609 results found
Jenkins R, Shen C, Dumontheil I, et al., 2020, Social networking site use in young adolescents: association with health-related quality of life and behavioural difficulties, Computers in Human Behavior, Vol: 109, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 0747-5632
Despite Social Networking Sites (SNS) having a minimum age of 13, younger adolescents are using them. In this study, we examine self-reported overall SNS use and SNS use if awake at night in relation to Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL, measured by KIDSCREEN-10) and behaviour (measured by Strengths and DifficultiesQuestionnaire, SDQ) in 5229 adolescents aged 11–12 in the Study of Cognition, Adolescents and Mobile Phones (SCAMP) cohort. Two-thirds of the study population used SNS. Weekday and weekend SNS use on mobile phones and other devices was significantly associated with lower HRQOL in females (all p-values for linear trend < 0.01) but not males. Using SNS if awake at night was also significantly associated with lower HRQOL in females (adjustedβ-coefficient - 2.20 (95% CI - 3.18, - 1.22)). Higher SNS use on mobile phones and other devices was associated with increased behavioural difficulties in both genders (p-value for trend < 0.001). Similarly, SNS useif awake at night was associated with greater behavioural difficulties (adjusted β-coefficient 2.54 (95% CI 2.09, 2.98)). We recommend further longitudinal research in this area in order have a better understanding of the direction of relationships between SNS and wellbeing and behaviour in adolescents.
Tettamanti G, Auvinen A, Åkerstedt T, et al., 2020, Long-term effect of mobile phone use on sleep quality: results from the cohort study of mobile phone use and health (COSMOS), Environment International, Vol: 140, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 0160-4120
BACKGROUND: Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure (RF-EMF) from mobile phone use on sleep quality has mainly been investigated in cross-sectional studies. The few previous prospective cohort studies found no or inconsistent associations, but had limited statistical power and short follow-up. In this large prospective cohort study, our aim was to estimate the effect of RF-EMF from mobile phone use on different sleep outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included Swedish (n = 21,049) and Finnish (n = 3120) participants enrolled in the Cohort Study of Mobile Phone Use and Health (COSMOS) with information about operator-recorded mobile phone use at baseline and sleep outcomes both at baseline and at the 4-year follow-up. Sleep disturbance, sleep adequacy, daytime somnolence, sleep latency, and insomnia were assessed using the Medical Outcome Study (MOS) sleep questionnaire. RESULTS: Operator-recorded mobile phone use at baseline was not associated with most of the sleep outcomes. For insomnia, an odds ratio (OR) of 1.24, 95% CI 1.03-1.51 was observed in the highest decile of mobile phone call-time (>258 min/week). With weights assigned to call-time to account for the lower RF-EMF exposure from Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS, 3G) than from Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM, 2G) the OR was 1.09 (95% CI 0.89-1.33) in the highest call-time decile. CONCLUSION: Insomnia was slightly more common among mobile phone users in the highest call-time category, but adjustment for the considerably lower RF-EMF exposure from the UMTS than the GSM network suggests that this association is likely due to other factors associated with mobile phone use than RF-EMF. No association was observed for other sleep outcomes. In conclusion, findings from this study do not support the hypothesis that RF-EMF from mobile phone use has long-term effects on sleep quality.
Posma JM, Garcia Perez I, Frost G, et al., 2020, Nutriome-metabolome relationships provide insights into dietary intake and metabolism, Nature Food, Vol: 1, ISSN: 2662-1355
Dietary assessment traditionally relies on self-reported data which are often inaccurate and may result in erroneous diet-disease risk associations. We illustrate how urinary metabolic phenotyping can be used as alternative approach for obtaining information on dietary patterns. We used two multi-pass 24-hr dietary recalls, obtained on two occasions on average three weeks apart, paired with two 24-hr urine collections from 1,848 U.S. individuals; 67 nutrients influenced the urinary metabotype measured with ¹H-NMR spectroscopy characterized by 46 structurally identified metabolites. We investigated the stability of each metabolite over time and showed that the urinary metabolic profile is more stable within individuals than reported dietary patterns. The 46 metabolites accurately predicted healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns in a free-living U.S. cohort and replicated in an independent U.K. cohort. We mapped these metabolites into a host-microbial metabolic network to identify key pathways and functions. These data can be used in future studies to evaluate how this set of diet-derived, stable, measurable bioanalytical markers are associated with disease risk. This knowledge may give new insights into biological pathways that characterize the shift from a healthy to unhealthy metabolic phenotype and hence give entry points for prevention and intervention strategies.
