENSION, Vol: 32, Pages: 2385-2392, ISSN: 0263-6352

Journal article

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