605 results found
Ezzati M, Obermeyer Z, Tzoulaki I, et al., 2015, Contributions of risk factors and medical care to cardiovascular mortality trends, NATURE REVIEWS CARDIOLOGY, Vol: 12, Pages: 508-530, ISSN: 1759-5002
Yan L, Bi Z, Tang J, et al., 2015, Relationships Between Blood Pressure and 24-Hour Urinary Excretion of Sodium and Potassium by Body Mass Index Status in Chinese Adults, Journal of Clinical Hypertension, Vol: 17, Pages: 916-925, ISSN: 1751-7176
This study examined the impact of overweight/obesity on sodium, potassium, and blood pressure associations using the Shandong-Ministry of Health Action on Salt Reduction and Hypertension (SMASH) project baseline survey data. Twenty-four–hour urine samples were collected in 1948 Chinese adults aged 18 to 69 years. The observed associations of sodium, potassium, sodium-potassium ratio, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were stronger in the overweight/obese population than among those of normal weight. Among overweight/obese respondents, each additional standard deviation (SD) higher of urinary sodium excretion (SD=85 mmol) and potassium excretion (SD=19 mmol) was associated with a 1.31 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 0.37–2.26) and −1.43 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, −2.23 to −0.63) difference in SBP, and each higher unit in sodium-potassium ratio was associated with a 0.54 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 0.34–0.75) increase in SBP. The association between sodium, potassium, sodium-potassium ratio, and prevalence of hypertension among overweight/obese patients was similar to that of SBP. Our study indicated that the relationships between BP and both urinary sodium and potassium might be modified by BMI status in Chinese adults.
Campanella G, Polidoro S, Di Gaetano C, et al., 2015, Epigenetic signatures of internal migration in Italy, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, Vol: 44, Pages: 1442-1449, ISSN: 0300-5771
Morley DW, de Hoogh K, Fecht D, et al., 2015, International scale implementation of the CNOSSOS-EU road traffic noise prediction model for epidemiological studies, Environmental Pollution, Vol: 206, Pages: 332-341, ISSN: 0269-7491
The EU-FP7-funded BioSHaRE project is using individual-level data pooled from several national cohort studies in Europe to investigate the relationship of road traffic noise and health. The detailed input data (land cover and traffic characteristics) required for noise exposure modelling are not always available over whole countries while data that are comparable in spatial resolution between different countries is needed for harmonised exposure assessment. Here, we assess the feasibility using the CNOSSOS-EU road traffic noise prediction model with coarser input data in terms of model performance. Starting with a model using the highest resolution datasets, we progressively introduced lower resolution data over five further model runs and compared noise level estimates to measurements. We conclude that a low resolution noise model should provide adequate performance for exposure ranking (Spearman's rank = 0.75; p < 0.001), but with relatively large errors in predicted noise levels (RMSE = 4.46 dB(A)).
Toledano MB, Smith RB, Brook JP, et al., How to Establish and Follow up a Large Prospective Cohort Study in the 21st Century - Lessons from UK COSMOS., PLOS One, ISSN: 1932-6203
Chambers JC, Loh M, Lehne B, et al., 2015, Epigenome-wide association of DNA methylation markers in peripheral blood from Indian Asians and Europeans with incident type 2 diabetes: a nested case-control study, The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, Vol: 3, Pages: 526-534, ISSN: 2213-8587
BackgroundIndian Asians, who make up a quarter of the world's population, are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether DNA methylation is associated with future type 2 diabetes incidence in Indian Asians and whether differences in methylation patterns between Indian Asians and Europeans are associated with, and could be used to predict, differences in the magnitude of risk of developing type 2 diabetes.MethodsWe did a nested case-control study of DNA methylation in Indian Asians and Europeans with incident type 2 diabetes who were identified from the 8-year follow-up of 25 372 participants in the London Life Sciences Prospective Population (LOLIPOP) study. Patients were recruited between May 1, 2002, and Sept 12, 2008. We did epigenome-wide association analysis using samples from Indian Asians with incident type 2 diabetes and age-matched and sex-matched Indian Asian controls, followed by replication testing of top-ranking signals in Europeans. For both discovery and replication, DNA methylation was measured in the baseline blood sample, which was collected before the onset of type 2 diabetes. Epigenome-wide significance was set at p<1 × 10−7. We compared methylation levels between Indian Asian and European controls without type 2 diabetes at baseline to estimate the potential contribution of DNA methylation to increased risk of future type 2 diabetes incidence among Indian Asians.Findings1608 (11·9%) of 13 535 Indian Asians and 306 (4·3%) of 7066 Europeans developed type 2 diabetes over a mean of 8·5 years (SD 1·8) of follow-up. The age-adjusted and sex-adjusted incidence of type 2 diabetes was 3·1 times (95% CI 2·8–3·6; p<0·0001) higher among Indian Asians than among Europeans, and remained 2·5 times (2·1–2·9; p<0·0001) higher after adjustment for adiposity, physical activity, family history of type 2 diabetes, and baselin