Robinson O, Chadeau Hyam M, Karaman I, et al., 2020, Determinants of accelerated metabolomic and epigenetic ageing in a UK cohort, Aging Cell, Vol: 19, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 1474-9718
Markers of biological aging have potential utility in primary care and public health. We developed a model of age based on untargeted metabolic profiling across multiple platforms, including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry in urine and serum, within a large sample (N = 2,239) from the UK Airwave cohort. We validated a subset of model predictors in a Finnish cohort including repeat measurements from 2,144 individuals. We investigated the determinants of accelerated aging, including lifestyle and psychological risk factors for premature mortality. The metabolomic age model was well correlated with chronological age (mean r = .86 across independent test sets). Increased metabolomic age acceleration (mAA) was associated after false discovery rate (FDR) correction with overweight/obesity, diabetes, heavy alcohol use and depression. DNA methylation age acceleration measures were uncorrelated with mAA. Increased DNA methylation phenotypic age acceleration (N = 1,110) was associated after FDR correction with heavy alcohol use, hypertension and low income. In conclusion, metabolomics is a promising approach for the assessment of biological age and appears complementary to established epigenetic clocks.
Graham NSN, Junghans C, Downes R, et al., 2020, SARS-CoV-2 infection, clinical features and outcome of COVID-19 in United Kingdom nursing homes, Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
<jats:p>Objectives:To understand SARS-Co-V-2 infection and transmission in UK nursing homes in order to develop preventive strategies for protecting the frail elderly residents. Design:An outbreak investigation.Setting:4 nursing homes affected by COVID-19 outbreaks in central London. Participants: 394 residents and 70 staff in nursing homes.Interventions:Two point-prevalence surveys one week apart where residents underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing and had relevant symptoms documented. Asymptomatic staff from three of the four homes were also offered SARS-CoV-2 testing.Main outcome measures:All-cause mortality, and mortality attributed to COVID-19 on death certificates. Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection and symptoms in residents and staff. Results:Overall, 26% (95% confidence interval 22 to 31) of residents died over the two-month period. All-cause mortality increased by 203% (95% CI 70 to 336). Systematic testing identified 40% (95% CI 35 to 46) of residents, of whom 43% (95% CI 34 to 52) were asymptomatic and 18% (95% CI 11 to 24) had atypical symptoms, as well as 4% (95% CI -1 to 9) of asymptomatic staff who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2.Conclusions:The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak was associated with a very high mortality rate in residents of nursing homes. Systematic testing of all residents and a representative sample of staff identified high rates of SARS-CoV-2 positivity across the four nursing homes, highlighting a potential for regular screening to prevent future outbreaks.</jats:p>
de las Fuentes L, Sung YJ, Noordam R, et al., 2020, Gene-educational attainment interactions in a multi-ancestry genome-wide meta-analysis identify novel blood pressure loci, Molecular Psychiatry, ISSN: 1359-4184
Educational attainment is widely used as a surrogate for socioeconomic status (SES). Low SES is a risk factor for hypertension and high blood pressure (BP). To identify novel BP loci, we performed multi-ancestry meta-analyses accounting for gene-educational attainment interactions using two variables, “Some College” (yes/no) and “Graduated College” (yes/no). Interactions were evaluated using both a 1 degree of freedom (DF) interaction term and a 2DF joint test of genetic and interaction effects. Analyses were performed for systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure. We pursued genome-wide interrogation in Stage 1 studies (N = 117 438) and follow-up on promising variants in Stage 2 studies (N = 293 787) in five ancestry groups. Through combined meta-analyses of Stages 1 and 2, we identified 84 known and 18 novel BP loci at genome-wide significance level (P < 5 × 10-8). Two novel loci were identified based on the 1DF test of interaction with educational attainment, while the remaining 16 loci were identified through the 2DF joint test of genetic and interaction effects. Ten novel loci were identified in individuals of African ancestry. Several novel loci show strong biological plausibility since they involve physiologic systems implicated in BP regulation. They include genes involved in the central nervous system-adrenal signaling axis (ZDHHC17, CADPS, PIK3C2G), vascular structure and function (GNB3, CDON), and renal function (HAS2 and HAS2-AS1, SLIT3). Collectively, these findings suggest a role of educational attainment or SES in further dissection of the genetic architecture of BP.
Garcia Perez I, Posma JM, Serrano Contreras JI, et al., Identifying unknown metabolites using NMR-based metabolic profiling techniques, Nature Protocols, ISSN: 1750-2799
Metabolic profiling of biological samples provides important insights into multiple physiological and pathological processes, but is hindered by a lack of automated annotation and standardised methods for structure elucidation of candidate disease biomarkers. Here, we describe a system for identifying molecular species derived from NMR spectroscopy based metabolic phenotyping studies, with detailed info on sample preparation, data acquisition, and data modelling. We provide eight different modular workflows to be followed in a recommended sequential order according to their level of difficulty. This multi-platform system involves the use of statistical spectroscopic tools such as STOCSY, STORM and RED-STORM to identify other signals in the NMR spectra relating to the same molecule. It also utilizes 2D-NMR spectroscopic analysis, separation and pre-concentration techniques, multiple hyphenated analytical platforms and data extraction from existing databases. The complete system, using all eight workflows, would take up to a month, as it includes multidimensional NMR experiments that require prolonged experiment times. However, easier identification cases using fewer steps would take two or three days. This approach to biomarker discovery is efficient, cost-effective and offers increased chemical space coverage of the metabolome, resulting in faster and more accurate assignment of NMR-generated biomarkers arising from metabolic phenotyping studies. Finally, it requires basic understanding of Matlab in order to perform statistical spectroscopic tools and analytical skills to perform Solid Phase Extraction, LC-fraction collection, LC-NMR-MS and 1D and 2D NMR experiments.
