Imperial College London

ProfessorPaulElliott

Faculty of MedicineSchool of Public Health

Chair in Epidemiology and Public Health Medicine
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 3328p.elliott Website

 
 
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Assistant

 

Miss Jennifer Wells +44 (0)20 7594 3328

 
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Location

 

154Norfolk PlaceSt Mary's Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
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605 results found

Bixby H, Bentham J, Zhou B, Di Cesare M, Paciorek CJ, Bennett JE, Taddei C, Stevens GA, Rodriguez-Martinez A, Carrillo-Larco RM, Khang Y-H, Soric M, Gregg E, Miranda JJ, Bhutta ZA, Savin S, Sophiea MK, Iurilli MLC, Solomon BD, Cowan MJ, Riley LM, Danaei G, Bovet P, Christa-Emandi A, Hambleton IR, Hayes AJ, Ikeda N, Kengne AP, Laxmaiah A, Li Y, McGarvey ST, Mostafa A, Neovius M, Starc G, Zainuddin AA, Ezzati Met al., 2019, Rising rural body-mass index is the main driver of the global obesity epidemic, Nature, Vol: 569, Pages: 260-264, ISSN: 0028-0836

Body-mass index (BMI) has increased steadily in most countries in parallel with a rise in the proportion of the population who live in cities1,2. This has led to a widely reported view that urbanization is one of the most important drivers of the global rise in obesity3,4,5,6. Here we use 2,009 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in more than 112 million adults, to report national, regional and global trends in mean BMI segregated by place of residence (a rural or urban area) from 1985 to 2017. We show that, contrary to the dominant paradigm, more than 55% of the global rise in mean BMI from 1985 to 2017—and more than 80% in some low- and middle-income regions—was due to increases in BMI in rural areas. This large contribution stems from the fact that, with the exception of women in sub-Saharan Africa, BMI is increasing at the same rate or faster in rural areas than in cities in low- and middle-income regions. These trends have in turn resulted in a closing—and in some countries reversal—of the gap in BMI between urban and rural areas in low- and middle-income countries, especially for women. In high-income and industrialized countries, we noted a persistently higher rural BMI, especially for women. There is an urgent need for an integrated approach to rural nutrition that enhances financial and physical access to healthy foods, to avoid replacing the rural undernutrition disadvantage in poor countries with a more general malnutrition disadvantage that entails excessive consumption of low-quality calories.

Journal article

Davies G, Lam M, Harris SE, Trampush JW, Luciano M, Hill WD, Hagenaars SP, Ritchie SJ, Marioni RE, Fawns-Ritchie C, Liewald DCM, Okely JA, Ahola-Olli AV, Barnes CLK, Bertram L, Bis JC, Burdick KE, Christoforou A, DeRosse P, Djurovic S, Espeseth T, Giakoumaki S, Giddaluru S, Gustavson DE, Hayward C, Hofer E, Ikram MA, Karlsson R, Knowles E, Lahti J, Leber M, Li S, Mather KA, Melle I, Morris D, Oldmeadow C, Palviainen T, Payton A, Pazoki R, Petrovic K, Reynolds CA, Sargurupremraj M, Scholz M, Smith JA, Smith AV, Terzikhan N, Thalamuthu A, Trompet S, van der Lee SJ, Ware EB, Windham BG, Wright MJ, Yang J, Yu J, Ames D, Amin N, Amouyel P, Andreassen OA, Armstrong NJ, Assareh AA, Attia JR, Attix D, Avramopoulos D, Bennett DA, Boehmer AC, Boyle PA, Brodaty H, Campbell H, Cannon TD, Cirulli ET, Congdon E, Conley ED, Corley J, Cox SR, Dale AM, Dehghan A, Dick D, Dickinson D, Eriksson JG, Evangelou E, Faul JD, Ford I, Freimer NA, Gao H, Giegling I, Gillespie NA, Gordon SD, Gottesman RF, Griswold ME, Gudnason V, Harris TB, Hartmann AM, Hatzimanolis A, Heiss G, Holliday EG, Joshi PK, Kahonen M, Kardia SLR, Karlsson I, Kleineidam L, Knopman DS, Kochan NA, Konte B, Kwok JB, Le Hellard S, Lee T, Lehtimaki T, Li S-C, Lill CM, Liu T, Koini M, London E, Longstreth WT, Lopez OL, Loukola A, Luck T, Lundervold AJ, Lundquist A, Lyytikainen L-P, Martin NG, Montgomery GW, Murray AD, Need AC, Noordam R, Nyberg L, Ollier W, Papenberg G, Pattie A, Polasek O, Poldrack RA, Psaty BM, Reppermund S, Riedel-Heller SG, Rose RJ, Rotter JI, Roussos P, Rovio SP, Saba Y, Sabb FW, Sachdev PS, Satizabal CL, Schmid M, Scott RJ, Scult MA, Simino J, Slagboom PE, Smyrnis N, Soumare A, Stefanis NC, Stott DJ, Straub RE, Sundet K, Taylor AM, Taylor KD, Tzoulaki I, Tzourio C, Uitterlinden A, Vitart V, Voineskos AN, Kaprio J, Wagner M, Wagner H, Weinhold L, Wen KH, Widen E, Yang Q, Zhao W, Adams HHH, Arking DE, Bilder RM, Bitsios P, Boerwinkle E, Chiba-Falek O, Corvin A, De Jager PL, Debette S, Donohoe G, Elliottet al., 2019, Study of 300,486 individuals identifies 148 independent genetic loci influencing general cognitive function (vol 9, 2098, 2018), NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2041-1723

Journal article

McCrory C, Leahy S, Ribeiro AI, Fraga S, Barros H, Avendano M, Vineis P, Layte R, Alenius H, Baglietto L, Bartley M, Bellone M, Berger E, Bochud M, Candiani G, Carmeli C, Carra L, Castagne R, Chadeau-Hyam M, Cima S, Costa G, Courtin E, Delpierre C, D'Errico A, Donkin A, Dugue P-A, Elliott P, Fagherazzi G, Fiorito G, Gandini M, Gares V, Gerbouin-Rerrolle P, Giles G, Goldberg M, Greco D, Guida F, Hodge A, Karimi M, Karisola P, Kelly M, Kivimaki M, Laine J, Lang T, Laurent A, Lepage B, Lorsch D, Machell G, Mackenbach J, Marmot M, Milne R, Muennig P, Nusselder W, Petrovic D, Polidoro S, Preisig M, Recalcati P, Reinhard E, Ribeiro AI, Ricceri F, Robinson O, Valverde JR, Severi G, Simmons T, Stringhini S, Terhi V, Than J, Vergnaud A-C, Vigna-Taglianti F, Vollenweider P, Zins Met al., 2019, Maternal educational inequalities in measured body mass index trajectories in three European countries, PAEDIATRIC AND PERINATAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, Vol: 33, Pages: 226-237, ISSN: 0269-5022

Journal article

Fiorito G, McCrory C, Robinson O, Carmeli C, Rosales CO, Zhang Y, Colicino E, Dugué P-A, Artaud F, McKay GJ, Jeong A, Mishra PP, Nøst TH, Krogh V, Panico S, Sacerdote C, Tumino R, Palli D, Matullo G, Guarrera S, Gandini M, Bochud M, Dermitzakis E, Muka T, Schwartz J, Vokonas PS, Just A, Hodge AM, Giles GG, Southey MC, Hurme MA, Young I, McKnight AJ, Kunze S, Waldenberger M, Peters A, Schwettmann L, Lund E, Baccarelli A, Milne RL, Kenny RA, Elbaz A, Brenner H, Kee F, Voortman T, Probst-Hensch N, Lehtimäki T, Elliot P, Stringhini S, Vineis P, Polidoro S, BIOS Consortium, Lifepath consortiumet al., 2019, Socioeconomic position, lifestyle habits and biomarkers of epigenetic aging: a multi-cohort analysis, Aging, Vol: 11, Pages: 2045-2070, ISSN: 1945-4589

