602 results found
The Indian Asian population accounts for a fifth of all global deaths from coronary heart disease (CHD). CHD deaths on the Indian subcontinent have doubled since 1990, and are predicted to rise a further 50% by 2030. Reasons underlying the increased CHD mortality among Indian Asians remain unknown. Although conventional cardiovascular risk factors contribute to CHD in Indian Asians as in other populations, these do not account for their increased risk. Type-2 diabetes, insulin resistance and related metabolic disturbances are more prevalent amongst Indian Asians than Europeans, and have been proposed as major determinants of higher CHD risk among Indian Asians. However, this view is not supported by prospective data. Genome-wide association studies have not identified differences in allele frequencies or effect sizes in known loci to explain the increased CHD risk in Indian Asians. Limited knowledge of mechanisms underlying higher CHD risk amongst Indian Asians presents a major obstacle to reducing the burden of CHD in this population. Systems biology approaches such as genomics, epigenomics, metabolomics and transcriptomics, provide a non-biased approach for discovery of novel biomarkers and disease pathways underlying CHD. Incorporation of these 'omic' approaches in prospective Indian Asian cohorts such as the London Life Sciences Population Study (LOLIPOP) provide an exciting opportunity for the identification of new risk factors underlying CHD in this high risk population.
Winkler TW, Day FR, Croteau-Chonka DC, et al., 2014, Quality control and conduct of genome-wide association meta-analyses, NATURE PROTOCOLS, Vol: 9, Pages: 1192-1212, ISSN: 1754-2189
Bennett JE, Blangiardo M, Fecht D, et al., 2014, Vulnerability to the mortality effects of warm temperature in the districts of England and Wales, Nature Climate Change, Vol: 4, Pages: 269-273, ISSN: 1758-678X
Warm temperatures adversely affect disease occurrence and death, in extreme conditions as well as when the temperature changes are more modest1,2. Therefore climate change, which is expected to affect both average temperatures and temperature variability, is likely to impact health even in temperate climates. Climate change risk assessment is enriched if there is information on vulnerability and resilience to effects of temperature. Some studies have analysed socio-demographic characteristics that make individuals vulnerable to adverse effects of temperature1,2,3,4. Less is known about community-level vulnerability. We used geo-coded mortality and environmental data and Bayesian spatial methods to conduct a national small-area analysis of the mortality effects of warm temperature for all 376 districts in England and Wales. In the most vulnerable districts, those in London and south/southeast England, odds of dying from cardiorespiratory causes increased by more than 10% for 1 °C warmer temperature, compared with virtually no effect in the most resilient districts, which were in the far north. A 2 °C warmer summer may result in 1,552 (95% credible interval 1,307–1,762) additional deaths, about one-half of which would occur in 95 districts. The findings enable risk and adaptation analyses to incorporate local vulnerability to warm temperature and to quantify inequality in its effects.
Cobb LK, Anderson CAM, Elliott P, et al., 2014, Methodological Issues in Cohort Studies That Relate Sodium Intake to Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association, CIRCULATION, Vol: 129, Pages: 1173-U254, ISSN: 0009-7322
Mahajan A, Go MJ, Zhang W, et al., 2014, Genome-wide trans-ancestry meta-analysis provides insight into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes susceptibility, NATURE GENETICS, Vol: 46, Pages: 234-+, ISSN: 1061-4036
Cai Y, Blangiardo M, De Hoogh K, et al., 2014, Road traffic noise, air pollution and cardio-respiratory health in European cohorts: A harmonised approach in the BioSHaRE project
Background and aims: Few studies have investigated joint effects of road traffic noise and air pollution on cardiovascular outcomes. This project aims to quantify the joint and separate effects of both exposures on prevalent and incident cardiovascular disease and asthma as part of the EU-funded BioSHaRE project involving five European cohorts (EPIC-Oxford, EPIC-Turin, HUNT, Lifelines, UK Biobank). Methods: Health outcomes have been ascertained by self-report (prevalence) and medical record (incidence) and retrospectively harmonised across the five cohorts. Residential road traffic noise exposures for each participant are being estimated using a European noise model based on Common Noise Assessment Methods in Europe (CNOSSOS-EU). Cross-sectional epidemiological analyses are in progress, virtually pooled using DataSHIELD methods. Results: In total, 716,945 men and women are included, mostly >40 years. Initial analysis of EPIC-Oxford and Lifelines showed prevalence of self-reported hypertension to be 26%, high blood lipids 15% and asthma 11% and mean annual 24-hour noise estimates of 56.4 dB(A) (EPIC-Oxford) and 65.8 dB(A) (Lifelines). Correlations between noise estimates and NO2 are generally low (r~0.1 to 0.4). Conclusions: Pooling of individual level harmonised data from established cohorts offers the large sample sizes needed to investigate effects of road traffic noise and ambient air pollution on cardio-respiratory diseases.