Peto J, Alwan NA, Godfrey KM, et al., 2020, Universal weekly testing as the UK COVID-19 lockdown exit strategy, The Lancet, Vol: 395, Pages: 1420-1421, ISSN: 0140-6736
Sheehan A, Freni Sterrantino A, Fecht D, et al., 2020, Childhood Type 1 diabetes: an environment wide association study across England, Diabetologia, Vol: 63, Pages: 964-976, ISSN: 0012-186X
Aims:Type 1 Diabetes is an autoimmune disease affecting ~400,000 people across the UK. Environmental factors likely trigger the disease processin genetically susceptible individuals. We assessed the associations between a wide range of environmental factors and childhood type 1 diabetesincidence in England, using an agnostic, ecological Environment Wide Association Study (EnWAS) approach, to generate hypotheses about environmental triggers. Methods:We undertook analyses at the Local Authority District (LAD) level using a national Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) based incident type 1 diabetesdataset, comprising 13,948 cases aged 0-9 years over the period April 2000-March 2011. We compiled LAD-level estimates for a range of potential demographic and environmental risk factors including meteorological, land use and environmental pollution variables. The associations between type 1 diabetesincidence and risk factors were assessed via Poisson regression, disease mapping and ecological regression. 8Results:Case counts by LAD varied from 1 to 236(median 33;inter quartile range: 24-46). Overall type 1 diabetesincidence was 21.2 (95% CI 20.9-21.6) per 100,000individuals. The EnWASand disease mapping indicated that 15out of 53 demographic and environmental risk factors were significantly associated with diabetes incidence after adjusting for multiple testing.These included air pollutants (particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, all inversely associated), as well as lead in soil, radon, outdoor light at night, overcrowding, population density and ethnicity. Disease mapping revealed spatial heterogeneity in type 1 diabetesrisk. The ecological regression found anassociationbetween type 1 diabetesand thelivingenvironmentdomainof the Index of Multiple Deprivation(RR 0.995 (95%Credible Interval (CrI)0.991-0.998))and radon potential class (RR 1.044 95%CrI 1.015-1.074). Conclusions:Our analysis identifiesa range of demographic and environmental facto
The Dementias Platform UK Data Portal is a data repository facilitating access to data for 3 370 929 individuals in 42 cohorts. The Data Portal is an end-to-end data management solution providing a secure, fully auditable, remote access environment for the analysis of cohort data. All projects utilising the data are by default collaborations with the cohort research teams generating the data. The Data Portal uses UK Secure eResearch Platform infrastructure to provide three core utilities: data discovery, access, and analysis. These are delivered using a 7 layered architecture comprising: data ingestion, data curation, platform interoperability, data discovery, access brokerage, data analysis and knowledge preservation. Automated, streamlined, and standardised procedures reduce the administrative burden for all stakeholders, particularly for requests involving multiple independent datasets, where a single request may be forwarded to multiple data controllers. Researchers are provided with their own secure ‘lab’ using VMware which is accessed using two factor authentication. Over the last 2 years, 160 project proposals involving 579 individual cohort data access requests were received. These were received from 268 applicants spanning 72 institutions (56 academic, 13 commercial, 3 government) in 16 countries with 84 requests involving multiple cohorts. Projects are varied including multi-modal, machine learning, and Mendelian randomisation analyses. Data access is usually free at point of use although a small number of cohorts require a data access fee.
Huang J, Zuber V, Matthews P, et al., Sleep, major depressive disorder and Alzheimer’s disease: a Mendelian randomisation study., Neurology, ISSN: 0028-3878
Fecht D, Garwood K, Butters O, et al., 2020, Automation of cleaning and reconstructing residential address histories to assign environmental exposures in longitudinal studies, International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol: 49, Pages: i49-i56, ISSN: 1464-3685
Background: We have developed an open-source ALgorithm for Generating Address Exposures (ALGAE) that cleans residential address records to construct address histories and assign spatially-determined exposuresto cohort participants. The first application of this algorithm was to construct prenatal and early-life air pollution exposure for individuals of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)in the South West of Englandusingpreviously estimated particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM10) concentrations. Methods: ALSPAC recruited 14,541 pregnant women between 1991and 1992. We assignedtrimester-specific estimated PM10exposures for 12,752 pregnancies,and first year of life exposures for 12,525births, based on maternal residence and residential mobility. Results: Average PM10exposure was32.6 μg/m3(StDev. 3.0 μg/m3) during pregnancy and 31.4 μg/m3(StDev. 2.6 μg/m3) during the first year of life. 6.7% ofwomen changedaddress during pregnancy, and 18.0% moved during first year of lifeof their infant. Exposure differences ranged from -5.3 μg/m3 to 12.4 μg/m3(up to 26% difference) during pregnancy and -7.22 μg/m3to 7.64 μg/m3(up to 27% difference) in the first year of life,when comparing estimated exposure using the address at birth and that assessedusing the complete cleaned address history. For the majority of individualsexposure changed by <5% but some relatively large changes were seen both in pregnancy and infancy.Conclusion: ALGAE provides a generic andadaptable, open-source solution to clean addresses stored in acohort contact database and assign life-stage specific exposureestimates with the potential to reduce exposure misclassification.