Obesity is a major public health problem worldwide. We used 24-hour urinary metabolic profiling by proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and ion exchange chromatography to characterize the metabolic signatures of adiposity in the U.S. (n = 1880) and UK (n = 444) cohorts of the INTERMAP (International Study of Macro- and Micronutrients and Blood Pressure) epidemiologic study. Metabolic profiling of urine samples collected over two 24-hour time periods 3 weeks apart showed reproducible patterns of metabolite excretion associated with adiposity. Exploratory analysis of the urinary metabolome using 1H NMR spectroscopy of the U.S. samples identified 29 molecular species, clustered in interconnecting metabolic pathways, that were significantly associated (P = 1.5 × 10−5 to 2.0 × 10−36) with body mass index (BMI); 25 of these species were also found in the UK validation cohort. We found multiple associations between urinary metabolites and BMI including urinary glycoproteins and N-acetyl neuraminate (related to renal function), trimethylamine, dimethylamine, 4-cresyl sulfate, phenylacetylglutamine and 2-hydroxyisobutyrate (gut microbial co-metabolites), succinate and citrate (tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates), ketoleucine and the ketoleucine/leucine ratio (linked to skeletal muscle mitochondria and branched-chain amino acid metabolism), ethanolamine (skeletal muscle turnover), and 3-methylhistidine (skeletal muscle turnover and meat intake). We mapped the multiple BMI-metabolite relationships as part of an integrated systems network that describes the connectivities between the complex pathway and compartmental signatures of human adiposity.
Aljuraiban GS, Chan Q, Oude Griep L, et al., 2015, The impact of eating frequency and time of intake on nutrient quality and body mass index: The INTERMAP Study, a population-based study, Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Vol: 115, Pages: 528-536.e1, ISSN: 2212-2672
BackgroundEpidemiologic evidence is sparse on the effect of dietary behaviors and diet quality on body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m2), which can be important drivers of the obesity epidemic.ObjectiveThis study investigated the relationships of frequency of eating and time of intake to energy density, nutrient quality, and BMI using data from the International Study on Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure including 2,696 men and women aged 40 to 59 years from the United States and the United Kingdom.DesignThe International Study on Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure is a cross-sectional investigation with four 24-hour dietary recalls and BMI measurements conducted between 1996 and 1999. Consumption of solid foods was aggregated into eating occasion. Nutrient density is expressed using the Nutrient Rich Food Index 9.3. The ratio of evening/morning energy intake was calculated; mean values of four visits were used.Statistical analyses performedCharacteristics across eating occasion categories are presented as adjusted mean with corresponding 95% CI. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine associations of eating occasions, ratio of evening/morning energy intake, dietary energy density, and Nutrient Rich Food Index 9.3 with BMI.ResultsCompared to participants with fewer than four eating occasions in 24 hours, those with six or more eating occasions in 24 hours had lower mean BMI (27.3 vs 29.0), total energy intake (2,129 vs 2,472 kcal/24 hours), dietary energy density (1.5 vs 2.1 kcal/g), and higher Nutrient Rich Food Index 9.3 (34.3 vs 28.1). In multiple regression analyses, higher evening intake relative to morning intake was directly associated with BMI; however, this did not influence the relationship between eating frequency and BMI.ConclusionsOur results suggest that a larger number of small meals may be associated with improved diet quality and lower BMI. This may have implications for behavioral approaches to controlling the obesity
Sudlow C, Gallacher J, Allen N, et al., 2015, UK Biobank: An Open Access Resource for Identifying the Causes of a Wide Range of Complex Diseases of Middle and Old Age, PLOS Medicine, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1549-1277
UK Biobank is a very large and detailed prospective study with over 500,000 participantsaged 40–69 years when recruited in 2006–2010.• The study has collected and continues to collect extensive phenotypic and genotypic detailabout its participants, including data from questionnaires, physical measures, sampleassays, accelerometry, multimodal imaging, genome-wide genotyping and longitudinalfollow-up for a wide range of health-related outcomes.• Wide consultation; input from scientific, management, legal, and ethical partners; andindustrial-scale, centralised processes have been essential to the development ofthis resource.• UK Biobank is available for open access, without the need for collaboration, to any bonafide researcher who wishes to use it to conduct health-related research for the benefit ofthe public.