Differences in health status by socioeconomic position (SEP) tend to be more evident at older ages, suggesting the involvement of a biological mechanism responsive to the accumulation of deleterious exposures across the lifespan. DNA methylation (DNAm) hasbeen proposed as a biomarker of biological aging that conserves memory of endogenous and exogenous stress during life. We examined the association of education level, as an indicator of SEP, and lifestyle-related variables with four biomarkers of age-dependent DNAm dysregulation: the total number of stochastic epigenetic mutations (SEMs) and three epigenetic clocks (Horvath, Hannum and Levine), in 18 cohorts spanning 12 countries. The four biological aging biomarkers were associated with education and different sets of risk factors independently,and themagnitude of the effectsdiffereddepending on the biomarker and the predictor. On average, the effect of low education on epigenetic aging was comparable with those of other lifestyle-related risk factors (obesity, alcohol intake), with the exception ofsmoking, which hada significantly stronger effect. Our study shows that low education is an independent predictor of accelerated biological (epigenetic) aging and that epigenetic clocks appear to be good candidates for disentangling the biological pathways underlying social inequalities in healthy aging and longevity.

Journal article

Piel F, Parkes B, Hambly P, Roca-Barcelo A, McCallion M, Leonardi G, Strosnider H, Yip F, Elliott P, Hansell Aet al., The Rapid Inquiry Facility 4.0: an open access tool for Environmental Public Health Tracking, International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN: 1464-3685

The Rapid Inquiry Facility 4.0 (RIF) is a new user-friendly and open-access tool, developed by the UK Small Area Health Statistics Unit (SAHSU), to facilitate environment public health tracking (EPHT) or surveillance (EPHS). The RIF is designed to help public health professionals and academics to rapidly perform exploratory investigations of health and environmental data at the small-area level (e.g. postcode or detailed census areas) in order to identify unusual signals, such as disease clusters, and potential environmental hazards, whether localised (e.g. industrial site) or widespread (e.g. air and noise pollution). The RIF allows the use of advanced disease mapping methods, including Bayesian small-area smoothing, and complex risk analysis functionalities, while accounting for confounders. The RIF could be particularly useful to monitor spatio-temporal trends in mortality and morbidity associated with cardiovascular diseases, cancers, diabetes and chronic lung diseases, or to conduct local or national studies on air pollution, flooding, low-magnetic fields or nuclear powerplants.

Journal article

Bentley AR, Sung YJ, Brown MR, Winkler TW, Kraja AT, Ntalla I, Schwander K, Chasman D, Lim E, Deng X, Guo X, Liu J, Lu Y, Cheng C-Y, Sim X, Vojinovic D, Huffman JE, Musani SK, Li C, Feitosa MF, Richard MA, Noordam R, Baker J, Chen G, Aschard H, Bartz TM, Ding J, Dorajoo R, Manning AK, Rankinen T, Smith A, Tajuddin SM, Zhao W, Graff M, Alver M, Boissel M, Chai JF, Chen X, Divers J, Evangelou E, Gao C, Goel A, Hagemeijer Y, Harris SE, Hartwig FP, He M, Horimoto ARVR, Hsu F-C, Hung Y-J, Jackson AU, Kasturiratne A, Komulainen P, Kuehnel B, Leander K, Lin K-H, Luan J, Lyytikainen L-P, Matoba N, Nolte IM, Pietzner M, Prins B, Riaz M, Robino A, Said MA, Schupf N, Scott RA, Sofer T, Stancakova A, Takeuchi F, Tayo BO, van der Most PJ, Varga TV, Wang T-D, Wang Y, Ware EB, Wen W, Xiang Y-B, Yanek LR, Zhang W, Zhao JH, Adeyemo A, Afaq S, Amin N, Amini M, Arking DE, Arzumanyan Z, Aung T, Ballantyne C, Barr RG, Bielak LF, Boerwinkle E, Bottinger EP, Broeckel U, Brown M, Cade BE, Campbell A, Canouil M, Charumathi S, Chen Y-DI, Christensen K, Concas MP, Connell JM, de las Fuentes L, de Silva HJ, de Vries PS, Doumatey A, Duan Q, Eaton CB, Eppinga RN, Faul JD, Floyd JS, Forouhi NG, Forrester T, Friedlander Y, Gandin I, Gao H, Ghanbari M, Gharib SA, Gigante B, Giulianini F, Grabe HJ, Gu CC, Harris TB, Heikkinen S, Heng C-K, Hirata M, Hixson JE, Ikram MA, Jia Y, Joehanes R, Johnson C, Jonas JB, Justice AE, Katsuya T, Khor CC, Kilpelainen TO, Koh W-P, Kolcic I, Kooperberg C, Krieger JE, Kritchevsky SB, Kubo M, Kuusisto J, Lakka TA, Langefeld CD, Langenberg C, Launer LJ, Lehne B, Lewis CE, Li Y, Liang J, Lin S, Liu C-T, Liu J, Liu K, Loh M, Lohman KK, Louie T, Luzzi A, Magi R, Mahajan A, Manichaikul AW, McKenzie CA, Meitinger T, Metspalu A, Milaneschi Y, Milani L, Mohlke KL, Momozawa Y, Morris AP, Murray AD, Nalls MA, Nauck M, Nelson CP, North KE, O'Connell JR, Palmer ND, Papanicolau GJ, Pedersen NL, Peters A, Peyser PA, Polasek O, Poulter N, Raitakari OT, Reiner AP, Renstrom F, Rice TKet al., 2019, Multi-ancestry genome-wide gene-smoking interaction study of 387,272 individuals identifies new loci associated with serum lipids, Nature Genetics, Vol: 51, Pages: 636-648, ISSN: 1061-4036

The concentrations of high- and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides are influenced by smoking, but it is unknown whether genetic associations with lipids may be modified by smoking. We conducted a multi-ancestry genome-wide gene–smoking interaction study in 133,805 individuals with follow-up in an additional 253,467 individuals. Combined meta-analyses identified 13 new loci associated with lipids, some of which were detected only because association differed by smoking status. Additionally, we demonstrate the importance of including diverse populations, particularly in studies of interactions with lifestyle factors, where genomic and lifestyle differences by ancestry may contribute to novel findings.

Journal article

Mireku MO, Barker MM, Mutz J, Shen C, Dumontheil I, Thomas MSC, Röösli M, Elliott P, Toledano MBet al., 2019, Processed data on the night-time use of screen-based media devices and adolescents’ sleep quality and health-related quality of life, Data in Brief, Vol: 23, ISSN: 2352-3409

The data presented in this article relate to the research article entitled “Night-time screen-based media device use and adolescents' sleep and health-related quality of life”. The present data reports findings from the investigation of the relationship between night-time screen-based media devices (SBMD) use and both sleep quality and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among 11 to 12-year-olds. Baseline data from a large cohort of 6,616 adolescents from 39 schools in and around London, UK, participating in the Study of Cognition Adolescents and Mobile Phone (SCAMP) were analysed. Self-report data on adolescents’ use of any SBMD (mobile phone, tablet, laptop, television etc.) were the main exposures of interest. Mobile phone and television were the most commonly used portable and non-portable device, respectively. Sleep variables were derived from self-reported weekday and/or weekend bedtime, sleep onset latency (SOL) and wake time. Sleep quality was assessed using four standardised dimensions from the Swiss Health Survey. HRQoL was estimated using the KIDSCREEN-10 questionnaire.