Epstein S, Vergnaud A-C, Elliott P, et al., 2014, Numerical Assessment of the Stiffness Index, 2014 36TH ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE IEEE ENGINEERING IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY SOCIETY (EMBC), Pages: 1969-1972, ISSN: 1557-170X
Service SK, Teslovich TM, Fuchsberger C, et al., 2014, Re-sequencing Expands Our Understanding of the Phenotypic Impact of Variants at GWAS Loci, PLOS Genetics, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1553-7390
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified .500 common variants associated with quantitative metabolictraits, but in aggregate such variants explain at most 20–30% of the heritable component of population variation in thesetraits. To further investigate the impact of genotypic variation on metabolic traits, we conducted re-sequencing studies in.6,000 members of a Finnish population cohort (The Northern Finland Birth Cohort of 1966 [NFBC]) and a type 2 diabetescase-control sample (The Finland-United States Investigation of NIDDM Genetics [FUSION] study). By sequencing the codingsequence and 59 and 39 untranslated regions of 78 genes at 17 GWAS loci associated with one or more of six metabolic traits(serum levels of fasting HDL-C, LDL-C, total cholesterol, triglycerides, plasma glucose, and insulin), and conducting bothsingle-variant and gene-level association tests, we obtained a more complete understanding of phenotype-genotypeassociations at eight of these loci. At all eight of these loci, the identification of new associations provides significantevidence for multiple genetic signals to one or more phenotypes, and at two loci, in the genes ABCA1 and CETP, we foundsignificant gene-level evidence of association to non-synonymous variants with MAF,1%. Additionally, two potentiallydeleterious variants that demonstrated significant associations (rs138726309, a missense variant in G6PC2, and rs28933094,a missense variant in LIPC) were considerably more common in these Finnish samples than in European referencepopulations, supporting our prior hypothesis that deleterious variants could attain high frequencies in this isolatedpopulation, likely due to the effects of population bottlenecks. Our results highlight the value of large, well-phenotypedsamples for rare-variant association analysis, and the challenge of evaluating the phenotypic impact of such variants.
Hansell AL, Blangiardo M, Fortunato L, et al., 2014, Daytime and night-time aircraft noise and cardiovascular disease near Heathrow airport in London
Background. Few studies have investigated associations of aircraft noise with cardiovascular health. We investigated this in areas exposed to noise from London Heathrow airport. Methods. A small area study was conducted in 12,110 census output areas covering 3.6 million residents. Risks for hospital admissions and mortality in 2001-05 were assessed in relation to aircraft noise in 2001, adjusted for relevant confounders. Night (Lnight) and daytime (LAeq,16h) aircraft noise were assessed separately. Results. Higher aircraft noise was associated with higher relative risks for hospital admissions and mortality from stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease. Risk estimates were higher for night-time than daytime noise. Adjusted risks werehighest for stroke, with RR 1.29 [95% CI 1.14 to 1.46] for Lnight and RR 1.08 [95% CI 1.02 to 1.14] for LAeq,16hfor >55dB vs. <50dB. All linear dose-response relationships were statistically significant for hospital admissions but not for mortality, except for CHD and LAeq,16h. Discussion. This research attracted a high level of policy interest. However, the impact of this and other recent papers on policy decisions such as increased airport capacity in England is currently unclear. Priority areas for follow-up health research into aircraft noise need to be considered.
Li N, Yan L, Niu W, et al., 2013, China Rural Health Initiative - Sodium Reduction Study: the Effects of a Community-Based Sodium Reduction Program on 24hr Urinary Sodium and Blood Pressure in Rural China, CIRCULATION, Vol: 128, Pages: 2707-2707, ISSN: 0009-7322
Hansell AL, Ghosh RE, Elliott P, 2013, AIRCRAFT NOISE AND HEALTH Whether noise exposure causes stroke or hypertension is still not known Reply, BMJ-BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, Vol: 347, ISSN: 1756-1833
Stamler J, Brown IJ, Yap IKS, et al., 2013, Dietary and Urinary Metabonomic Factors Possibly Accounting for Higher Blood Pressure of Black Compared With White Americans Results of International Collaborative Study on Macro-/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure, HYPERTENSION, Vol: 62, Pages: 1074-1080, ISSN: 0194-911X
Cogswell ME, Wang C-Y, Chen T-C, et al., 2013, Validity of predictive equations for 24-h urinary sodium excretion in adults aged 18-39 y, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION, Vol: 98, Pages: 1502-1513, ISSN: 0002-9165
Dezateux C, Brocklehurst P, Burgess S, et al., 2013, Life Study: a UK-wide birth cohort study of environment, development, health, and wellbeing, National Conference on Public Health Science - Dedicated to New Research in Public Health, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, Pages: 31-31, ISSN: 0140-6736
Hansell AL, Gulliver J, Beevers S, et al., 2013, AIRCRAFT NOISE AND HEALTH Working at Heathrow airport may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease Reply, BMJ-BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, Vol: 347, ISSN: 1756-1833
Fouquet NC, Hawken MB, Elliott P, et al., 2013, TETRA mobile radios interfere with electroencephalography recording equipment, MEDICAL ENGINEERING & PHYSICS, Vol: 35, Pages: 1688-1691, ISSN: 1350-4533
Li N, Yan LL, Niu W, et al., 2013, A large-scale cluster randomized trial to determine the effects of community-based dietary sodium reduction-the China Rural Health Initiative Sodium Reduction Study, AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL, Vol: 166, Pages: 815-822, ISSN: 0002-8703
Do R, Willer CJ, Schmidt EM, et al., 2013, Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease, Nature Genetics, Vol: 45, Pages: 1345-1352, ISSN: 1061-4036
Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common variants recently mapped for plasma lipids (P < 5 × 10−8 for each) to examine the role of triglycerides in risk for CAD. First, we highlight loci associated with both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride levels, and we show that the direction and magnitude of the associations with both traits are factors in determining CAD risk. Second, we consider loci with only a strong association with triglycerides and show that these loci are also associated with CAD. Finally, in a model accounting for effects on LDL-C and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, the strength of a polymorphism's effect on triglyceride levels is correlated with the magnitude of its effect on CAD risk. These results suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins causally influence risk for CAD.