Hodgson S, Fecht D, Gulliver J, et al., 2020, Availability, access, analysis and dissemination of small area data, International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol: 49, Pages: i4-i14, ISSN: 1464-3685
In this era of ‘big data’, there is growing recognition of the value of environmental, health, social and demographic data for research. Open government data initiatives are growing in number and in terms of content. Remote sensing data are finding widespread use in environmental research, including in low- and middle-income settings. While our ability to study environment and health associations across countries and continents grows, data protection rules and greater patient control over the use of their data present new challenges to using health data in research. Innovative tools that circumvent the need for the physical sharing of data by supporting non-disclosive sharing of information, or that permit spatial analysis without researchers needing access to underlying patient data can be used to support analyses while protecting data confidentiality. User-friendly visualisations, allowing small area data to be seen and understood by non-expert audiences are revolutionising public and researcher interactions with data. The UK Small Area Health Statistics Unit’s Environment and Health Atlas for England and Wales, and the US National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network offer good examples. Open data facilitates user-generated outputs, and ‘mash-ups’, and user generated inputs from social media, mobile devices, and wearable tech are new data streams which will find utility in future studies, and bring novel dimensions with respect to ethical use of small area data.
Blangiardo M, Boulieri A, Diggle P, et al., 2020, Advances in spatio-temporal models for non-communicable disease surveillance, International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol: 49, Pages: i26-i37, ISSN: 1464-3685
Surveillance systems are commonly used to provide early warning detection or to assess an impact of an intervention/policy. Traditionally, the methodological and conceptual frameworks for surveillance have been designed for infectious diseases, but the rising burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) worldwide suggests a pressing need for surveillance strategies to detect unusual patterns in the data and to help unveil important risk factors in this setting. Surveillance methods need to be able to detect meaningful departures from expectation and exploit dependencies within such data to produce unbiased estimates of risk as well as future forecasts. This has led to the increasing development of a range of space-time methods specifically designed for NCD surveillance.We present an overview of recent advances in spatio-temporal disease surveillance for NCDs using hierarchically specified models. This provides a coherent framework for modelling complex data structures, dealing with data sparsity, exploiting dependencies between data sources and propagating the inherent uncertainties present in both the data and the modelling process. We then focus on three commonly used models within the Bayesian Hierarchical Model (BHM) framework and through a simulation study we compare their performance.We also discuss some challenges faced by researchers when dealing with NCD surveillance, including how to account for false detection and the modifiable areal unit problem. Finally, we consider how to use and interpret the complex models, how model selection may vary depending on the intended user group and how best to communicate results to stakeholders and the general public.
Kaura A, Sterne J, Trickey A, et al., Invasive versus non-invasive management of elderly patients with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction: cohort study based on routine clinical data, The Lancet, ISSN: 0140-6736
BackgroundPrevious trials suggest lower long-term mortality after invasive rather than non-invasive management among patients with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), but these excluded very elderly patients.MethodsWe estimated the effect of invasive versus non-invasive management within 3 days of peak troponin on survival in NSTEMI patients aged ≥80 years, using routine clinical data collected during 2010–2017 (NIHR Health Informatics Collaborative). Propensity scores based on pre-treatment variables were derived using logistic regression; patients with high probabilities of non-invasive or invasive management were excluded. Patients who died within 3 days without receiving invasive management were assigned to the invasive or non-invasive management groups based on their propensity scores, to mitigate immortal time bias. We estimated mortality hazard ratios comparing invasive with non-invasive management, and also compared rates of hospital admission for heart failure.FindingsOf 1976 patients with NSTEMI, 101 died within 3 days of their peak troponin, whilst 375 were excluded because of extreme propensity scores. The remaining 1500 patients (56% non-invasive management) had a median age 86 (IQR 82-89) years. During median follow-up of 3.0 (IQR 1.2-4.8) years, there were 613 (41%) deaths. Using inverse probability weighting, adjusted cumulative 5-year mortality was 36% and 55% in the invasive and non-invasive management groups, respectively. The mortality hazard ratio comparing invasive with non-invasive management was 0.64 (95% CI 0.52-0.79) after multivariable adjustment for clinical characteristics and propensity score and inclusion of patients who died within three days. Invasive management was associated with lower incidence of hospital admissions for heart failure (adjusted rate ratio compared with non-invasive management 0.67, 95% CI 0.48–0.93).
