602 results found
Jenkins R, Shen C, Dumontheil I, et al., 2020, Social networking site use in young adolescents: Association with health-related quality of life and behavioural difficulties, Computers in Human Behavior, Vol: 109, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 0747-5632
Despite Social Networking Sites (SNS) having a minimum age of 13, younger adolescents are using them. In this study, we examine self-reported overall SNS use and SNS use if awake at night in relation to Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL, measured by KIDSCREEN-10) and behaviour (measured by Strengths and DifficultiesQuestionnaire, SDQ) in 5229 adolescents aged 11–12 in the Study of Cognition, Adolescents and Mobile Phones (SCAMP) cohort. Two-thirds of the study population used SNS. Weekday and weekend SNS use on mobile phones and other devices was significantly associated with lower HRQOL in females (all p-values for linear trend < 0.01) but not males. Using SNS if awake at night was also significantly associated with lower HRQOL in females (adjustedβ-coefficient - 2.20 (95% CI - 3.18, - 1.22)). Higher SNS use on mobile phones and other devices was associated with increased behavioural difficulties in both genders (p-value for trend < 0.001). Similarly, SNS useif awake at night was associated with greater behavioural difficulties (adjusted β-coefficient 2.54 (95% CI 2.09, 2.98)). We recommend further longitudinal research in this area in order have a better understanding of the direction of relationships between SNS and wellbeing and behaviour in adolescents.
de las Fuentes L, Sung YJ, Noordam R, et al., 2020, Gene-educational attainment interactions in a multi-ancestry genome-wide meta-analysis identify novel blood pressure loci, MOLECULAR PSYCHIATRY, ISSN: 1359-4184
Robinson O, Chadeau Hyam M, Karaman I, et al., 2020, Determinants of accelerated metabolomic and epigenetic ageing in a UK cohort, Aging Cell, ISSN: 1474-9718
Markers of biological aging have potential utility in primary care and public health. We developed a model of age based on untargeted metabolic profiling across multiple platforms, including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry in urine and serum, within a large sample (N = 2,239) from the UK Airwave cohort. We validated a subset of model predictors in a Finnish cohort including repeat measurements from 2,144 individuals. We investigated the determinants of accelerated aging, including lifestyle and psychological risk factors for premature mortality. The metabolomic age model was well correlated with chronological age (mean r = .86 across independent test sets). Increased metabolomic age acceleration (mAA) was associated after false discovery rate (FDR) correction with overweight/obesity, diabetes, heavy alcohol use and depression. DNA methylation age acceleration measures were uncorrelated with mAA. Increased DNA methylation phenotypic age acceleration (N = 1,110) was associated after FDR correction with heavy alcohol use, hypertension and low income. In conclusion, metabolomics is a promising approach for the assessment of biological age and appears complementary to established epigenetic clocks.
Sheehan A, Freni Sterrantino A, Fecht D, et al., 2020, Childhood Type 1 diabetes: an environment wide association study across England, Diabetologia, Vol: 63, Pages: 964-976, ISSN: 0012-186X
Aims:Type 1 Diabetes is an autoimmune disease affecting ~400,000 people across the UK. Environmental factors likely trigger the disease processin genetically susceptible individuals. We assessed the associations between a wide range of environmental factors and childhood type 1 diabetesincidence in England, using an agnostic, ecological Environment Wide Association Study (EnWAS) approach, to generate hypotheses about environmental triggers. Methods:We undertook analyses at the Local Authority District (LAD) level using a national Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) based incident type 1 diabetesdataset, comprising 13,948 cases aged 0-9 years over the period April 2000-March 2011. We compiled LAD-level estimates for a range of potential demographic and environmental risk factors including meteorological, land use and environmental pollution variables. The associations between type 1 diabetesincidence and risk factors were assessed via Poisson regression, disease mapping and ecological regression. 8Results:Case counts by LAD varied from 1 to 236(median 33;inter quartile range: 24-46). Overall type 1 diabetesincidence was 21.2 (95% CI 20.9-21.6) per 100,000individuals. The EnWASand disease mapping indicated that 15out of 53 demographic and environmental risk factors were significantly associated with diabetes incidence after adjusting for multiple testing.These included air pollutants (particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, all inversely associated), as well as lead in soil, radon, outdoor light at night, overcrowding, population density and ethnicity. Disease mapping revealed spatial heterogeneity in type 1 diabetesrisk. The ecological regression found anassociationbetween type 1 diabetesand thelivingenvironmentdomainof the Index of Multiple Deprivation(RR 0.995 (95%Credible Interval (CrI)0.991-0.998))and radon potential class (RR 1.044 95%CrI 1.015-1.074). Conclusions:Our analysis identifiesa range of demographic and environmental facto
Blangiardo M, Boulieri A, Diggle P, et al., 2020, Advances in spatio-temporal models for non-communicable disease surveillance, International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol: 49, Pages: i26-i37, ISSN: 1464-3685
Surveillance systems are commonly used to provide early warning detection or to assess an impact of an intervention/policy. Traditionally, the methodological and conceptual frameworks for surveillance have been designed for infectious diseases, but the rising burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) worldwide suggests a pressing need for surveillance strategies to detect unusual patterns in the data and to help unveil important risk factors in this setting. Surveillance methods need to be able to detect meaningful departures from expectation and exploit dependencies within such data to produce unbiased estimates of risk as well as future forecasts. This has led to the increasing development of a range of space-time methods specifically designed for NCD surveillance.We present an overview of recent advances in spatio-temporal disease surveillance for NCDs using hierarchically specified models. This provides a coherent framework for modelling complex data structures, dealing with data sparsity, exploiting dependencies between data sources and propagating the inherent uncertainties present in both the data and the modelling process. We then focus on three commonly used models within the Bayesian Hierarchical Model (BHM) framework and through a simulation study we compare their performance.We also discuss some challenges faced by researchers when dealing with NCD surveillance, including how to account for false detection and the modifiable areal unit problem. Finally, we consider how to use and interpret the complex models, how model selection may vary depending on the intended user group and how best to communicate results to stakeholders and the general public.