Journal article

Wen X, Zhou L, Stamler J, Chan Q, Van Horn L, Daviglus ML, Dyer AR, Elliott P, Ueshima H, Miura K, Okuda N, Wu Y, Zhao L, Wen X, Zhou L, Stamler J, Chan Q, Van Horn L, Daviglus ML, Dyer AR, Elliott P, Ueshima H, Miura K, Okuda N, Wu Y, Zhao Let al., 2019, Agreement between 24-h dietary recalls and 24-h urine collections for estimating sodium intake in China, Japan, UK, USA: the International Study of Macro- and Micro-nutrients and Blood Pressure, Journal of Hypertension, Vol: 37, Pages: 814-819, ISSN: 0263-6352

OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to compare 24-h dietary recalls with 24-h urine collections for the estimation of sodium intake at both population and individual levels in China, Japan, the United Kingdom (UK), and the United States of America (USA), using data from the International Study of Macro- and Micro-nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP). METHODS: Mean differences between 24-h dietary recalls and 24-h urine collections were calculated for their agreement in estimating sodium intake at the population level; relative and absolute differences as well as misclassification of salt intake groups (salt intake <6, 6-8.9, 9-11.9, 12-14.9, and ≥15 g/day) were used to determine the agreement at the individual level. RESULTS: The mean differences (95% CI) between dietary recalls and urine collections for China, Japan, UK, and USA were -54.0 (-59.8, -48.3), 3.9 (0.6, 7.2), 2.9 (-1.8, 7.6), and -3.5 (-5.8, -1.1) mmol/day, respectively. The proportions of individual relative differences beyond ±40% were 34.3% for China, 16.9% for Japan, 24.2% for UK, and 21.3% for USA; the proportions of individual absolute differences greater than 51.3 mmol/day (3 g salt) were 58.6% for China, 32.8% for Japan, 25.4% for UK, and 31.9% for USA. The rate for misclassification of salt intake groups at individual level for China, Japan, UK, and USA were 71.4, 60.9, 58.7, and 60.0%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The 24-h dietary recalls demonstrate greater agreement with the 24-h urine collections in estimating population sodium intake for Japan, UK, and USA, compared with China. The 24-h dietary recall has poor performance in assessing individual sodium intake in these four countries.

Journal article

Middeldorp CM, Felix JF, Mahajan A, McCarthy MI, EArly Genetics Lifecourse Epidemiology EAGLE consortium, Early Growth Genetics EGG, Rodriguez Aet al., 2019, The Early Growth Genetics (EGG) and EArly Genetics and Lifecourse Epidemiology (EAGLE) consortia: design, results and future prospects, European Journal of Epidemiology, Vol: 34, Pages: 279-300, ISSN: 0393-2990

The impact of many unfavorable childhood traits or diseases, such as low birth weight and mental disorders, is not limited to childhood and adolescence, as they are also associated with poor outcomes in adulthood, such as cardiovascular disease. Insight into the genetic etiology of childhood and adolescent traits and disorders may therefore provide new perspectives, not only on how to improve wellbeing during childhood, but also how to prevent later adverse outcomes. To achieve the sample sizes required for genetic research, the Early Growth Genetics (EGG) and EArly Genetics and Lifecourse Epidemiology (EAGLE) consortia were established. The majority of the participating cohorts are longitudinal population-based samples, but other cohorts with data on early childhood phenotypes are also involved. Cohorts often have a broad focus and collect(ed) data on various somatic and psychiatric traits as well as environmental factors. Genetic variants have been successfully identified for multiple traits, for example, birth weight, atopic dermatitis, childhood BMI, allergic sensitization, and pubertal growth. Furthermore, the results have shown that genetic factors also partly underlie the association with adult traits. As sample sizes are still increasing, it is expected that future analyses will identify additional variants. This, in combination with the development of innovative statistical methods, will provide detailed insight on the mechanisms underlying the transition from childhood to adult disorders. Both consortia welcome new collaborations. Policies and contact details are available from the corresponding authors of this manuscript and/or the consortium websites.

Journal article

Justice AE, Karaderi T, Highland HM, Young KL, Graff M, Lu Y, Turcot V, Auer PL, Fine RS, Guo X, Schurmann C, Lempradl A, Marouli E, Mahajan A, Winkler TW, Locke AE, Medina-Gomez C, Esko T, Vedantam S, Giri A, Lo KS, Alfred T, Mudgal P, Ng MCY, Heard-Costa NL, Feitosa MF, Manning AK, Willems SM, Sivapalaratnam S, Abecasis G, Alam DS, Allison M, Amouyel P, Arzumanyan Z, Balkau B, Bastarache L, Bergmann S, Bielak LF, Blüher M, Boehnke M, Boeing H, Boerwinkle E, Böger CA, Bork-Jensen J, Bottinger EP, Bowden DW, Brandslund I, Broer L, Burt AA, Butterworth AS, Caulfield MJ, Cesana G, Chambers JC, Chasman DI, Chen Y-DI, Chowdhury R, Christensen C, Chu AY, Collins FS, Cook JP, Cox AJ, Crosslin DS, Danesh J, de Bakker PIW, Denus SD, Mutsert RD, Dedoussis G, Demerath EW, Dennis JG, Denny JC, Angelantonio ED, Dörr M, Drenos F, Dubé M-P, Dunning AM, Easton DF, Elliott P, Evangelou E, Farmaki A-E, Feng S, Ferrannini E, Ferrieres J, Florez JC, Fornage M, Fox CS, Franks PW, Friedrich N, Gan W, Gandin I, Gasparini P, Giedraitis V, Girotto G, Gorski M, Grallert H, Grarup N, Grove ML, Gustafsson S, Haessler J, Hansen T, Hattersley AT, Hayward C, Heid IM, Holmen OL, Hovingh GK, Howson JMM, Hu Y, Hung Y-J, Hveem K, Ikram MA, Ingelsson E, Jackson AU, Jarvik GP, Jia Y, Jørgensen T, Jousilahti P, Justesen JM, Kahali B, Karaleftheri M, Kardia SLR, Karpe F, Kee F, Kitajima H, Komulainen P, Kooner JS, Kovacs P, Krämer BK, Kuulasmaa K, Kuusisto J, Laakso M, Lakka TA, Lamparter D, Lange LA, Langenberg C, Larson EB, Lee NR, Lee W-J, Lehtimäki T, Lewis CE, Li H, Li J, Li-Gao R, Lin L-A, Lin X, Lind L, Lindström J, Linneberg A, Liu C-T, Liu DJ, Luan J, Lyytikäinen L-P, MacGregor S, Mägi R, Männistö S, Marenne G, Marten J, Masca NGD, McCarthy MI, Meidtner K, Mihailov E, Moilanen L, Moitry M, Mook-Kanamori DO, Morgan A, Morris AP, Müller-Nurasyid M, Munroe PB, Narisu N, Nelson CP, Neville M, Ntalla I, O'Connell JR, Owen KR, Pedersen O, Peloso GM, Pennell CE, Perola M, Perry JA, Perry JRB, Pers THet al., 2019, Protein-coding variants implicate novel genes related to lipid homeostasis contributing to body-fat distribution, Nature Genetics, Vol: 51, Pages: 452-469, ISSN: 1061-4036

Body-fat distribution is a risk factor for adverse cardiovascular health consequences. We analyzed the association of body-fat distribution, assessed by waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index, with 228,985 predicted coding and splice site variants available on exome arrays in up to 344,369 individuals from five major ancestries (discovery) and 132,177 European-ancestry individuals (validation). We identified 15 common (minor allele frequency, MAF ≥5%) and nine low-frequency or rare (MAF <5%) coding novel variants. Pathway/gene set enrichment analyses identified lipid particle, adiponectin, abnormal white adipose tissue physiology and bone development and morphology as important contributors to fat distribution, while cross-trait associations highlight cardiometabolic traits. In functional follow-up analyses, specifically in Drosophila RNAi-knockdowns, we observed a significant increase in the total body triglyceride levels for two genes (DNAH10 and PLXND1). We implicate novel genes in fat distribution, stressing the importance of interrogating low-frequency and protein-coding variants.