Kaura A, Arnold AD, Vasileios P, et al., 2020, Prognostic significance of troponin level in 3,121 patients presenting with atrial fibrillation (The NIHR Health Informatics Collaborative TROP-AF study), Journal of the American Heart Association, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2047-9980
Background-—Patients presenting with atrial fibrillation (AF) often undergo a blood test to measure troponin, but interpretation of theresult is impeded by uncertainty about its clinical importance. We investigated the relationship between troponin level, coronaryangiography, and all-cause mortality in real-world patients presenting with AF.Methods and Results-—We used National Institute of Health Research Health Informatics Collaborative data to identify patients admitted between 2010 and 2017 at 5 tertiary centers in the United Kingdom with a primary diagnosis of AF. Peak troponin results 7 were scaled as multiples of the upper limit of normal. A total of 3121 patients were included in the analysis. Over a median followup of 1462 (interquartile range, 929–1975) days, there were 586 deaths (18.8%). The adjusted hazard ratio for mortality associatedwith a positive troponin (value above upper limit of normal) was 1.20 (95% CI, 1.01–1.43; P<0.05). Higher troponin levels were associated with higher risk of mortality, reaching a maximum hazard ratio of 2.6 (95% CI, 1.9–3.4) at 250 multiples of the upper limit of normal. There was an exponential relationship between higher troponin levels and increased odds of coronary angiography.The mortality risk was 36% lower in patients undergoing coronary angiography than in those who did not (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.42–0.89; P=0.01).Conclusions-—Increased troponin was associated with increased risk of mortality in patients presenting with AF. The lower hazard ratio in patients undergoing invasive management raises the possibility that the clinical importance of troponin release in AF may be mediated by coronary artery disease, which may be responsive to revascularization.
Piel FB, Parkes B, Hambly P, et al., 2020, Software application profile: the Rapid Inquiry Facility 4.0: an open access tool for environmental public health tracking, International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol: 49, Pages: i38-i48, ISSN: 0300-5771
The Rapid Inquiry Facility 4.0 (RIF) is a new user-friendly and open-access tool, developed by the UK Small Area Health Statistics Unit (SAHSU), to facilitate environment public health tracking (EPHT) or surveillance (EPHS). The RIF is designed to help public health professionals and academics to rapidly perform exploratory investigations of health and environmental data at the small-area level (e.g. postcode or detailed census areas) in order to identify unusual signals, such as disease clusters and potential environmental hazards, whether localized (e.g. industrial site) or widespread (e.g. air and noise pollution). The RIF allows the use of advanced disease mapping methods, including Bayesian small-area smoothing and complex risk analysis functionalities, while accounting for confounders. The RIF could be particularly useful to monitor spatio-temporal trends in mortality and morbidity associated with cardiovascular diseases, cancers, diabetes and chronic lung diseases, or to conduct local or national studies on air pollution, flooding, low-magnetic fields or nuclear power plants.
Piel F, Fecht D, Hodgson S, et al., 2020, Small-area methods for investigation of environment and health, International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol: 49, Pages: 686-699, ISSN: 1464-3685
Small-area studies offer a powerful epidemiological approach to study disease patterns at the population level and assess health risks posed by environmental pollutants. They involve a public health investigation on a geographic scale (e.g. neighbourhood) with overlay of health, environmental, demographic and potential confounder data. Recent methodological advances, including Bayesian approaches, combined with fast growing computational capabilities permit more informative analyses than previously possible, including the incorporation of data at different scales, from satellites to individual-level survey information. Better data availability has widened the scope and utility of small-area studies, but also led to greater complexity, including choice of optimal study area size and extent, duration of study periods, range of covariates and confounders to be considered, and dealing with uncertainty. The availability of data from large, well-phenotyped cohorts such as UK Biobank enables the use of mixed-level study designs and the triangulation of evidence on environmental risks from small-area and individual-level studies, therefore improving causal inference, including use of linked biomarker and -omics data. As a result, there are now improved opportunities to investigate the impacts of environmental risk factors on human health, particularly for the surveillance and prevention of non-communicable diseases.
Toledano MB, Shaddick G, de Hoogh C, et al., 2020, Electric field and air ion exposures near high voltage overhead power lines and adult cancers: a case control study across England and Wales, International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol: 49, Pages: i57-i66, ISSN: 0300-5771
Background: Various mechanisms have been postulated to explain how electric fields emitted by high voltage overhead power lines, and the charged ions they produce, might be associated with possible adult cancer risk but this has not previously been systematically explored in large scale epidemiologic research. Methods: We investigated risks of adult cancers in relation to modelled air ion density (per cm3) within 600m (focusing analysis on mouth, lung, respiratory) and calculated electric field within 25m (focusing analysis on non-melanoma skin) of high voltage overhead power lines in England and Wales, 1974-2008. Results: With adjustment for age, sex, deprivation and rurality, odds ratios (OR) in the highest fifth of net air ion density (0.504-1) compared with the lowest (0-0.1879) ranged from 0.94 (95% CI 0.82 – 1.08) for mouth cancers to 1.03 (95% CI 0.97 -1.09) for respiratory system cancers, with no trends in risk. The pattern of cancer risk was similar using corona ion estimates from an alternative model proposed by others. For keratinocyte carcinoma, adjusted OR in the highest (1.06 - 4.11 kV/m) compared with the lowest (<0.70 kV/m) thirds of electric field strength was 1.23 (95% CI 0.65-2.34) with no trend in risk. Conclusions: Our results do not provide evidence to support hypotheses that air ion density or electric fields in the vicinity of power lines are associated with cancer risk in adults.