Fecht D, Garwood K, Butters O, et al., Automation of cleaning and reconstructing residential address histories to assign environmental exposures in longitudinal studies, International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN: 1464-3685
Background: We have developed an open-source ALgorithm for Generating Address Exposures (ALGAE) that cleans residential address records to construct address histories and assign spatially-determined exposuresto cohort participants. The first application of this algorithm was to construct prenatal and early-life air pollution exposure for individuals of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)in the South West of Englandusingpreviously estimated particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM10) concentrations. Methods: ALSPAC recruited 14,541 pregnant women between 1991and 1992. We assignedtrimester-specific estimated PM10exposures for 12,752 pregnancies,and first year of life exposures for 12,525births, based on maternal residence and residential mobility. Results: Average PM10exposure was32.6 μg/m3(StDev. 3.0 μg/m3) during pregnancy and 31.4 μg/m3(StDev. 2.6 μg/m3) during the first year of life. 6.7% ofwomen changedaddress during pregnancy, and 18.0% moved during first year of lifeof their infant. Exposure differences ranged from -5.3 μg/m3 to 12.4 μg/m3(up to 26% difference) during pregnancy and -7.22 μg/m3to 7.64 μg/m3(up to 27% difference) in the first year of life,when comparing estimated exposure using the address at birth and that assessedusing the complete cleaned address history. For the majority of individualsexposure changed by <5% but some relatively large changes were seen both in pregnancy and infancy.Conclusion: ALGAE provides a generic andadaptable, open-source solution to clean addresses stored in acohort contact database and assign life-stage specific exposureestimates with the potential to reduce exposure misclassification.
Hodgson S, Fecht D, Gulliver J, et al., 2020, Availability, access, analysis and dissemination of small area data, International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol: 49, Pages: i4-i14, ISSN: 1464-3685
In this era of ‘big data’, there is growing recognition of the value of environmental, health, social and demographic data for research. Open government data initiatives are growing in number and in terms of content. Remote sensing data are finding widespread use in environmental research, including in low- and middle-income settings. While our ability to study environment and health associations across countries and continents grows, data protection rules and greater patient control over the use of their data present new challenges to using health data in research. Innovative tools that circumvent the need for the physical sharing of data by supporting non-disclosive sharing of information, or that permit spatial analysis without researchers needing access to underlying patient data can be used to support analyses while protecting data confidentiality. User-friendly visualisations, allowing small area data to be seen and understood by non-expert audiences are revolutionising public and researcher interactions with data. The UK Small Area Health Statistics Unit’s Environment and Health Atlas for England and Wales, and the US National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network offer good examples. Open data facilitates user-generated outputs, and ‘mash-ups’, and user generated inputs from social media, mobile devices, and wearable tech are new data streams which will find utility in future studies, and bring novel dimensions with respect to ethical use of small area data.
Tettamanti G, Auvinen A, Åkerstedt T, et al., 2020, Long-term effect of mobile phone use on sleep quality: results from the cohort study of mobile phone use and health (COSMOS), Environment International, Pages: 105687-105687, ISSN: 0160-4120
BACKGROUND: Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure (RF-EMF) from mobile phone use on sleep quality has mainly been investigated in cross-sectional studies. The few previous prospective cohort studies found no or inconsistent associations, but had limited statistical power and short follow-up. In this large prospective cohort study, our aim was to estimate the effect of RF-EMF from mobile phone use on different sleep outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included Swedish (n = 21,049) and Finnish (n = 3120) participants enrolled in the Cohort Study of Mobile Phone Use and Health (COSMOS) with information about operator-recorded mobile phone use at baseline and sleep outcomes both at baseline and at the 4-year follow-up. Sleep disturbance, sleep adequacy, daytime somnolence, sleep latency, and insomnia were assessed using the Medical Outcome Study (MOS) sleep questionnaire. RESULTS: Operator-recorded mobile phone use at baseline was not associated with most of the sleep outcomes. For insomnia, an odds ratio (OR) of 1.24, 95% CI 1.03-1.51 was observed in the highest decile of mobile phone call-time (>258 min/week). With weights assigned to call-time to account for the lower RF-EMF exposure from Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS, 3G) than from Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM, 2G) the OR was 1.09 (95% CI 0.89-1.33) in the highest call-time decile. CONCLUSION: Insomnia was slightly more common among mobile phone users in the highest call-time category, but adjustment for the considerably lower RF-EMF exposure from the UMTS than the GSM network suggests that this association is likely due to other factors associated with mobile phone use than RF-EMF. No association was observed for other sleep outcomes. In conclusion, findings from this study do not support the hypothesis that RF-EMF from mobile phone use has long-term effects on sleep quality.