Journal article

Mireku MO, Barker M, Mutz J, Dumontheil I, Thomas MSC, Roosli M, Elliott P, Toledano Met al., 2019, Night-time screen-based media device use and adolescents’ sleep and health-related quality of life, Environment International, Vol: 124, Pages: 66-78, ISSN: 0160-4120

ObjectiveThe present study investigates the relationship between night-time screen-based media devices (SBMD) use, which refers to use within 1 h before sleep, in both lit and dark rooms, and sleep outcomes and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among 11 to 12-year-olds.MethodsWe analysed baseline data from a large cohort of 6616 adolescents from 39 schools in and around London, United Kingdom, participating in the Study of Cognition Adolescents and Mobile Phone (SCAMP). Adolescents self-reported their use of any SBMD (mobile phone, tablet, laptop, television etc.). Sleep variables were derived from self-reported weekday and/or weekend bedtime, sleep onset latency (SOL) and wake time. Sleep quality was assessed using four standardised dimensions from the Swiss Health Survey. HRQoL was estimated using the KIDSCREEN-10 questionnaire.ResultsOver two-thirds (71.5%) of adolescents reported using at least one SBMD at night-time, and about a third (32.2%) reported using mobile phones at night-time in darkness. Night-time mobile phone and television use was associated with higher odds of insufficient sleep duration on weekdays (Odds Ratio, OR = 1.82, 95% Confidence Interval, CI [1.59, 2.07] and OR = 1.40, 95% CI [1.23, 1.60], respectively). Adolescents who used mobile phones in a room with light were more likely to have insufficient sleep (OR = 1.32, 95% CI [1.10, 1.60]) and later sleep midpoint (OR = 1.64, 95% CI [1.37, 1.95]) on weekends compared to non-users. The magnitude of these associations was even stronger for those who used mobile phones in darkness for insufficient sleep duration on weekdays (OR = 2.13, 95% CI [1.79, 2.54]) and for later sleep midpoint on weekdays (OR = 3.88, 95% CI [3.25, 4.62]) compared to non-users. Night-time use of mobile phones was associated with lower HRQoL and use in a dark room was associated with even lower KIDSCREEN-10 score (β = –1.18, 95% CI [–1.85, –0.52]) compared to no use.ConclusionsWe found consistent

Journal article

Müller CP, Chu C, Qin L, Liu C, Xu B, Gao H, Ruggeri B, Hieber S, Schneider J, Jia T, Tay N, Akira S, Satoh T, Banaschewski T, Bokde ALW, Bromberg U, Büchel C, Quinlan EB, Flor H, Frouin V, Garavan H, Gowland P, Heinz A, Ittermann B, Martinot J-L, Martinot M-LP, Artiges E, Lemaitre H, Nees F, Papadopoulos Orfanos D, Paus T, Poustka L, Millenet S, Fröhner JH, Smolka MN, Walter H, Whelan R, Bakalkin G, Liu Y, Desrivières S, Elliott P, Eulenburg V, Levy D, Crews F, Schumann Get al., 2019, The cortical neuroimmune regulator TANK affects emotional processing and enhances alcohol drinking: a translational study, Cerebral Cortex, Vol: 29, Pages: 1736-1751, ISSN: 1047-3211

Alcohol abuse is a major public health problem worldwide. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that control regular drinking may help to reduce hazards of alcohol consumption. While immunological mechanisms have been related to alcohol drinking, most studies reported changes in immune function that are secondary to alcohol use. In this report, we analyse how the gene "TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator" (TANK) affects alcohol drinking behavior. Based on our recent discovery in a large GWAS dataset that suggested an association of TANK, SNP rs197273, with alcohol drinking, we report that SNP rs197273 in TANK is associated both with gene expression (P = 1.16 × 10-19) and regional methylation (P = 5.90 × 10-25). A tank knock out mouse model suggests a role of TANK in alcohol drinking, anxiety-related behavior, as well as alcohol exposure induced activation of insular cortex NF-κB. Functional and structural neuroimaging studies among up to 1896 adolescents reveal that TANK is involved in the control of brain activity in areas of aversive interoceptive processing, including the insular cortex, but not in areas related to reinforcement, reward processing or impulsiveness. Our findings suggest that the cortical neuroimmune regulator TANK is associated with enhanced aversive emotional processing that better protects from the establishment of alcohol drinking behavior.

Journal article

Toledano MB, Mutz J, Roosli M, Thomas MSC, Dumontheil I, Elliott P, Toledano MB, Mutz J, Roosli M, Thomas MSC, Dumontheil I, Elliott Pet al., 2019, Cohort profile: the study of cognition, adolescents and mobile phones (SCAMP), International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol: 48, Pages: 25-26l, ISSN: 1464-3685

The Study of Cognition, Adolescents and Mobile Phones (SCAMP) is a prospective secondary school-based cohort study established to investigate whether use of mobile phones and other wireless devices that emit radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is associated with cognitive, behavioural, educational, physical and mental health outcomes during adolescence. Specifically, the principal aim is to discern whether any observed associations may be due to: (i) RF-EMF exposure from mobile phones; (ii) a combination of various RF-EMF sources (e.g. digital enhanced cordless technology phones or wireless internet); or (iii) other behavioural reasons associated with technology use for communication and entertainment, irrespective of exposure to RF-EMF.

Journal article

Kilpelainen TO, Bentley AR, Noordam R, Sung YJ, Schwander K, Winkler TW, Jakupovic H, Chasman DI, Manning A, Ntalla I, Aschard H, Brown MR, de las Fuentes L, Franceschini N, Guo X, Vojinovic D, Aslibekyan S, Feitosa MF, Kho M, Musani SK, Richard M, Wang H, Wang Z, Bartz TM, Bielak LF, Campbell A, Dorajoo R, Fisher V, Hartwig FP, Horimoto ARVR, Li C, Lohman KK, Marten J, Sim X, Smith AV, Tajuddin SM, Alver M, Amini M, Boissel M, Chai JF, Chen X, Divers J, Evangelou E, Gao C, Graff M, Harris SE, He M, Hsu F-C, Jackson AU, Zhao JH, Kraja AT, Kuehnel B, Laguzzi F, Lyytikainen L-P, Nolte IM, Rauramaa R, Riaz M, Robino A, Rueedi R, Stringham HM, Takeuchi F, van der Most PJ, Varga TV, Verweij N, Ware EB, Wen W, Li X, Yanek LR, Amin N, Arnett DK, Boerwinkle E, Brumat M, Cade B, Canouil M, Chen Y-DI, Concas MP, Connell J, de Mutsert R, de Silva HJ, de Vries PS, Demirkan A, Ding J, Eaton CB, Faul JD, Friedlander Y, Gabriel KP, Ghanbari M, Giulianini F, Gu CC, Gu D, Harris TB, He J, Heikkinen S, Heng C-K, Hunt SC, Ikram MA, Jonas JB, Koh W-P, Komulainen P, Krieger JE, Kritchevsky SB, Kutalik Z, Kuusisto J, Langefeld CD, Langenberg C, Launer LJ, Leander K, Lemaitre RN, Lewis CE, Liang J, Alizadeh BZ, Boezen HM, Franke L, Navis G, Rots M, Swertz M, Wolffenbuttel BHR, Wijmenga C, Liu J, Magi R, Manichaikul A, Meitinger T, Metspalu A, Milaneschi Y, Mohlke KL, Mosley TH, Murray AD, Nalls MA, Nang E-EK, Nelson CP, Nona S, Norris JM, Nwuba CV, O'Connell J, Palmer ND, Papanicolau GJ, Pazoki R, Pedersen NL, Peters A, Peyser PA, Polasek O, Porteous DJ, Poveda A, Raitakari OT, Rich SS, Risch N, Robinson JG, Rose LM, Rudan I, Schreiner PJ, Scott RA, Sidney SS, Sims M, Smith JA, Snieder H, Sofer T, Starr JM, Sternfeld B, Strauch K, Tang H, Taylor KD, Tsai MY, Tuomilehto J, Uitterlinden AG, van der Ende MY, van Heemst D, Voortman T, Waldenberger M, Wennberg P, Wilson G, Xiang Y-B, Yao J, Yu C, Yuan J-M, Zhao W, Zonderman AB, Becker DM, Boehnke M, Bowden DW, de Faire U, Deary IJ, Elliott Pet al., 2019, Multi-ancestry study of blood lipid levels identifies four loci interacting with physical activity, Nature Communications, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2041-1723

