Imperial College London


Faculty of MedicineSchool of Public Health

Chair in Epidemiology and Public Health Medicine



+44 (0)20 7594 3328p.elliott Website




Miss Jennifer Wells +44 (0)20 7594 3328




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BibTex format

author = {Fecht, D and Garwood, K and Butters, O and Henderson, J and Elliott, P and Hansell, A and Gulliver, J},
doi = {ije/dyz180},
journal = {International Journal of Epidemiology},
pages = {i49--i56},
title = {Automation of cleaning and reconstructing residential address histories to assign environmental exposures in longitudinal studies},
url = {},
volume = {49},
year = {2020}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Background: We have developed an open-source ALgorithm for Generating Address Exposures (ALGAE) that cleans residential address records to construct address histories and assign spatially-determined exposuresto cohort participants. The first application of this algorithm was to construct prenatal and early-life air pollution exposure for individuals of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)in the South West of Englandusingpreviously estimated particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM10) concentrations. Methods: ALSPAC recruited 14,541 pregnant women between 1991and 1992. We assignedtrimester-specific estimated PM10exposures for 12,752 pregnancies,and first year of life exposures for 12,525births, based on maternal residence and residential mobility. Results: Average PM10exposure was32.6 μg/m3(StDev. 3.0 μg/m3) during pregnancy and 31.4 μg/m3(StDev. 2.6 μg/m3) during the first year of life. 6.7% ofwomen changedaddress during pregnancy, and 18.0% moved during first year of lifeof their infant. Exposure differences ranged from -5.3 μg/m3 to 12.4 μg/m3(up to 26% difference) during pregnancy and -7.22 μg/m3to 7.64 μg/m3(up to 27% difference) in the first year of life,when comparing estimated exposure using the address at birth and that assessedusing the complete cleaned address history. For the majority of individualsexposure changed by <5% but some relatively large changes were seen both in pregnancy and infancy.Conclusion: ALGAE provides a generic andadaptable, open-source solution to clean addresses stored in acohort contact database and assign life-stage specific exposureestimates with the potential to reduce exposure misclassification.
AU - Fecht,D
AU - Garwood,K
AU - Butters,O
AU - Henderson,J
AU - Elliott,P
AU - Hansell,A
AU - Gulliver,J
DO - ije/dyz180
EP - 56
PY - 2020///
SN - 1464-3685
SP - 49
TI - Automation of cleaning and reconstructing residential address histories to assign environmental exposures in longitudinal studies
T2 - International Journal of Epidemiology
UR -
UR -
UR -
VL - 49
ER -