Imperial College London


Faculty of MedicineSchool of Public Health

Chair in Epidemiology and Public Health Medicine



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Miss Jennifer Wells +44 (0)20 7594 3328




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BibTex format

author = {Oude, Griep LM and Seferidi, P and Stamler, J and Van, Horn L and Chan, Q and Tzoulaki, I and Steffen, LM and Miura, K and Ueshima, H and Okuda, N and Zhao, L and Soedamah-Muthu, SS and Daviglus, ML and Elliott, P and INTERMAP, Research Group},
doi = {10.1097/HJH.0000000000001008},
journal = {Journal of Hypertension},
pages = {1721--1729},
title = {Relation of unprocessed, processed red meat and poultry consumption to blood pressure in East Asian and Western adults},
url = {},
volume = {34},
year = {2016}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Background: Epidemiologic evidence suggests that relationships of red meat consumption with risk of cardiovascular diseases depends on whether or not the meat is processed, including addition of preservatives, but evidence is limited for blood pressure (BP). Objective: To examine cross-sectional associations with BP of unprocessed and processed red meat and poultry consumption, total and by type, using data from the INTERnational study on MAcro/micronutrients and blood Pressure (INTERMAP).Design: INTERMAP included 4,680 men and women ages 40-59 years from 17 population samples in Japan, China, the United Kingdom, and the United States. During four visits, eight BP measurements, four multi-pass 24-hr dietary recalls, and two timed 24-hr urine samples were collected.Results: Average daily total unprocessed/processed meat consumption (g/1000 kcal) was 20/5 in East Asian and 38/21 in Western participants. Unprocessed meat intakes comprised red meat for 75% in East Asian and 50% in Western participants. In Westerners, multiple linear regression analyses showed systolic/diastolic BP differences for total unprocessed red meat consumption higher by 25 g/1000 kcal +0.74/+0.57 mmHg (P=0.03/0.01) and for unprocessed poultry of +0.79/+0.16 mmHg (P=0.02/0.50). Unprocessed red meat was not related to BP in East Asian participants. In Westerners, systolic/diastolic BP differences for processed red meat higher by 12.5 g/1000 kcal were +1.20/+0.24 mmHg (P<0.01/0.24), due to consumption of cold cuts and sausages (+1.59/+0.32 mmHg, P<0.001/0.27).Conclusion: These findings are consistent with recommendations to limit meat intake (processed and unprocessed) to maintain and improve cardiovascular health.
AU - Oude,Griep LM
AU - Seferidi,P
AU - Stamler,J
AU - Van,Horn L
AU - Chan,Q
AU - Tzoulaki,I
AU - Steffen,LM
AU - Miura,K
AU - Ueshima,H
AU - Okuda,N
AU - Zhao,L
AU - Soedamah-Muthu,SS
AU - Daviglus,ML
AU - Elliott,P
AU - INTERMAP,Research Group
DO - 10.1097/HJH.0000000000001008
EP - 1729
PY - 2016///
SN - 1473-5598
SP - 1721
TI - Relation of unprocessed, processed red meat and poultry consumption to blood pressure in East Asian and Western adults
T2 - Journal of Hypertension
UR -
UR -
VL - 34
ER -