Willer CJ, Schmidt EM, Sengupta S, et al., 2013, Discovery and refinement of loci associated with lipid levels, Nature Genetics, Vol: 45, Pages: 1274-1283, ISSN: 1061-4036
Levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and total cholesterol are heritable, modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease. To identify new loci and refine known loci influencing these lipids, we examined 188,577 individuals using genome-wide and custom genotyping arrays. We identify and annotate 157 loci associated with lipid levels at P < 5 × 10−8, including 62 loci not previously associated with lipid levels in humans. Using dense genotyping in individuals of European, East Asian, South Asian and African ancestry, we narrow association signals in 12 loci. We find that loci associated with blood lipid levels are often associated with cardiovascular and metabolic traits, including coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes, blood pressure, waist-hip ratio and body mass index. Our results demonstrate the value of using genetic data from individuals of diverse ancestry and provide insights into the biological mechanisms regulating blood lipids to guide future genetic, biological and therapeutic research.
Cogswell ME, Elliott P, Wang C-Y, et al., 2013, Assessing US Sodium Intake through Dietary Data and Urine Biomarkers, ADVANCES IN NUTRITION, Vol: 4, Pages: 560-562, ISSN: 2161-8313
Elliott P, Toledano MB, 2013, Adult Cancers Near High-voltage Power Lines response, EPIDEMIOLOGY, Vol: 24, Pages: 783-784, ISSN: 1044-3983
Bonnelykke K, Matheson MC, Pers TH, et al., 2013, Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies ten loci influencing allergic sensitization, NATURE GENETICS, Vol: 45, Pages: 902-U290, ISSN: 1061-4036
Geneletti S, Best N, Toledano MB, et al., 2013, Uncovering selection bias in case-control studies using Bayesian post-stratification, STATISTICS IN MEDICINE, Vol: 32, Pages: 2555-2570, ISSN: 0277-6715
Stamler J, Brown IJ, Daviglus ML, et al., 2013, Dietary glycine and blood pressure: the International Study on Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION, Vol: 98, Pages: 136-145, ISSN: 0002-9165
Miura K, Stamler J, Brown IJ, et al., 2013, Relationship of dietary monounsaturated fatty acids to blood pressure: the international study of macro/micronutrients and blood pressure, JOURNAL OF HYPERTENSION, Vol: 31, Pages: 1144-1150, ISSN: 0263-6352
Brown IJ, Dyer AR, Chan Q, et al., 2013, Estimating 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion From Casual Urinary Sodium Concentrations in Western Populations, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, Vol: 177, Pages: 1180-1192, ISSN: 0002-9262
Elliott P, Brown IJ, Dyer AR, et al., 2013, Elliott et al. Respond to Quantifying Urine Sodium Excretion, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, Vol: 177, Pages: 1196-1198, ISSN: 0002-9262
Fall T, Hagg S, Maegi R, et al., 2013, The Role of Adiposity in Cardiometabolic Traits: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis, PLOS MEDICINE, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1549-1277
den Hoed M, Eijgelsheim M, Esko T, et al., 2013, Identification of heart rate-associated loci and their effects on cardiac conduction and rhythm disorders, NATURE GENETICS, Vol: 45, Pages: 621-+, ISSN: 1061-4036
Griep LMO, Stamler J, Chan Q, et al., 2013, Association of raw fruit and fruit juice consumption with blood pressure: the INTERMAP Study, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION, Vol: 97, Pages: 1083-1091, ISSN: 0002-9165
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