Yan L, Carter E, Fu Y, et al., Study protocol: The INTERMAP China Prospective (ICP) study, Wellcome Open Research, Vol: 4, Pages: 154-154
<ns6:p><ns6:bold>Background:</ns6:bold> Unfavourable blood pressure (BP) level is an established risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), while the exact underlying reasons for unfavourable BP are poorly understood. The INTERMAP China Prospective (ICP) Study is a prospective cohort to investigate the relationship of environmental and nutritional risk factors with key indicators of vascular function (BP, arterial stiffness, carotid-intima media thickness) among middle-aged/older men and women.</ns6:p><ns6:p> <ns6:bold>Methods:</ns6:bold> A total of 839 Chinese participants aged 40-59 years from three diverse regions of China were enrolled in INTERMAP in 1997/98; data collection included repeated BP measurements, 24-hour urine specimens, and 24-hour dietary recalls. In 2015/16, 574 of these 839 persons were re-enrolled along with 208 new participants aged 40-59 years that were randomly selected from the same study villages. Participant’s environmental and dietary exposures and health outcomes were assessed in this open cohort study, including BP, 24-hour dietary recalls, personal exposures to air pollution, grip strength, arterial stiffness, carotid-media thickness and plaques, cognitive function, and sleep patterns. Serum and plasma specimens were collected with 24-hour urine specimens. A follow-up visit has been scheduled for 2020-2021.</ns6:p><ns6:p> <ns6:bold>Discussion:</ns6:bold> Winter and summer assessments of a comprehensive set of vascular indicators and their environmental and nutritional risk factors were conducted with high precision. We will leverage advances in exposome research to identify biomarkers of exposure to environmental and nutritional risk factors and improve our understanding of the mechanisms and pathways of their hazardous cardiovascular effects. The ICP Study is observational by design, thus
Okuda N, Okayama A, Miura K, et al., 2020, Food sources of dietary potassium in the adult Japanese population: The International Study of Macro-/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP), Nutrients, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2072-6643
A lower-than-recommended potassium intake is a well-established risk factor for increased blood pressure. Although the Japanese diet is associated with higher sodium intake and lower potassium intake, few studies have examined the source foods quantitatively. Studies on dietary patterns in association with potassium intake will be useful to provide dietary advice to increase potassium intake. Twenty-four-hour (hr) dietary recall data and 24-hr urinary potassium excretion data from Japanese participants (574 men and 571 women) in the International Study of Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) were used to calculate food sources of potassium and compare food consumption patterns among quartiles of participants categorized according to 24-hr urinary potassium excretion per unit of body weight (UK/BW). The average potassium intake was 2791 mg/day per participant, and the major sources were vegetables and fruits (1262 mg/day), fish (333 mg/day), coffee and tea (206 mg/day), and milk and dairy products (200 mg/day). Participants in the higher UK/BW quartile consumed significantly more vegetables and fruits, fish, and milk and dairy products, and ate less rice and noodles. Conclusion: Advice to increase the intake of vegetables and fruits, fish, and milk may be useful to increase potassium intake in Japan.
Zhang Y, Elliott P, Toledano M, et al., The Consortium on Vulnerability to Externalising Disorders and Addictions (c-VEDA): an accelerated longitudinal cohort of children and adolescents in India, Molecular Psychiatry, ISSN: 1359-4184
The global burden of disease attributable to externalising disorders such as alcohol misusecalls urgently for effective prevention and intervention. As our current knowledge is mainlyderived from high-income countries such in Europe and North-America, it is difficult toaddress the wider socio-cultural, psychosocial context, and genetic factors in which risk andresilience are embedded in low- and medium-income countries. c-VEDA was established asthe first and largest India-based multi-site cohort investigating the vulnerabilities for thedevelopment of externalising disorders, addictions, and other mental health problems. Usinga harmonised data collection plan coordinated with multiple cohorts in China, USA, andEurope, baseline data were collected from 7 study sites between November 2016 and May2019. 9010 participants between the ages of 6 and 23 were assessed during this time, amongstwhich 1278 participants underwent more intensive assessments including MRI scans. Bothwaves of follow-ups have started according to the accelerated cohort structure with plannedmissingness design. Here we present descriptive statistics on several key domains ofassessments, and the full baseline dataset will be made accessible for researchers outside theconsortium in September 2019. More details can be found on our website [cveda.org].
