Imperial College London


Faculty of MedicineSchool of Public Health

Chair in Epidemiology and Public Health Medicine



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Miss Jennifer Wells +44 (0)20 7594 3328




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BibTex format

author = {Huang, L and Crino, M and Wu, JH and Woodward, M and Land, MA and McLean, R and Webster, J and Enkhtungalag, B and Nowson, CA and Elliott, P and Cogswell, M and Toft, U and Mill, JG and Furlanetto, TW and Ilich, JZ and Hong, YH and Cohall, D and Luzardo, L and Noboa, O and Holm, E and Gerbes, AL and Senousy, B and Pinar, Kara S and Brewster, LM and Ueshima, H and Subramanian, S and Teo, BW and Allen, N and Choudhury, SR and Polonia, J and Yasuda, Y and Campbell, NR and Neal, B and Petersen, KS},
doi = {10.2196/resprot.6282},
journal = {JMIR Research Protocols},
title = {Reliable quantification of the potential for equations based on spot urine samples to estimate population salt intake: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.},
url = {},
volume = {5},
year = {2016}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - BACKGROUND: Methods based on spot urine samples (a single sample at one time-point) have been identified as a possible alternative approach to 24-hour urine samples for determining mean population salt intake. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to identify a reliable method for estimating mean population salt intake from spot urine samples. This will be done by comparing the performance of existing equations against one other and against estimates derived from 24-hour urine samples. The effects of factors such as ethnicity, sex, age, body mass index, antihypertensive drug use, health status, and timing of spot urine collection will be explored. The capacity of spot urine samples to measure change in salt intake over time will also be determined. Finally, we aim to develop a novel equation (or equations) that performs better than existing equations to estimate mean population salt intake. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data will be conducted. A search has been conducted to identify human studies that report salt (or sodium) excretion based upon 24-hour urine samples and spot urine samples. There were no restrictions on language, study sample size, or characteristics of the study population. MEDLINE via OvidSP (1946-present), Premedline via OvidSP, EMBASE, Global Health via OvidSP (1910-present), and the Cochrane Library were searched, and two reviewers identified eligible studies. The authors of these studies will be invited to contribute data according to a standard format. Individual participant records will be compiled and a series of analyses will be completed to: (1) compare existing equations for estimating 24-hour salt intake from spot urine samples with 24-hour urine samples, and assess the degree of bias according to key demographic and clinical characteristics; (2) assess the reliability of using spot urine samples to measure population changes in salt intake overtime; and (3) develop a novel equation that performs
AU - Huang,L
AU - Crino,M
AU - Wu,JH
AU - Woodward,M
AU - Land,MA
AU - McLean,R
AU - Webster,J
AU - Enkhtungalag,B
AU - Nowson,CA
AU - Elliott,P
AU - Cogswell,M
AU - Toft,U
AU - Mill,JG
AU - Furlanetto,TW
AU - Ilich,JZ
AU - Hong,YH
AU - Cohall,D
AU - Luzardo,L
AU - Noboa,O
AU - Holm,E
AU - Gerbes,AL
AU - Senousy,B
AU - Pinar,Kara S
AU - Brewster,LM
AU - Ueshima,H
AU - Subramanian,S
AU - Teo,BW
AU - Allen,N
AU - Choudhury,SR
AU - Polonia,J
AU - Yasuda,Y
AU - Campbell,NR
AU - Neal,B
AU - Petersen,KS
DO - 10.2196/resprot.6282
PY - 2016///
SN - 1929-0748
TI - Reliable quantification of the potential for equations based on spot urine samples to estimate population salt intake: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.
T2 - JMIR Research Protocols
UR -
UR -
UR -
VL - 5
ER -