Many genetic loci affect circulating lipid levels, but it remains unknown whether lifestyle factors, such as physical activity, modify these genetic effects. To identify lipid loci interacting with physical activity, we performed genome-wide analyses of circulating HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels in up to 120,979 individuals of European, African, Asian, Hispanic, and Brazilian ancestry, with follow-up of suggestive associations in an additional 131,012 individuals. We find four loci, in/near CLASP1, LHX1, SNTA1, and CNTNAP2, that are associated with circulating lipid levels through interaction with physical activity; higher levels of physical activity enhance the HDL cholesterol-increasing effects of the CLASP1, LHX1, and SNTA1 loci and attenuate the LDL cholesterol-increasing effect of the CNTNAP2 locus. The CLASP1, LHX1, and SNTA1 regions harbor genes linked to muscle function and lipid metabolism. Our results elucidate the role of physical activity interactions in the genetic contribution to blood lipid levels.

Journal article

Pazoki R, Dehghan A, Evangelou E, Warren H, Gao H, Caulfield M, Elliott P, Tzoulaki I, Tzoulaki I, Dehghan A, Pazoki R, Evangelou E, Elliott P, Gao Het al., 2019, Correction to: Genetic predisposition to high blood pressure and lifestyle factors: associations with midlife blood pressure levels and cardiovascular events, Circulation, Vol: 139, Pages: E2-E2, ISSN: 0009-7322

Background: High blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Both heritable and lifestyle risk factors contribute to elevated BP levels. We aimed to investigate the extent to which lifestyle factors could offset the effect of an adverse BP genetic profile and its effect on CVD risk.Methods: We constructed a genetic risk score for high BP by using 314 published BP loci in 277 005 individuals without previous CVD from the UK Biobank study, a prospective cohort of individuals aged 40 to 69 years, with a median of 6.11 years of follow-up. We scored participants according to their lifestyle factors including body mass index, healthy diet, sedentary lifestyle, alcohol consumption, smoking, and urinary sodium excretion levels measured at recruitment. We examined the association between tertiles of genetic risk and tertiles of lifestyle score with BP levels and incident CVD by using linear regression and Cox regression models, respectively.Results: Healthy lifestyle score was strongly associated with BP (P<10–320) for systolic and diastolic BP and CVD events regardless of the underlying BP genetic risk. Participants with a favorable in comparison with an unfavorable lifestyle (bottom versus top tertile lifestyle score) had 3.6, 3.5, and 3.6 mm Hg lower systolic BP in low, middle, and high genetic risk groups, respectively (P for interaction=0.0006). Similarly, favorable in comparison with unfavorable lifestyle showed 30%, 31%, and 33% lower risk of CVD among participants in low, middle, and high genetic risk groups, respectively (P for interaction=0.99).Conclusions: Our data further support population-wide efforts to lower BP in the population via lifestyle modification. The advantages and disadvantages of disclosing genetic predisposition to high BP for risk stratification needs careful evaluation.

Journal article

Erzurumluoglu AM, Chambers JC, Elliott P, Evangelou E, Kooner JS, Poulter N, Sever P, Zhang W, Howson JMM, Wells Jet al., 2019, Meta-analysis of up to 622,409 individuals identifies 40 novel smoking behaviour associated genetic loci, Molecular Psychiatry, ISSN: 1359-4184

Smoking is a major heritable and modifiable risk factor for many diseases, including cancer, common respiratory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Fourteen genetic loci have previously been associated with smoking behaviour-related traits. We tested up to 235,116 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) on the exome-array for association with smoking initiation, cigarettes per day, pack-years, and smoking cessation in a fixed effects meta-analysis of up to 61 studies (up to 346,813 participants). In a subset of 112,811 participants, a further one million SNVs were also genotyped and tested for association with the four smoking behaviour traits. SNV-trait associations with P < 5 × 10−8 in either analysis were taken forward for replication in up to 275,596 independent participants from UK Biobank. Lastly, a meta-analysis of the discovery and replication studies was performed. Sixteen SNVs were associated with at least one of the smoking behaviour traits (P < 5 × 10−8) in the discovery samples. Ten novel SNVs, including rs12616219 near TMEM182, were followed-up and five of them (rs462779 in REV3L, rs12780116 in CNNM2, rs1190736 in GPR101, rs11539157 in PJA1, and rs12616219 near TMEM182) replicated at a Bonferroni significance threshold (P < 4.5 × 10−3) with consistent direction of effect. A further 35 SNVs were associated with smoking behaviour traits in the discovery plus replication meta-analysis (up to 622,409 participants) including a rare SNV, rs150493199, in CCDC141 and two low-frequency SNVs in CEP350 and HDGFRP2. Functional follow-up implied that decreased expression of REV3L may lower the probability of smoking initiation. The novel loci will facilitate understanding the genetic aetiology of smoking behaviour and may lead to the identification of potential drug targets for smoking prevention and/or cessation.

Journal article

Kraja AT, Liu C, Fetterman JL, Graff M, Have CT, Gu C, Yanek LR, Feitosa MF, Arking DE, Chasman D, Young K, Ligthart S, Hill WD, Weiss S, Luan J, Giulianini F, Li-Gao R, Hartwig FP, Lin SJ, Wang L, Richardson TG, Yao J, Fernandez EP, Ghanbari M, Wojczynski MK, Lee W-J, Argos M, Armasu SM, Barve RA, Ryan KA, An P, Baranski TJ, Bielinski SJ, Bowden DW, Broeckel U, Christensen K, Chu AY, Corley J, Cox SR, Uitterlinden AG, Rivadeneira F, Cropp CD, Daw EW, van Heemst D, de las Fuentes L, Gao H, Tzoulaki I, Ahluwalia TS, de Mutsert R, Emery LS, Erzurumluoglu AM, Perry JA, Fu M, Forouhi NG, Gu Z, Hai Y, Harris SE, Hemani G, Hunt SC, Irvin MR, Jonsson AE, Justice AE, Kernson ND, Larson NB, Lin K-H, Love-Gregory LD, Mathias RA, Lee JH, Nauck M, Noordam R, Ong KK, Pankow J, Patki A, Pattie A, Petersmann A, Qi Q, Ribel-Madsen R, Rohde R, Sandow K, Schnurr TM, Sofer T, Starr JM, Taylor AM, Teumer A, Timpson NJ, de Haan HG, Wang Y, Weeke PE, Williams C, Wu H, Yang W, Zeng D, Witte DR, Weir BS, Wareham NJ, Vestergaard H, Turner ST, Torp-Pedersen C, Stergiakouli E, Sheu WH-H, Rosendaal FR, Ikram MA, Franco OH, Ridker PM, Perls TT, Pedersen O, Nohr EA, Newman AB, Linneberg A, Langenberg C, Kilpelainen TO, Kardia SLR, Jorgensen ME, Jorgensen T, Sorensen TIA, Homuth G, Hansen T, Goodarzi MO, Deary IJ, Christensen C, Chen Y-DI, Chakravarti A, Brandslund I, Bonnelykke K, Taylor KD, Wilson JG, Rodriguez S, Davies G, Horta BL, Thyagarajan B, Rao DC, Grarup N, Davila-Roman VG, Hudson G, Guo X, Arnett DK, Hayward C, Vaidya D, Mook-Kanamori DO, Tiwari HK, Levy D, Loos RJF, Dehghan A, Elliott P, Malik AN, Scott RA, Becker DM, de Andrade M, Province MA, Meigs JB, Rotter J, North KEet al., 2019, Associations of mitochondrial and nuclear mitochondrial variants and genes with seven metabolic traits, American Journal of Human Genetics, Vol: 104, Pages: 112-138, ISSN: 0002-9297