Cai Y, Hansell AL, Granell R, et al., 2020, Prenatal, early-life and childhood exposure to air pollution and lung function: the ALSPAC cohort., American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, ISSN: 1073-449X
RATIONALE: Exposure to air pollution during intrauterine development and through childhood may have lasting effects on respiratory health. OBJECTIVES: To investigate lung function at ages 8 and 15 years in relation to air pollution exposures during pregnancy, infancy and childhood in a UK population-based birth cohort. METHODS: Individual exposures to source-specific particulate matter with diameter ≤10µm (PM10) during each trimester, 0-6 months, 7-12 months (1990-1993) and up to age 15 years (1991-2008) were examined in relation to %predicted Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) at ages 8(N=5,276) and 15(N=3,446) years, usinglinear regression models adjusted for potential confounders. A profile regression model was used to identify sensitive time periods. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We did not find clear evidence for a sensitive exposure period for PM10 from road-traffic: at age 8 years, 1µg/m3 higher exposure during the first trimester was associated with lower %predicted of FEV1(-0.826, 95%CI:-1.357 to -0.296) and FVC(-0.817, 95%CI:-1.357 to -0.276), but similar associations were seen for exposures for other trimesters, 0-6 months, 7-12 months, and 0-7 years. Associations were stronger among boys, children whose mother had a lower education level or smoked during pregnancy. For PM10 from all sources, the third trimester was associated with lower %predicted of FVC (-1.312, 95%CI: -2.100 to -0.525). At age 15 years, no adverse associations were seen with lung function. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to road-traffic PM10 during pregnancy may result in small but significant reductions in lung function at age 8 years.
Huang L, Tian M, Yu J, et al., 2020, Interim effects of salt substitution on urinary electrolytes and blood pressure in the China Salt Substitute and Stroke Study (SSaSS), American Heart Journal, Vol: 221, Pages: 136-145, ISSN: 0002-8703
The Salt Substitute and Stroke Study is an ongoing 5-year large-scale cluster randomized trial investigating the effects of potassium-enriched salt substitute compared to usual salt on the risk of stroke. The study involves 600 villages and 20,996 individuals in rural China. Intermediate risk markers were measured in a random subsample of villages every 12 months over 3 years to track progress against key assumptions underlying study design. Measures of 24-hour urinary sodium, 24-hour urinary potassium, blood pressure and participants' use of salt substitute were recorded, with differences between intervention and control groups estimated using generalized linear mixed models. The primary outcome of annual event rate in the two groups combined was determined by dividing confirmed fatal and non-fatal strokes by total follow-up time in the first 2 years. The mean differences (95% CI) were -0.32 g (-0.68 to 0.05) for 24-hour urinary sodium, +0.77 g (+0.60 to +0.93) for 24-hour urinary potassium, -2.65 mmHg (-4.32 to -0.97) for systolic blood pressure and +0.30 mmHg (-0.72 to +1.32) for diastolic blood pressure. Use of salt substitute was reported by 97.5% in the intervention group versus 4.2% in the control group (P<.0001). The overall estimated annual event rate for fatal and non-fatal stroke was 3.2%. The systolic blood pressure difference and the annual stroke rate were both in line with the statistical assumptions underlying study design. The trial should be well placed to address the primary hypothesis at completion of follow-up.
Elliott J, Bodinier B, Bond TA, et al., 2020, Predictive Accuracy of a Polygenic Risk Score-Enhanced Prediction Model vs a Clinical Risk Score for Coronary Artery Disease, JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, Vol: 323, Pages: 636-645, ISSN: 0098-7484
Aljuraiban GS, Pertiwi K, Stamler J, et al., 2020, Potato consumption, by preparation method and meal quality, with blood pressure and body mass index: The INTERMAP study, Clinical Nutrition, ISSN: 0261-5614
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Previous studies have reported associations between higher potato intake and higher blood pressure (BP) and/or risk of hypertension and obesity. These studies rarely considered preparation methods of potatoes, overall dietary pattern or the nutrient quality of the meals. These factors may affect the association of potato intake with BP and body mass index (BMI). This study investigated potato consumption by amount, type of processing, overall dietary pattern, and nutrient quality of the meals in relation to BP and BMI. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted among 2696 participants aged 40-59 y in the US and UK samples of the International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP). Nutrient quality of individual food items and the overall diet was assessed with the Nutrient-Rich Foods (NRF) index. RESULTS: No associations with BP or BMI were found for total potato intake nor for boiled, mashed, or baked potatoes or potato-based mixed dishes. In US women, higher intake of fried potato was associated with 2.29 mmHg (95% CI: 0.55, 3.83) higher systolic BP and with 1.14 mmHg (95% CI: 0.10, 2.17) higher diastolic BP, independent of BMI. Higher fried potato consumption was directly associated with a +0.86 kg/m2 difference in BMI (95% CI: 0.24, 1.58) in US women. These associations were not found in men. Higher intakes of fried potato meals with a lower nutritional quality (NRF index≤ 2) were positively associated with systolic (3.88 mmHg; 95% CI: 2.63, 5.53) and diastolic BP (1.62 mmHg; 95% CI: 0.48, 2.95) in US women. No associations with BP were observed for fried potato meals with a higher nutritional quality (NRF index> 2). CONCLUSIONS: Fried potato was directly related to BP and BMI in women, but non-fried potato was not. Poor-nutrient quality meals were associated with intake of fried potatoes and higher BP, suggesting that accompanied dietary choices are key mediators of