Ligthart S, de Vries PS, Uitterlinden AG, et al., 2015, Pleiotropy among Common Genetic Loci Identified for Cardiometabolic Disorders and C-Reactive Protein, PLOS ONE, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1932-6203
Lehne B, Drong AW, Loh M, et al., 2015, A coherent approach for analysis of the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip improves data quality and performance in epigenome-wide association studies, Genome Biology, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1474-760X
DNA methylation plays a fundamental role in the regulation of the genome, but the optimal strategy for analysis ofgenome-wide DNA methylation data remains to be determined. We developed a comprehensive analysis pipelinefor epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, basedon 2,687 individuals, with 36 samples measured in duplicate. We propose new approaches to quality control, datanormalisation and batch correction through control-probe adjustment and establish a null hypothesis for EWASusing permutation testing. Our analysis pipeline outperforms existing approaches, enabling accurate identificationof methylation quantitative trait loci for hypothesis driven follow-up experiments.
Shungin D, Winkler TW, Croteau-Chonka DC, et al., 2015, New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution, NATURE, Vol: 518, Pages: 187-U378, ISSN: 0028-0836
Locke AE, Kahali B, Berndt SI, et al., 2015, Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology, Nature, Vol: 518, Pages: 197-206, ISSN: 0028-0836
Chan Q, Stamler J, Elliott P, 2015, Dietary Factors and Higher Blood Pressure in African-Americans, CURRENT HYPERTENSION REPORTS, Vol: 17, ISSN: 1522-6417
Iwahori T, Miura K, Ueshima H, et al., 2015, Relationship of 24-hr Urinary Na/K ratio to 24-hr Urinary Na and K Excretion in Men and Women from Multi-Ethnic General Populations: the INTERSALT Study., 20th IEA World Congress of Epidemiology (WCE), Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Pages: 239-239, ISSN: 0300-5771
Cogswell ME, Maalouf J, Elliott P, et al., 2015, Use of Urine Biomarkers to Assess Sodium Intake: Challenges and Opportunities, ANNUAL REVIEW OF NUTRITION, VOL 35, Editors: Bowman, Stover, Publisher: ANNUAL REVIEWS, Pages: 349-+
Wurtz P, Wang Q, Kangas AJ, et al., 2014, Metabolic Signatures of Adiposity in Young Adults: Mendelian Randomization Analysis and Effects of Weight Change, PLOS Medicine, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1549-1277
Background: Increased adiposity is linked with higher risk for cardiometabolic diseases. We aimed to determine to whatextent elevated body mass index (BMI) within the normal weight range has causal effects on the detailed systemicmetabolite profile in early adulthood.Methods and Findings: We used Mendelian randomization to estimate causal effects of BMI on 82 metabolic measures in12,664 adolescents and young adults from four population-based cohorts in Finland (mean age 26 y, range 16–39 y; 51%women; mean 6 standard deviation BMI 2464 kg/m2). Circulating metabolites were quantified by high-throughput nuclearmagnetic resonance metabolomics and biochemical assays. In cross-sectional analyses, elevated BMI was adverselyassociated with cardiometabolic risk markers throughout the systemic metabolite profile, including lipoprotein subclasses,fatty acid composition, amino acids, inflammatory markers, and various hormones (p,0.0005 for 68 measures). Metaboliteassociations with BMI were generally stronger for men than for women (median 136%, interquartile range 125%–183%). Agene score for predisposition to elevated BMI, composed of 32 established genetic correlates, was used as the instrument toassess causality. Causal effects of elevated BMI closely matched observational estimates (correspondence 87%63%;R2 = 0.89), suggesting causative influences of adiposity on the levels of numerous metabolites (p,0.0005 for 24 measures),including lipoprotein lipid subclasses and particle size, branched-chain and aromatic amino acids, and inflammation-relatedglycoprotein acetyls. Causal analyses of certain metabolites and potential sex differences warrant stronger statistical power.Metabolite changes associated with change in BMI during 6 y of follow-up were examined for 1,488 individuals. Change inBMI was accompanied by widespread metabolite changes, which had an association pattern similar to that of the crosssectionalobservations, yet with greater metabolic effects (corresp
Molitor J, Brown IJ, Chan Q, et al., 2014, Blood Pressure Differences Associated With Optimal Macronutrient Intake Trial for Heart Health (OMNIHEART)-Like Diet Compared With a Typical American Diet, HYPERTENSION, Vol: 64, Pages: 1198-U86, ISSN: 0194-911X
Okuda N, Stamler J, Brown IJ, et al., 2014, Individual efforts to reduce salt intake in China, Japan, UK, USA: what did people achieve? The INTERMAP Population Study, JOURNAL OF HYPERTENSION, Vol: 32, Pages: 2385-2392, ISSN: 0263-6352