Mitochondria (MT), the major site of cellular energy production, are under dual genetic control by 37 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes and numerous nuclear genes (MT-nDNA). In the CHARGEmtDNA+ Consortium, we studied genetic associations of mtDNA and MT-nDNA associations with body mass index (BMI), waist-hip-ratio (WHR), glucose, insulin, HOMA-B, HOMA-IR, and HbA1c. This 45-cohort collaboration comprised 70,775 (insulin) to 170,202 (BMI) pan-ancestry individuals. Validation and imputation of mtDNA variants was followed by single-variant and gene-based association testing. We report two significant common variants, one in MT-ATP6 associated (p ≤ 5E−04) with WHR and one in the D-loop with glucose. Five rare variants in MT-ATP6, MT-ND5, and MT-ND6 associated with BMI, WHR, or insulin. Gene-based meta-analysis identified MT-ND3 associated with BMI (p ≤ 1E−03). We considered 2,282 MT-nDNA candidate gene associations compiled from online summary results for our traits (20 unique studies with 31 dataset consortia’s genome-wide associations [GWASs]). Of these, 109 genes associated (p ≤ 1E−06) with at least 1 of our 7 traits. We assessed regulatory features of variants in the 109 genes, cis- and trans-gene expression regulation, and performed enrichment and protein-protein interactions analyses. Of the identified mtDNA and MT-nDNA genes, 79 associated with adipose measures, 49 with glucose/insulin, 13 with risk for type 2 diabetes, and 18 with cardiovascular disease, indicating for pleiotropic effects with health implications. Additionally, 21 genes related to cholesterol, suggesting additional important roles for the genes identified. Our results suggest that mtDNA and MT-nDNA genes and variants reported make important contributions to glucose and insulin metabolism, adipocyte regulation, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Journal article

Gibson R, Lau C-HE, Chan Q, Chekmeneva E, Loo R, Ebbels TM, Dyer AR, Miura K, Ueshima H, Zhao L, Daviglus ML, Elliott P, Stamler J, Holmes E, Van Horn Let al., 2019, Cross-Sectional Investigation of the Relationship Between Fish Consumption and Its Urinary Biomarkers With Blood Pressure Across Asian and Western Populations: Results From the INTERMAP Study, Scientific Sessions of the American-Heart-Association on Epidemiology and Prevention/Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic Health, Publisher: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, ISSN: 0009-7322

Conference paper

Yan L, Carter E, Fu Y, Xie G, Xie W, Kelly F, Elliott P, Yang X, Ezzati M, Baumgartner J, Zhao L, Wu Y, Chan Qet al., 2019, Changes of Blood Pressure and Urinary Sodium Over 18 Years in Rural China: Results From the INTERMAP China Prospective Study, Scientific Sessions of the American-Heart-Association on Epidemiology and Prevention/Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic Health, Publisher: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, ISSN: 0009-7322

Conference paper

Chan Q, Lau C-HE, Gibson R, Chekmeneva E, Correia GDS, Loo R, Ebbels TM, Posma JM, Dyer AR, Miura K, Ueshima H, Zhao L, Daviglus ML, Elliott P, Stamler J, Holmes E, Van Horn Let al., 2019, Relationships of Dietary and Supplement Magnesium Intake and Its Urinary Metabolomic Biomarkers With Blood Pressure: The INTERMAP Study, Scientific Sessions of the American-Heart-Association on Epidemiology and Prevention/Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic Health, Publisher: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, ISSN: 0009-7322

Conference paper

Giri A, Hellwege JN, Keaton JM, Park J, Qiu C, Warren HR, Torstenson ES, Kovesdy CP, Sun YV, Wilson OD, Robinson-Cohen C, Roumie CL, Chung CP, Birdwell KA, Damrauer SM, DuVall SL, Klarin D, Cho K, Wang Y, Evangelou E, Cabrera CP, Wain LV, Shrestha R, Mautz BS, Akwo EA, Sargurupremraj M, Debette S, Boehnke M, Scott LJ, Luan J, Zhao J-H, Willems SM, Theriault S, Shah N, Oldmeadow C, Almgren P, Li-Gao R, Verweij N, Boutin TS, Mangino M, Ntalla I, Feofanova E, Surendran P, Cook JP, Karthikeyan S, Lahrouchi N, Liu C, Sepulveda N, Richardson TG, Kraja A, Amouyel P, Farrall M, Poulter NR, Laakso M, Zeggini E, Sever P, Scott RA, Langenberg C, Wareham NJ, Conen D, Palmer CNA, Attia J, Chasman DI, Ridker PM, Melander O, Mook-Kanamori DO, van der Harst P, Cucca F, Schlessinger D, Hayward C, Spector TD, Jarvelin M-R, Hennig BJ, Timpson NJ, Wei W-Q, Smith JC, Xu Y, Matheny ME, Siew EE, Lindgren C, Herzig K-H, Dedoussis G, Denny JC, Psaty BM, Howson JMM, Munroe PB, Newton-Cheh C, Caulfield MJ, Elliott P, Gaziano JM, Concato J, Wilson PWF, Tsao PS, Edwards DRV, Susztak K, O'Donnell CJ, Hung AM, Edwards TLet al., 2019, Trans-ethnic association study of blood pressure determinants in over 750,000 individuals, Nature Genetics, Vol: 51, Pages: 51-62, ISSN: 1061-4036

In this trans-ethnic multi-omic study, we reinterpret the genetic architecture of blood pressure to identify genes, tissues, phenomes and medication contexts of blood pressure homeostasis. We discovered 208 novel common blood pressure SNPs and 53 rare variants in genome-wide association studies of systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure in up to 776,078 participants from the Million Veteran Program (MVP) and collaborating studies, with analysis of the blood pressure clinical phenome in MVP. Our transcriptome-wide association study detected 4,043 blood pressure associations with genetically predicted gene expression of 840 genes in 45 tissues, and mouse renal single-cell RNA sequencing identified upregulated blood pressure genes in kidney tubule cells.

Journal article

Ghosh RE, Freni-Sterrantino A, Douglas P, Parkes B, Fecht D, de Hoogh K, Fuller G, Gulliver J, Font A, Smith RB, Blangiardo M, Elliott P, Toledano MB, Hansell ALet al., 2019, Fetal growth, stillbirth, infant mortality and other birth outcomes near UK municipal waste incinerators; retrospective population based cohort and case-control study, Environment International, Vol: 122, Pages: 151-158, ISSN: 0160-4120

Background: Some studies have reported associations between municipal waste incinerator (MWI) exposures and adverse birth outcomes but there are few studies of modern MWIs operating to current European Union (EU) Industrial Emissions Directive standards. Methods: Associations between modelled ground-level particulate matter ≤10 μm in diameter (PM10) from MWI emissions (as a proxy for MWI emissions) within 10 km of each MWI, and selected birth and infant mortality outcomes were examined for all 22 MWIs operating in Great Britain 2003–10. We also investigated associations with proximity of residence to a MWI. Outcomes used were term birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA) at term, stillbirth, neonatal, post-neonatal and infant mortality, multiple births, sex ratio and preterm delivery sourced from national registration data from the Office for National Statistics. Analyses were adjusted for relevant confounders including year of birth, sex, season of birth, maternal age, deprivation, ethnicity and area characteristics and random effect terms were included in the models to allow for differences in baseline rates between areas and in incinerator feedstock. Results: Analyses included 1,025,064 births and 18,694 infant deaths. There was no excess risk in relation to any of the outcomes investigated during pregnancy or early life of either mean modelled MWI PM10 or proximity to an MWI. Conclusions: We found no evidence that exposure to PM10 from, or living near to, an MWI operating to current EU standards was associated with harm for any of the outcomes investigated. Results should be generalisable to other MWIs operating to similar standards.