Piel FB, Parkes B, Hambly P, et al., 2020, Software application profile: the Rapid Inquiry Facility 4.0: an open access tool for environmental public health tracking, International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol: 49, Pages: i38-i48, ISSN: 0300-5771
The Rapid Inquiry Facility 4.0 (RIF) is a new user-friendly and open-access tool, developed by the UK Small Area Health Statistics Unit (SAHSU), to facilitate environment public health tracking (EPHT) or surveillance (EPHS). The RIF is designed to help public health professionals and academics to rapidly perform exploratory investigations of health and environmental data at the small-area level (e.g. postcode or detailed census areas) in order to identify unusual signals, such as disease clusters and potential environmental hazards, whether localized (e.g. industrial site) or widespread (e.g. air and noise pollution). The RIF allows the use of advanced disease mapping methods, including Bayesian small-area smoothing and complex risk analysis functionalities, while accounting for confounders. The RIF could be particularly useful to monitor spatio-temporal trends in mortality and morbidity associated with cardiovascular diseases, cancers, diabetes and chronic lung diseases, or to conduct local or national studies on air pollution, flooding, low-magnetic fields or nuclear power plants.
Toledano MB, Shaddick G, de Hoogh C, et al., 2020, Electric field and air ion exposures near high voltage overhead power lines and adult cancers: a case control study across England and Wales, International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol: 49, Pages: i57-i66, ISSN: 0300-5771
Background: Various mechanisms have been postulated to explain how electric fields emitted by high voltage overhead power lines, and the charged ions they produce, might be associated with possible adult cancer risk but this has not previously been systematically explored in large scale epidemiologic research. Methods: We investigated risks of adult cancers in relation to modelled air ion density (per cm3) within 600m (focusing analysis on mouth, lung, respiratory) and calculated electric field within 25m (focusing analysis on non-melanoma skin) of high voltage overhead power lines in England and Wales, 1974-2008. Results: With adjustment for age, sex, deprivation and rurality, odds ratios (OR) in the highest fifth of net air ion density (0.504-1) compared with the lowest (0-0.1879) ranged from 0.94 (95% CI 0.82 – 1.08) for mouth cancers to 1.03 (95% CI 0.97 -1.09) for respiratory system cancers, with no trends in risk. The pattern of cancer risk was similar using corona ion estimates from an alternative model proposed by others. For keratinocyte carcinoma, adjusted OR in the highest (1.06 - 4.11 kV/m) compared with the lowest (<0.70 kV/m) thirds of electric field strength was 1.23 (95% CI 0.65-2.34) with no trend in risk. Conclusions: Our results do not provide evidence to support hypotheses that air ion density or electric fields in the vicinity of power lines are associated with cancer risk in adults.
Yan L, Carter E, Fu Y, et al., Study protocol: The INTERMAP China Prospective (ICP) study, Wellcome Open Research, Vol: 4, Pages: 154-154
<ns6:p><ns6:bold>Background:</ns6:bold> Unfavourable blood pressure (BP) level is an established risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), while the exact underlying reasons for unfavourable BP are poorly understood. The INTERMAP China Prospective (ICP) Study is a prospective cohort to investigate the relationship of environmental and nutritional risk factors with key indicators of vascular function (BP, arterial stiffness, carotid-intima media thickness) among middle-aged/older men and women.</ns6:p><ns6:p> <ns6:bold>Methods:</ns6:bold> A total of 839 Chinese participants aged 40-59 years from three diverse regions of China were enrolled in INTERMAP in 1997/98; data collection included repeated BP measurements, 24-hour urine specimens, and 24-hour dietary recalls. In 2015/16, 574 of these 839 persons were re-enrolled along with 208 new participants aged 40-59 years that were randomly selected from the same study villages. Participant’s environmental and dietary exposures and health outcomes were assessed in this open cohort study, including BP, 24-hour dietary recalls, personal exposures to air pollution, grip strength, arterial stiffness, carotid-media thickness and plaques, cognitive function, and sleep patterns. Serum and plasma specimens were collected with 24-hour urine specimens. A follow-up visit has been scheduled for 2020-2021.</ns6:p><ns6:p> <ns6:bold>Discussion:</ns6:bold> Winter and summer assessments of a comprehensive set of vascular indicators and their environmental and nutritional risk factors were conducted with high precision. We will leverage advances in exposome research to identify biomarkers of exposure to environmental and nutritional risk factors and improve our understanding of the mechanisms and pathways of their hazardous cardiovascular effects. The ICP Study is observational by design, thus
Okuda N, Okayama A, Miura K, et al., 2020, Food sources of dietary potassium in the adult Japanese population: The International Study of Macro-/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP), Nutrients, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2072-6643
A lower-than-recommended potassium intake is a well-established risk factor for increased blood pressure. Although the Japanese diet is associated with higher sodium intake and lower potassium intake, few studies have examined the source foods quantitatively. Studies on dietary patterns in association with potassium intake will be useful to provide dietary advice to increase potassium intake. Twenty-four-hour (hr) dietary recall data and 24-hr urinary potassium excretion data from Japanese participants (574 men and 571 women) in the International Study of Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) were used to calculate food sources of potassium and compare food consumption patterns among quartiles of participants categorized according to 24-hr urinary potassium excretion per unit of body weight (UK/BW). The average potassium intake was 2791 mg/day per participant, and the major sources were vegetables and fruits (1262 mg/day), fish (333 mg/day), coffee and tea (206 mg/day), and milk and dairy products (200 mg/day). Participants in the higher UK/BW quartile consumed significantly more vegetables and fruits, fish, and milk and dairy products, and ate less rice and noodles. Conclusion: Advice to increase the intake of vegetables and fruits, fish, and milk may be useful to increase potassium intake in Japan.