Kaakinen M, Sovio U, Hartikainen A-L, et al., 2014, Life course structural equation model of the effects of prenatal and postnatal growth on adult blood pressure, JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY AND COMMUNITY HEALTH, Vol: 68, Pages: 1161-1167, ISSN: 0143-005X
Pillas D, Kaakinen M, Tzoulaki I, et al., 2014, Infant locomotive development and its association with adult blood pressure, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS, Vol: 173, Pages: 1309-1317, ISSN: 0340-6199
Elliott P, Vergnaud A-C, Singh D, et al., 2014, The airwave health monitoring study of police officers and staff in Great Britain: rationale, design and methods, Environmental Research, Vol: 134, Pages: 280-285, ISSN: 1096-0953
BackgroundThe Airwave Health Monitoring Study was established to evaluate possible health risks associated with use of TETRA, a digital communication system used by police forces and other emergency services in Great Britain since 2001. The study has been broadened to investigate more generally the health of the work force.MethodsFrom 2004, participants from each force who agreed to participate were enrolled either with an enrolment questionnaire or a comprehensive health screening performed locally. This includes questionnaire, 7-day food diaries, anthropometry, measurements of cardiovascular and cognitive function, blood chemistry, coagulation and haematology. Blood and urine samples are stored in vapour phase liquid nitrogen allowing long-term access for biochemical or genetic analysis. Access to the resource is via an access committee and a steering committee, including external scientific advisers as well as representatives of the police officers and staff.ResultsBy the end of 2012, the study had recruited 42,112 participants, of whom 35,199 (83.6%) had attended the health screening. Almost two thirds of participants were men and 71% of them were a TETRA user. Being in lower ranks (constable/sergeant and staff) was associated with a worse cardio-metabolic risk profile compared to higher ranks (inspector or chief inspector, superintendent and above).ConclusionThe Airwave Health Monitoring Study is the only large-scale cohort study of police employees worldwide. The specificities of this sample, such as its well-defined job hierarchy, make it a particularly valuable occupational cohort. Participants have consented to the use of their data and samples for future, currently unspecified, research purposes.
Liu C-T, Buchkovich ML, Winkler TW, et al., 2014, Multi-ethnic fine-mapping of 14 central adiposity loci, HUMAN MOLECULAR GENETICS, Vol: 23, Pages: 4738-4744, ISSN: 0964-6906
Cousminer DL, Stergiakouli E, Berry DJ, et al., 2014, Genome-wide association study of sexual maturation in males and females highlights a role for body mass and menarche loci in male puberty, HUMAN MOLECULAR GENETICS, Vol: 23, Pages: 4452-4464, ISSN: 0964-6906
Mozaffarian D, Fahimi S, Singh GM, et al., 2014, Global Sodium Consumption and Death from Cardiovascular Causes, NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, Vol: 371, Pages: 624-634, ISSN: 0028-4793
The genetic sequence variation of people from the Indian subcontinent who comprise one-quarter of the world's population, is not well described. We carried out whole genome sequencing of 168 South Asians, along with whole-exome sequencing of 147 South Asians to provide deeper characterisation of coding regions. We identify 12,962,155 autosomal sequence variants, including 2,946,861 new SNPs and 312,738 novel indels. This catalogue of SNPs and indels amongst South Asians provides the first comprehensive map of genetic variation in this major human population, and reveals evidence for selective pressures on genes involved in skin biology, metabolism, infection and immunity. Our results will accelerate the search for the genetic variants underlying susceptibility to disorders such as type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which are highly prevalent amongst South Asians.
Ashworth DC, Elliott P, Toledano MB, 2014, Waste incineration and adverse birth and neonatal outcomes: a systematic review, ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 69, Pages: 120-132, ISSN: 0160-4120
Danaei G, Lu Y, Singh GM, et al., 2014, Cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes mortality burden of cardiometabolic risk factors from 1980 to 2010: a comparative risk assessment, LANCET DIABETES & ENDOCRINOLOGY, Vol: 2, Pages: 634-647, ISSN: 2213-8587
Tzoulaki I, Ebbels TMD, Valdes A, et al., 2014, Design and Analysis of Metabolomics Studies in Epidemiologic Research: A Primer on -Omic Technologies, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, Vol: 180, Pages: 129-139, ISSN: 0002-9262
Ganesh SK, Chasman DI, Larson MG, et al., 2014, Effects of Long-Term Averaging of Quantitative Blood Pressure Traits on the Detection of Genetic Associations, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS, Vol: 95, Pages: 49-65, ISSN: 0002-9297
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