Journal article

Okami Y, Ueshima H, Nakamura Y, Okuda N, Nakagawa H, Sakata K, Saitoh S, Okayama A, Yoshita K, Choudhury SR, Chan Q, Elliott P, Miura K, Stamler J, for the INTERMAP AND INTERLIPID Research Groupset al., 2019, The relationship of dietary cholesterol to serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol and confounding by reverse causality: the INTERLIPID study, Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis, Vol: 26, Pages: 170-182, ISSN: 1340-3478

im: The positive relationship between dietary cholesterol and serum cholesterol has been questioned by a set of recent cohort studies. This study aimed to investigate how employment status and education years relate to the association between dietary cholesterol and serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in a Japanese population.Methods: A population-based, random sample, cross-sectional study (INTERLIPID) was performed. Among 1,145 Japanese individuals aged 40-59 years, 106 were excluded because of special diets, use of lipid-lowering drugs, hormone replacement, and missing data, leaving 1,039 individuals (533 men and 506 women). Dietary cholesterol was assessed from four 24-h dietary recalls, and LDL-C was measured enzymatically with an auto-analyzer. A standard questionnaire inquired about employment status and education years.Results: In men, a 1 standard deviation (SD) higher dietary cholesterol was associated with 3.16 mg/dL lower serum LDL-C (P=0.009; unadjusted model). After adjustment for covariates, higher serum LDL-C was estimated per 1 SD higher intake of dietary cholesterol in nonemployed men [self-employed, homemakers, farmers, fishermen, and retired employees; β=+9.08, 95% confidence interval (CI)=+0.90-+17.27] and less educated men (β=+4.46, 95% CI=-0.97-+9.90), whereas an inverse association was observed in employed men (β=-3.02, 95% CI=-5.49--0.54) and more educated men (β=-3.66, 95% CI=-6.25--1.07).Conclusions: In men who were nonemployed and less educated, a higher intake of dietary cholesterol was associated with elevated concentrations of serum LDL-C, whereas an inverse association was observed in men who were employed and more educated.

Journal article

Gao H, Aresu M, Vergnaud AC, McRobie D, Spear J, Heard A, Kongsgard HW, Singh D, Muller DC, Elliott P, Wells Jet al., 2018, Personal radio use and cancer risks among 48,158 British police officers and staff from the Airwave Health Monitoring Study, British Journal of Cancer, Vol: 120, Pages: 375-378, ISSN: 0007-0920

BackgroundRadiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) from mobile phones have been classified as potentially carcinogenic. No study has investigated use of Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA), a source of RF-EMF with wide occupational use, and cancer risks.MethodsWe investigated association of monthly personal radio use and risk of cancer using Cox proportional hazards regression among 48,518 police officers and staff of the Airwave Health Monitoring Study in Great Britain.ResultsDuring median follow-up of 5.9 years, 716 incident cancer cases were identified. Among users, the median of the average monthly duration of use in the year prior to enrolment was 30.5  min (inter-quartile range 8.1, 68.1). Overall, there was no association between personal radio use and risk of all cancers (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.93, 1.03). For head and neck cancers HR = 0.72 (95% CI: 0.30, 1.70) among personal radio users vs non-users, and among users it was 1.06 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.23) per doubling of minutes of personal radio use.ConclusionsWith the limited follow-up to date, we found no evidence of association of personal radio use with cancer risk. Continued follow-up of the cohort is warranted.

Journal article

Gibson R, Frost G, Chan Q, Elliott P, Singh D, Eriksen R, Heard A, Vergnaud ACet al., 2018, A cross-sectional investigation into the occupational and socio-demographic characteristics of British police force employees reporting a dietary pattern associated with cardiometabolic risk: Findings from the Airwave Health Monitoring Study, European Journal of Nutrition, Vol: 57, Pages: 2913-2926, ISSN: 0044-264X

PurposeThe aims of this study were to (1) determine the association between diet quality using the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score and cardiometabolic risk in a British working population and (2) identify employee characteristics associated with reporting a poorer quality dietary pattern.MethodsBritish police employees enrolled (2007–2012) into the Airwave Health Monitoring Study (n = 5527) were included for sex-specific cross-sectional analyses. Dietary intakes were measured using 7-day food records. DASH score was calculated to determine diet quality. Logistic regression evaluated associations between (1) diet quality and increased cardiometabolic risk (defined as ≥ 3 risk markers: dyslipidaemia, elevated blood pressure, waist circumference, CRP or HbA1c), and (2) poor diet quality (lowest fifth of DASH score distribution) and employee characteristics.ResultsEmployees recording a poor diet quality had greater odds (OR) of increased cardiometabolic risk independent of established risk factors (demographic, lifestyle and occupational) and BMI: men OR 1.50 (95% CI 1.12–2.00), women: OR 1.84 (95% CI 1.19–2.97) compared to the healthiest diet group. Characteristics associated with reporting a poor quality diet were employment in Scotland vs. England: men OR 1.88 (95% CI 1.53–2.32), women: OR 1.49 (95% CI 1.11–2.00), longer working hours (≥ 49 vs. ≤40 h) men: OR 1.53 (95% CI 1.21–1.92) women: OR 1.53 (95% CI 1.12–2.09). For men, job strain (high vs. low) was associated with reporting a poor diet quality OR 1.66 (95% CI 1.30–2.12).ConclusionsThe general population disparities in diet quality between England and Scotland were reflected in British police employees. The association of longer working hours and job strain with diet quality supports the targeting of workplace nutritional interventions.

Journal article

Chadeau M, Campanella G, Gunter MJ, Polidoro S, Krogh V, Palli D, Panico S, Sacerdote C, Tumino R, Fiorito G, Guarrera S, Iacovello L, Bergdahl I, Melin B, Lenner P, de Kok T, Georgiadis P, Kleinjans J, Kyrtopoulos S, Bueno-de-Mesquita B, Lillycrop K, May A, Onland-Moret C, Murray R, Riboli E, Verschuren M, Lund E, Mode N, Sandanger TM, Fiano V, Trevisan M, Matullo G, Froguel P, Elliott P, Vineis Pet al., 2018, Epigenome-wide association study of adiposity and future risk of obesity-related diseases, International Journal of Obesity, Vol: 42, Pages: 2022-2035, ISSN: 0307-0565

BackgroundObesity is an established risk factor for several common chronic diseases such as breast and colorectal cancer, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases; however, the biological basis for these relationships is not fully understood. To explore the association of obesity with these conditions, we investigated peripheral blood leucocyte (PBL) DNA methylation markers for adiposity and their contribution to risk of incident breast and colorectal cancer and myocardial infarction.MethodsDNA methylation profiles (Illumina Infinium® HumanMethylation450 BeadChip) from 1941 individuals from four population-based European cohorts were analysed in relation to body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip and waist-height ratio within a meta-analytical framework. In a subset of these individuals, data on genome-wide gene expression level, biomarkers of glucose and lipid metabolism were also available. Validation of methylation markers associated with all adiposity measures was performed in 358 individuals. Finally, we investigated the association of obesity-related methylation marks with breast, colorectal cancer and myocardial infarction within relevant subsets of the discovery population.ResultsWe identified 40 CpG loci with methylation levels associated with at least one adiposity measure. Of these, one CpG locus (cg06500161) in ABCG1 was associated with all four adiposity measures (P = 9.07×10−8 to 3.27×10−18) and lower transcriptional activity of the full-length isoform of ABCG1 (P = 6.00×10−7), higher triglyceride levels (P = 5.37×10−9) and higher triglycerides-to-HDL cholesterol ratio (P = 1.03×10−10). Of the 40 informative and obesity-related CpG loci, two (in IL2RB and FGF18) were significantly associated with colorectal cancer (inversely, P < 1.6×10−3) and one intergenic locus on chromosome 1 was inversely associa