Piel F, Fecht D, Hodgson S, et al., Small-area methods for investigation of environment and health, International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN: 1464-3685
Small-area studies offer a powerful epidemiological approach to study disease patterns at the population level and assess health risks posed by environmental pollutants. They involve a public health investigation on a geographic scale (e.g. neighbourhood) with overlay of health, environmental, demographic and potential confounder data. Recent methodological advances, including Bayesian approaches, combined with fast growing computational capabilities permit more informative analyses than previously possible, including the incorporation of data at different scales, from satellites to individual-level survey information. Better data availability has widened the scope and utility of small-area studies, but also led to greater complexity, including choice of optimal study area size and extent, duration of study periods, range of covariates and confounders to be considered, and dealing with uncertainty. The availability of data from large, well-phenotyped cohorts such as UK Biobank enables the use of mixed-level study designs and the triangulation of evidence on environmental risks from small-area and individual-level studies, therefore improving causal inference, including use of linked biomarker and -omics data. As a result, there are now improved opportunities to investigate the impacts of environmental risk factors on human health, particularly for the surveillance and prevention of non-communicable diseases.
Zhang Y, Elliott P, Toledano M, et al., The Consortium on Vulnerability to Externalising Disorders and Addictions (c-VEDA): an accelerated longitudinal cohort of children and adolescents in India, Molecular Psychiatry, ISSN: 1359-4184
The global burden of disease attributable to externalising disorders such as alcohol misusecalls urgently for effective prevention and intervention. As our current knowledge is mainlyderived from high-income countries such in Europe and North-America, it is difficult toaddress the wider socio-cultural, psychosocial context, and genetic factors in which risk andresilience are embedded in low- and medium-income countries. c-VEDA was established asthe first and largest India-based multi-site cohort investigating the vulnerabilities for thedevelopment of externalising disorders, addictions, and other mental health problems. Usinga harmonised data collection plan coordinated with multiple cohorts in China, USA, andEurope, baseline data were collected from 7 study sites between November 2016 and May2019. 9010 participants between the ages of 6 and 23 were assessed during this time, amongstwhich 1278 participants underwent more intensive assessments including MRI scans. Bothwaves of follow-ups have started according to the accelerated cohort structure with plannedmissingness design. Here we present descriptive statistics on several key domains ofassessments, and the full baseline dataset will be made accessible for researchers outside theconsortium in September 2019. More details can be found on our website [cveda.org].
Cai Y, Hansell AL, Granell R, et al., 2020, Prenatal, early-life and childhood exposure to air pollution and lung function: the ALSPAC cohort., American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, ISSN: 1073-449X
RATIONALE: Exposure to air pollution during intrauterine development and through childhood may have lasting effects on respiratory health. OBJECTIVES: To investigate lung function at ages 8 and 15 years in relation to air pollution exposures during pregnancy, infancy and childhood in a UK population-based birth cohort. METHODS: Individual exposures to source-specific particulate matter with diameter ≤10µm (PM10) during each trimester, 0-6 months, 7-12 months (1990-1993) and up to age 15 years (1991-2008) were examined in relation to %predicted Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) at ages 8(N=5,276) and 15(N=3,446) years, usinglinear regression models adjusted for potential confounders. A profile regression model was used to identify sensitive time periods. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We did not find clear evidence for a sensitive exposure period for PM10 from road-traffic: at age 8 years, 1µg/m3 higher exposure during the first trimester was associated with lower %predicted of FEV1(-0.826, 95%CI:-1.357 to -0.296) and FVC(-0.817, 95%CI:-1.357 to -0.276), but similar associations were seen for exposures for other trimesters, 0-6 months, 7-12 months, and 0-7 years. Associations were stronger among boys, children whose mother had a lower education level or smoked during pregnancy. For PM10 from all sources, the third trimester was associated with lower %predicted of FVC (-1.312, 95%CI: -2.100 to -0.525). At age 15 years, no adverse associations were seen with lung function. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to road-traffic PM10 during pregnancy may result in small but significant reductions in lung function at age 8 years.
Huang L, Tian M, Yu J, et al., 2020, Interim effects of salt substitution on urinary electrolytes and blood pressure in the China Salt Substitute and Stroke Study (SSaSS), American Heart Journal, Vol: 221, Pages: 136-145, ISSN: 0002-8703
The Salt Substitute and Stroke Study is an ongoing 5-year large-scale cluster randomized trial investigating the effects of potassium-enriched salt substitute compared to usual salt on the risk of stroke. The study involves 600 villages and 20,996 individuals in rural China. Intermediate risk markers were measured in a random subsample of villages every 12 months over 3 years to track progress against key assumptions underlying study design. Measures of 24-hour urinary sodium, 24-hour urinary potassium, blood pressure and participants' use of salt substitute were recorded, with differences between intervention and control groups estimated using generalized linear mixed models. The primary outcome of annual event rate in the two groups combined was determined by dividing confirmed fatal and non-fatal strokes by total follow-up time in the first 2 years. The mean differences (95% CI) were -0.32 g (-0.68 to 0.05) for 24-hour urinary sodium, +0.77 g (+0.60 to +0.93) for 24-hour urinary potassium, -2.65 mmHg (-4.32 to -0.97) for systolic blood pressure and +0.30 mmHg (-0.72 to +1.32) for diastolic blood pressure. Use of salt substitute was reported by 97.5% in the intervention group versus 4.2% in the control group (P<.0001). The overall estimated annual event rate for fatal and non-fatal stroke was 3.2%. The systolic blood pressure difference and the annual stroke rate were both in line with the statistical assumptions underlying study design. The trial should be well placed to address the primary hypothesis at completion of follow-up.
Elliott J, Bodinier B, Bond TA, et al., 2020, Predictive Accuracy of a Polygenic Risk Score-Enhanced Prediction Model vs a Clinical Risk Score for Coronary Artery Disease, JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, Vol: 323, Pages: 636-645, ISSN: 0098-7484
Aljuraiban GS, Pertiwi K, Stamler J, et al., 2020, Potato consumption, by preparation method and meal quality, with blood pressure and body mass index: The INTERMAP study, Clinical Nutrition, ISSN: 0261-5614
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Previous studies have reported associations between higher potato intake and higher blood pressure (BP) and/or risk of hypertension and obesity. These studies rarely considered preparation methods of potatoes, overall dietary pattern or the nutrient quality of the meals. These factors may affect the association of potato intake with BP and body mass index (BMI). This study investigated potato consumption by amount, type of processing, overall dietary pattern, and nutrient quality of the meals in relation to BP and BMI. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted among 2696 participants aged 40-59 y in the US and UK samples of the International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP). Nutrient quality of individual food items and the overall diet was assessed with the Nutrient-Rich Foods (NRF) index. RESULTS: No associations with BP or BMI were found for total potato intake nor for boiled, mashed, or baked potatoes or potato-based mixed dishes. In US women, higher intake of fried potato was associated with 2.29 mmHg (95% CI: 0.55, 3.83) higher systolic BP and with 1.14 mmHg (95% CI: 0.10, 2.17) higher diastolic BP, independent of BMI. Higher fried potato consumption was directly associated with a +0.86 kg/m2 difference in BMI (95% CI: 0.24, 1.58) in US women. These associations were not found in men. Higher intakes of fried potato meals with a lower nutritional quality (NRF index≤ 2) were positively associated with systolic (3.88 mmHg; 95% CI: 2.63, 5.53) and diastolic BP (1.62 mmHg; 95% CI: 0.48, 2.95) in US women. No associations with BP were observed for fried potato meals with a higher nutritional quality (NRF index> 2). CONCLUSIONS: Fried potato was directly related to BP and BMI in women, but non-fried potato was not. Poor-nutrient quality meals were associated with intake of fried potatoes and higher BP, suggesting that accompanied dietary choices are key mediators of
Georgakis MK, Gill D, Webb AJS, et al., Genetically determined blood pressure, antihypertensive drug classes and risk of stroke subtypes, Neurology, ISSN: 0028-3878
Objective: We employed Mendelian Randomization to explore whether the effects of blood pressure (BP) and BP lowering through different antihypertensive drug classes on stroke risk vary by stroke etiology. Methods: We selected genetic variants associated with systolic and diastolic BP and BP-lowering variants in genes encoding antihypertensive drug targets from a GWAS on 757,601 individuals. Applying two-sample Mendelian randomization, we examined associations with any stroke (67,162 cases; 454,450 controls), ischemic stroke and its subtypes (large artery, cardioembolic, small vessel stroke), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH, deep and lobar), and the related small vessel disease phenotype of WMH.Results: Genetic predisposition to higher systolic and diastolic BP was associated with higher risk of any stroke, ischemic stroke, and ICH. We found associations between genetically determined BP and all ischemic stroke subtypes with a higher risk of large artery and small vessel stroke compared to cardioembolic stroke, as well as associations with deep, but not lobar ICH. Genetic proxies for calcium channel blockers, but not beta blockers, were associated with lower risk of any stroke and ischemic stroke. Proxies for CCBs showed particularly strong associations with small vessel stroke and the related radiological phenotype of WMH.Conclusions: This study supports a causal role of hypertension in all major stroke subtypes except lobar ICH. We find differences in the effects of BP and BP lowering through antihypertensive drug classes between stroke subtypes and identify calcium channel blockade as a promising strategy for preventing manifestations of cerebral small vessel disease.