Journal article

Piel FBJ, Brandon P, Hima D, Anna L H, Paul Eet al., 2018, The challenge of opt-outs from NHS data: a small-area perspective, Journal of Public Health, Vol: 40, Pages: e594-e600, ISSN: 1741-3842

Journal article

Bentley AR, Evangelou E, Zhang W, Afaq S, Lehne B, Poulter N, Sever P, Chambers J, Elliott P, Froguel P, Scott J, Cupples Aet al., Multi-ancestry genome-wide smoking interaction study of 387,272 individuals identifies novel lipid loci., Nature Genetics, ISSN: 1061-4036

Serum lipids, such as triglycerides (TG) and high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL and LDL), are influenced by both genetic and lifestyle factors. Over 250 lipid loci have been identified,1-6 yet, it is unclear to what extent lifestyle factors modify the effects of these variants, or those yet to be identified. Smoking is associated with an unfavorable lipid profile,7,8 warranting its investigation as a lifestyle factor that potentially modifies genetic associations with lipids. Identifying interactions using traditional 1 degree of freedom (1df) tests of SNP x smoking terms may have low power, except in very large sample sizes. To enhance the detection of loci, a 2 degree of freedom (2df) test that jointly evaluates the interaction and main effects was developed.9 The Gene-Lifestyle Interactions Working Group, under the aegis of the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium10, was formed to conduct analyses of lifestyle interactions in the genetic basis of cardiovascular traits. As both genetic and lifestyle factors differ across populations with different ancestry backgrounds, and to address the underrepresentation of non-European populations in genomic research, great effort went into creating a large, multi-ancestry resource for these investigations.11 Here, we report a genome-wide interaction study that uses both the 1df test of interaction and the 2df joint test of main and interaction effects to test the hypothesis that genetic associations of serum lipids differ by smoking status.

Journal article

Takeuchi F, Akiyama M, Matoba N, Katsuya T, Nakatochi M, Tabara Y, Narita A, Saw W-Y, Moon S, Spracklen CN, Chai J-F, Kim Y-J, Zhang L, Wang C, Li H, Li H, Wu J-Y, Dorajoo R, Nierenberg JL, Wang YX, He J, Bennett DA, Takahashi A, Momozawa Y, Hirata M, Matsuda K, Rakugi H, Nakashima E, Isono M, Shirota M, Hozawa A, Ichihara S, Matsubara T, Yamamoto K, Kohara K, Igase M, Han S, Gordon-Larsen P, Huang W, Lee NR, Adair LS, Hwang MY, Lee J, Chee ML, Sabanayagam C, Zhao W, Liu J, Reilly DF, Sun L, Huo S, Edwards TL, Long J, Chang L-C, Chen C-H, Yuan J-M, Koh W-P, Friedlander Y, Kelly TN, Wei WB, Xu L, Cai H, Xiang Y-B, Lin K, Clarke R, Walters RG, Millwood IY, Li L, Chambers JC, Kooner JS, Elliott P, van der Harst P, Chen Z, Sasaki M, Shu X-O, Jonas JB, He J, Heng C-K, Chen Y-T, Zheng W, Lin X, Teo Y-Y, Tai E-S, Cheng C-Y, Wong TY, Sim X, Mohlke KL, Yamamoto M, Kim B-J, Miki T, Nabika T, Yokota M, Kamatani Y, Kubo M, Kato Net al., 2018, Interethnic analyses of blood pressure loci in populations of East Asian and European descent., Nature Communications, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2041-1723

Blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and more than 200 genetic loci associated with BP are known. Here, we perform a multi-stage genome-wide association study for BP (max N = 289,038) principally in East Asians and meta-analysis in East Asians and Europeans. We report 19 new genetic loci and ancestry-specific BP variants, conforming to a common ancestry-specific variant association model. At 10 unique loci, distinct non-rare ancestry-specific variants colocalize within the same linkage disequilibrium block despite the significantly discordant effects for the proxy shared variants between the ethnic groups. The genome-wide transethnic correlation of causal-variant effect-sizes is 0.898 and 0.851 for systolic and diastolic BP, respectively. Some of the ancestry-specific association signals are also influenced by a selective sweep. Our results provide new evidence for the role of common ancestry-specific variants and natural selection in ethnic differences in complex traits such as BP.

Journal article

Evangelou E, Warren HR, Mosen-Ansorena D, Mifsud B, Pazoki R, Gao H, Ntritsos G, Dimou N, Cabrera CP, Karaman I, Fu LN, Evangelou M, Witkowska K, Tzanis E, Hellwege JN, Giri A, Edwards DRV, Sun YV, Cho K, Gaziano JM, Wilson PWF, Tsao PS, Kovesdy CP, Esko T, Magi R, Milani L, Almgren P, Boutin T, Debette S, Ding J, Giulianini F, Holliday EG, Jackson AU, Li-Gao R, Lin W-Y, Luan J, Mangino M, Oldmeadow C, Prins BP, Qian Y, Sargurupremraj M, Shah N, Surendran P, Theriault S, Verweij N, Willems SM, Zhao J-H, Amouyel P, Connell J, de Mutsert R, Doney ASF, Farrall M, Menni C, Morris AD, Noordam R, Pare G, Poulter NR, Shields DC, Stanton A, Thom S, Abecasis G, Amin N, Arking DE, Ayers KL, Barbieri CM, Batini C, Bis JC, Blake T, Bochud M, Boehnke M, Boerwinkle E, Boomsma DI, Bottinger EP, Braund PS, Brumat M, Campbell A, Campbell H, Chakravarti A, Chambers JC, Chauhan G, Ciullo M, Cocca M, Collins F, Cordell HJ, Davies G, de Borst MH, de Geus EJ, Deary IJ, Deelen J, Del Greco FM, Demirkale CY, Dorr M, Ehret GB, Elosua R, Enroth S, Erzurumluoglu AM, Ferreira T, Franberg M, Franco OH, Gandin I, Gasparini P, Giedraitis V, Gieger C, Girotto G, Goel A, Gow AJ, Gudnason V, Guo X, Gyllensten U, Hamsten A, Harris TB, Harris SE, Hartman CA, Havulinna AS, Hicks AA, Hofer E, Hofman A, Hottenga J-J, Huffman JE, Hwang S-J, Ingelsson E, James A, Jansen R, Jarvelin M-R, Joehanes R, Johansson A, Johnson AD, Joshi PK, Jousilahti P, Jukema JW, Jula A, Kahonen M, Kathiresan S, Keavney BD, Khaw K-T, Knekt P, Knight J, Kolcic I, Kooner JS, Koskinen S, Kristiansson K, Kutalik Z, Laan M, Larson M, Launer LJ, Lehne B, Lehtimaki T, Liewald DCM, Lin L, Lind L, Lindgren CM, Liu Y, Loos RJF, Lopez LM, Lu Y, Lyytikainen L-P, Mahajan A, Mamasoula C, Marrugat J, Marten J, Milaneschi Y, Morgan A, Morris AP, Morrison AC, Munson PJ, Nalls MA, Nandakumar P, Nelson CP, Niiranen T, Nolte IM, Nutile T, Oldehinkel AJ, Oostra BA, O'Reilly PF, Org E, Padmanabhan S, Palmas W, Palotie A, Pattie A, Penninx BWJH, Perolet al., 2018, Publisher correction: Genetic analysis of over 1 million people identifies 535 new loci associated with blood pressure traits, Nature Genetics, Vol: 50, Pages: 1755-1755, ISSN: 1061-4036

Correction to: Nature Genetics https://doi.org/10.1038/s41588-018-0205-x, published online 17 September 2018.

Journal article

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