Cai Y, Blangiardo M, de Hoogh K, et al., 2020, Road traffic noise, air pollution and cardiorespiratory Health in European Cohorts: A harmonised approach in the BioShare project, Pages: 137-142
Copyright © (2015) by EAA-NAG-ABAV, All rights reserved Background and aims: Few studies have investigated joint effects of road traffic noise and air pollution on cardiorespiratory outcomes. This project aims to quantify the joint and separate effects of both exposures on prevalent and incident cardiovascular disease and asthma as part of the EU-funded BioSHaRE project involving five European cohorts (EPIC-Oxford, EPIC-Turin, HUNT, Lifelines, UK Biobank). Methods: Health outcomes have been ascertained by self-report (prevalence) and medical record (incidence) and retrospectively harmonised across cohorts. Residential road traffic noise exposures for each participant are estimated using a European noise model based on Common Noise Assessment Methods in Europe (CNOSSOS-EU). Road traffic air pollution estimates at home address were derived from Land Use Regression models. Cross-sectional and incident epidemiological analyses are in progress, using individual level data, virtually pooled using DataSHIELD methodology. Results: In total, 742,950 men and women are included from all five cohorts, mostly >40 years. Prevalence of self-reported myocardial infarction from these five cohorts is 2.1% (N=15,031) while prevalence of self-reported stroke is 1.4% (N=10,077). Initial pooled analysis of EPIC-Oxford, HUNT and Lifelines showed median day-time (07:00-19:00) noise estimate of 51.8 dB(A) and night-time (23:00-07:00) noise estimate of 43.5 dB(A). Correlations between noise estimates and NO2 are generally low (r=0.1 to 0.4). Conclusions: Pooling of individual level harmonised data from established cohorts offers the large sample sizes and exposure variations needed to investigate effects of road traffic noise and ambient air pollution on cardio-respiratory diseases.
Jaime Miranda J, Carrillo-Larco RM, Ferreccio C, et al., 2020, Trends in cardiometabolic risk factors in the Americas between 1980 and 2014: a pooled analysis of population-based surveys, The Lancet Global Health, Vol: 8, Pages: E123-E133, ISSN: 2214-109X
BackgroundDescribing the prevalence and trends of cardiometabolic risk factors that are associated with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is crucial for monitoring progress, planning prevention, and providing evidence to support policy efforts. We aimed to analyse the transition in body-mass index (BMI), obesity, blood pressure, raised blood pressure, and diabetes in the Americas, between 1980 and 2014.MethodsWe did a pooled analysis of population-based studies with data on anthropometric measurements, biomarkers for diabetes, and blood pressure from adults aged 18 years or older. A Bayesian model was used to estimate trends in BMI, raised blood pressure (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg), and diabetes (fasting plasma glucose ≥7·0 mmol/L, history of diabetes, or diabetes treatment) from 1980 to 2014, in 37 countries and six subregions of the Americas.Findings389 population-based surveys from the Americas were available. Comparing prevalence estimates from 2014 with those of 1980, in the non-English speaking Caribbean subregion, the prevalence of obesity increased from 3·9% (95% CI 2·2–6·3) in 1980, to 18·6% (14·3–23·3) in 2014, in men; and from 12·2% (8·2–17·0) in 1980, to 30·5% (25·7–35·5) in 2014, in women. The English-speaking Caribbean subregion had the largest increase in the prevalence of diabetes, from 5·2% (2·1–10·4) in men and 6·4% (2·6–10·4) in women in 1980, to 11·1% (6·4–17·3) in men and 13·6% (8·2–21·0) in women in 2014). Conversely, the prevalence of raised blood pressure has decreased in all subregions; the largest decrease was found in North America from 27·6% (22·3–33·2) in men and 19·9% (15·8–24·4) in women in 1980, to 15·
Gulliver J, Morley D, Fecht D, et al., 2020, Feasibility study for using the CNOSSOS-EU road traffic noise prediction model with low resolution inputs for exposure estimation on a Europe-wide scale, Pages: 481-486
Copyright © (2015) by EAA-NAG-ABAV, All rights reserved A noise model based on the CNOSSOS-EU method was developed to estimate exposures to road traffic noise at individual address locations for studies of noise and health in European cohorts in the EU FP7 BioSHaRE project. We assessed the loss in model performance from necessarily (i.e. at national scale) using low resolution data on traffic flows, road geography and land cover. To assess the feasibility of this approach in terms of the loss of model performance, we applied CNOSSOS-EU with different combinations of high- and low-resolution inputs (e.g. high resolution road geography with low resolution land cover) and compared noise level estimates with measurements of LAeq1hr from 38 locations in Leicester, a medium sized city in the UK. The lowest resolution model performed reasonably well in terms of correlation [rs = 0.75; p = 0.000)] but with relatively large model errors [RMSE = 4.46 dB(A)]. For a sample of postcode (zip code) locations (n=721) in Leicester, in comparing output from Model A (highest resolution) and Model F (lowest resolution), 81.8% and 72.8% of exposure estimates remained in the lowest and highest of three equal exposure categories, respectively.
Carter E, Yan L, Fu Y, et al., 2020, Household transitions to clean energy in a multi-provincial cohort study in China, Nature Sustainability, Vol: 3, Pages: 42-50, ISSN: 2398-9629
Household solid fuel (biomass, coal) burning contributes to climate change and is a leading health risk factor. How and why households stop using solid fuel stoves after adopting clean fuels has not been studied. We assessed trends in the uptake, use, and suspension of household stoves and fuels in a multi-provincial cohort study of 753 Chinese adults and evaluated determinants of clean fuel uptake and solid fuel suspension. Over one-third (35%) and one-fifth (17%) of participants suspended use of solid fuel for cooking and heating, respectively, during the past 20 years. Determinants of solid fuel suspension (younger age, widowed) and of earlier suspension (younger age, higher education, and poor self-reported health status) differed from the determinants of clean fuel uptake (younger age, higher income, smaller households, and retired) and of earlier adoption (higher income). Clean fuel adoption and solid fuel suspension warrant joint consideration as indicators of household energy transition. Household energy research and planning efforts that more closely examine solid fuel suspension may accelerate household energy transitions that benefit climate and human health.
Parkes B, Hansell AL, Ghosh RE, et al., 2020, Risk of congenital anomalies near municipal waste incinerators in England and Scotland, Retrospective population-based cohort study, Vol: 134, ISSN: 0160-4120
Background: Few studies have investigated congenital anomalies in relation to municipal waste incinerators (MWIs) and results are inconclusive. Objectives: To conduct a national investigation into the risk of congenital anomalies in babies born to mothers living within 10 km of an MWI associated with: i) modelled concentrations of PM10 as a proxy for MWI emissions more generally and; ii) proximity of residential postcode to nearest MWI, in areas in England and Scotland that are covered by a congenital anomaly register. Methods: Retrospective population-based cohort study within 10 km of 10 MWIs in England and Scotland operating between 2003 and 2010. Exposure was proximity to MWI and log of daily mean modelled ground-level particulate matter ≤10 μm diameter (PM10) concentrations. Results: Analysis included 219,486 births, stillbirths and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly of which 5154 were cases of congenital anomalies. Fully adjusted odds ratio (OR) per doubling in PM10 was: 1·00 (95% CI 0·98–1·02) for all congenital anomalies; 0·99 (0·97–1·01) for all congenital anomalies excluding chromosomal anomalies. For every 1 km closer to an MWI adjusted OR was: 1·02 (1·00–1·04) for all congenital anomalies combined; 1·02 (1·00–1·04) for all congenital anomalies excluding chromosomal anomalies; and, for specific anomaly groups, 1·04 (1·01–1·08) for congenital heart defect sand 1·07 (1·02–1·12) for genital anomalies. Discussion: We found no increased risk of congenital anomalies in relation to modelled PM10 emissions, but there were small excess risks associated with congenital heart defects and genital anomalies in proximity to MWIs. These latter findings may well reflect incomplete control for confounding, but a possible causal effect cannot be excluded.
Wong JYY, Bassig BA, Loftfield E, et al., 2019, White blood cell count and risk of incident lung cancer in the UK Biobank, JNCI Cancer Spectrum, Vol: 4, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 2515-5091
BackgroundThe contribution of measurable immunological/inflammatory parameters to lung cancer development remains unclear, particularly among never-smokers. We investigated the relationship between total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts and incident lung cancer risk overall and among subgroups defined by smoking status and sex in the United Kingdom (UK).MethodsWe evaluated 424,407 adults aged 37-73 years from the UK Biobank. Questionnaires, physical measurements, and blood were administered/collected at baseline in 2006-2010. Complete blood cell counts were measured using standard methods. Lung cancer diagnoses and histological classifications were obtained from cancer registries. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of incident lung cancer in relation to quartiles (Q) of total WBC and subtype-specific counts, with Q1 as the reference.ResultsThere were 1,493 incident cases diagnosed over an average 7-year follow-up. Overall, the highest quartile of total WBC count was significantly associated with elevated lung cancer risk (HRQ4=1.67, 95% CI:1.41-1.98). Among women, increased risks were found in current-smokers (ncases/n=244/19,464, HRQ4=2.15, 95% CI:1.46-3.16), former-smokers (ncases/n=280/69,198, HRQ4=1.75, 95% CI:1.24-2.47), and never-smokers without environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ncases/n=108/111,294, HRQ4=1.93, 95% CI:1.11-3.35). Among men, stronger associations were identified in current-smokers (ncases/n=329/22,934, HRQ4=2.95, 95% CI:2.04-4.26) and former-smokers (ncases/n= 358/71,616, HRQ4=2.38, 95% CI:1.74-3.27) but not in never-smokers. Findings were similar for lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma and were driven primarily by elevated neutrophil fractions.ConclusionsElevated WBCs could potentially be one of many important markers for increased lung cancer risk, especially among never-smoking women and ever-smoking men.
Gibson R, Lau C, Loo RL, et al., 2019, The association of fish consumption and its urinary metabolites with cardiovascular risk factors: The International Study of Macro-/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP), American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol: 111, Pages: 280-290, ISSN: 0002-9165
BackgroundResults from observational studies regarding associations between fish (including shellfish) intake and cardiovascular disease risk factors, including blood pressure (BP) and BMI, are inconsistent.ObjectiveTo investigate associations of fish consumption and associated urinary metabolites with BP and BMI in free-living populations.MethodsWe used cross-sectional data from the International Study of Macro-/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP), including 4680 men and women (40–59 y) from Japan, China, the United Kingdom, and United States. Dietary intakes were assessed by four 24-h dietary recalls and BP from 8 measurements. Urinary metabolites (2 timed 24-h urinary samples) associated with fish intake acquired from NMR spectroscopy were identified. Linear models were used to estimate BP and BMI differences across categories of intake and per 2 SD higher intake of fish and its biomarkers.ResultsNo significant associations were observed between fish intake and BP. There was a direct association with fish intake and BMI in the Japanese population sample (P trend = 0.03; fully adjusted model). In Japan, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and taurine, respectively, demonstrated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values of 0.81 and 0.78 in discriminating high against low fish intake, whereas homarine (a metabolite found in shellfish muscle) demonstrated an AUC of 0.80 for high/nonshellfish intake. Direct associations were observed between urinary TMAO and BMI for all regions except Japan (P < 0.0001) and in Western populations between TMAO and BP (diastolic blood pressure: mean difference 1.28; 95% CI: 0.55, 2.02 mmHg; P = 0.0006, systolic blood pressure: mean difference 1.67; 95% CI: 0.60, 2.73 mmHg; P = 0.002).ConclusionsUrinary TMAO showed a stronger association with fish intake in the Japanese compared with the Western population sample. Urinary TMAO was directly associated with BP in the Western but not the Japanese popula
Kaura A, Panoulas V, Glampson B, et al., 2019, Association of troponin level and age with mortality in 250 000 patients: cohort study across five UK acute care centres, BMJ-British Medical Journal, Vol: 367, ISSN: 1756-1833
ObjectiveTo determine the relation between age and troponinlevel and its prognostic implication.DesignRetrospective cohort study.SettingFive cardiovascular centres in the UK National Institutefor Health Research Health Informatics Collaborative(UK-NIHR HIC).Participants257948 consecutive patients undergoing troponintesting for any clinical reason between 2010 and2017.Main outcome measureAll cause mortality.Results257948 patients had troponin measured during thestudy period. Analyses on troponin were performedusing the peak troponin level, which was the highesttroponin level measured during the patient’s hospitalstay. Troponin levels were standardised as a multipleof each laboratory’s 99th centile of the upper limitof normal (ULN). During a median follow-up of 1198days (interquartile range 514-1866 days), 55850(21.7%) deaths occurred. A positive troponin result(that is, higher than the upper limit of normal)signified an overall 3.2-fold higher mortality hazard(95% confidence interval 3.1-fold to 3.2-fold) overthree years. The mortality hazard varied markedly withage, from 10.6-fold (8.5-fold to 13.3-fold) in 18-29year olds to 1.5 (1.4 to 1.6) in those older than 90.A positive troponin result was associated with anapproximately 15 percentage points higher absolutethree year mortality across all age groups. The excessmortality with a positive troponin result was heavilyconcentrated in the first few weeks. Results wereanalysed using multivariable adjusted restrictedcubic spline Cox regression. A direct relation wasseen between troponin level and mortality in patientswithout acute coronary syndrome (ACS, n=120049),whereas an inverted U shaped relation was foundin patients with ACS (n=14468), with a paradoxicaldecline in mortality at peak troponin levels >70xULN.In the group with ACS, the inverted U shaped relationpersisted after multivariable adjustment in those whowere managed invasively; however, a direct positiverelation was found between troponin level
Noordam R, Evangelou E, Elliott P, et al., 2019, Multi-ancestry sleep-by-SNP interaction analysis in 126,926 individuals reveals lipid loci stratified by sleep duration, Nature Genetics, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1061-4036
Both short and long sleep are associated with an adverse lipid profile, likely through different biological pathways. To elucidate the biology of sleep-associated adverse lipid profile, we conduct multi-ancestry genome-wide sleep-SNP interaction analyses on three lipid traits (HDL-c, LDL-c and triglycerides). In the total study sample (discovery + replication) of 126,926 individuals from 5 different ancestry groups, when considering either long or short total sleep time interactions in joint analyses, we identify 49 previously unreported lipid loci, and 10 additional previously unreported lipid loci in a restricted sample of European-ancestry cohorts. In addition, we identify new gene-sleep interactions for known lipid loci such as LPL and PCSK9. The previously unreported lipid loci have a modest explained variance in lipid levels: most notable, gene-short-sleep interactions explain 4.25% of the variance in triglyceride level. Collectively, these findings contribute to our understanding of the biological mechanisms involved in sleep-associated adverse lipid profiles.
Clark DW, Zhang W, Gao H, et al., 2019, Associations of autozygosity with a broad range of human phenotypes, Nature Communications, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2041-1723
In many species, the offspring of related parents suffer reduced vigor, survival and reproductive success, a phenomenon known as inbreeding depression1. In humans, the importance of this effect has remained unclear2, partly because reproduction between close relatives is both rare in many cultures and frequently associated with confounding social factors3. Here, using genomic inbreeding coefficients4 (FROH) for >1.3 million individuals, we show that FROH is significantly associated (P < 0.0005) with apparently deleterious changes in 32 out of 100 traits analysed. Increased FROH is associated with reduced reproductive success (decreased number and likelihood of having children, older age at first sex and first birth, decreased number of sexual partners), as well as reduced risk-taking behaviour (alcohol intake, ever-smoked, self-reported risk taking) and increased disease risk (self-reported overall health, and risk factors including grip strength and heart rate). The effect on fertility is striking: FROH equivalent to the offspring of first cousins is associated with a 55% decrease [95% CI 44-66%] in the odds of having children. These effects are associated with runs of homozygosity (ROH), but not with common variant homozygosity, suggesting that genetic variants causing inbreeding depression are predominantly rare. For a subset of traits, the effect of FROH differs significantly between men and women. Indeed, an increased FROH is associated with decreased total and LDL cholesterol in men, raising the possibility that increases in these traits may have benefited evolutionary fitness, despite being known coronary risk factors. Finally, the effects of FROH are confirmed within full-sibling pairs, where the variation in FROH is independent of environmental confounding. We conclude that inbreeding depression influences a broad range of human phenotypes through the action of rare, recessive variants.
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