Georgakis MK, Gill D, Webb AJS, et al., Genetically determined blood pressure, antihypertensive drug classes and risk of stroke subtypes, Neurology, ISSN: 0028-3878
Objective: We employed Mendelian Randomization to explore whether the effects of blood pressure (BP) and BP lowering through different antihypertensive drug classes on stroke risk vary by stroke etiology. Methods: We selected genetic variants associated with systolic and diastolic BP and BP-lowering variants in genes encoding antihypertensive drug targets from a GWAS on 757,601 individuals. Applying two-sample Mendelian randomization, we examined associations with any stroke (67,162 cases; 454,450 controls), ischemic stroke and its subtypes (large artery, cardioembolic, small vessel stroke), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH, deep and lobar), and the related small vessel disease phenotype of WMH.Results: Genetic predisposition to higher systolic and diastolic BP was associated with higher risk of any stroke, ischemic stroke, and ICH. We found associations between genetically determined BP and all ischemic stroke subtypes with a higher risk of large artery and small vessel stroke compared to cardioembolic stroke, as well as associations with deep, but not lobar ICH. Genetic proxies for calcium channel blockers, but not beta blockers, were associated with lower risk of any stroke and ischemic stroke. Proxies for CCBs showed particularly strong associations with small vessel stroke and the related radiological phenotype of WMH.Conclusions: This study supports a causal role of hypertension in all major stroke subtypes except lobar ICH. We find differences in the effects of BP and BP lowering through antihypertensive drug classes between stroke subtypes and identify calcium channel blockade as a promising strategy for preventing manifestations of cerebral small vessel disease.
Gulliver J, Morley D, Fecht D, et al., 2020, Feasibility study for using the CNOSSOS-EU road traffic noise prediction model with low resolution inputs for exposure estimation on a Europe-wide scale, Pages: 481-486
Copyright © (2015) by EAA-NAG-ABAV, All rights reserved A noise model based on the CNOSSOS-EU method was developed to estimate exposures to road traffic noise at individual address locations for studies of noise and health in European cohorts in the EU FP7 BioSHaRE project. We assessed the loss in model performance from necessarily (i.e. at national scale) using low resolution data on traffic flows, road geography and land cover. To assess the feasibility of this approach in terms of the loss of model performance, we applied CNOSSOS-EU with different combinations of high- and low-resolution inputs (e.g. high resolution road geography with low resolution land cover) and compared noise level estimates with measurements of LAeq1hr from 38 locations in Leicester, a medium sized city in the UK. The lowest resolution model performed reasonably well in terms of correlation [rs = 0.75; p = 0.000)] but with relatively large model errors [RMSE = 4.46 dB(A)]. For a sample of postcode (zip code) locations (n=721) in Leicester, in comparing output from Model A (highest resolution) and Model F (lowest resolution), 81.8% and 72.8% of exposure estimates remained in the lowest and highest of three equal exposure categories, respectively.
Jaime Miranda J, Carrillo-Larco RM, Ferreccio C, et al., 2020, Trends in cardiometabolic risk factors in the Americas between 1980 and 2014: a pooled analysis of population-based surveys, The Lancet Global Health, Vol: 8, Pages: E123-E133, ISSN: 2214-109X
BackgroundDescribing the prevalence and trends of cardiometabolic risk factors that are associated with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is crucial for monitoring progress, planning prevention, and providing evidence to support policy efforts. We aimed to analyse the transition in body-mass index (BMI), obesity, blood pressure, raised blood pressure, and diabetes in the Americas, between 1980 and 2014.MethodsWe did a pooled analysis of population-based studies with data on anthropometric measurements, biomarkers for diabetes, and blood pressure from adults aged 18 years or older. A Bayesian model was used to estimate trends in BMI, raised blood pressure (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg), and diabetes (fasting plasma glucose ≥7·0 mmol/L, history of diabetes, or diabetes treatment) from 1980 to 2014, in 37 countries and six subregions of the Americas.Findings389 population-based surveys from the Americas were available. Comparing prevalence estimates from 2014 with those of 1980, in the non-English speaking Caribbean subregion, the prevalence of obesity increased from 3·9% (95% CI 2·2–6·3) in 1980, to 18·6% (14·3–23·3) in 2014, in men; and from 12·2% (8·2–17·0) in 1980, to 30·5% (25·7–35·5) in 2014, in women. The English-speaking Caribbean subregion had the largest increase in the prevalence of diabetes, from 5·2% (2·1–10·4) in men and 6·4% (2·6–10·4) in women in 1980, to 11·1% (6·4–17·3) in men and 13·6% (8·2–21·0) in women in 2014). Conversely, the prevalence of raised blood pressure has decreased in all subregions; the largest decrease was found in North America from 27·6% (22·3–33·2) in men and 19·9% (15·8–24·4) in women in 1980, to 15·
Cai Y, Blangiardo M, de Hoogh K, et al., 2020, Road traffic noise, air pollution and cardiorespiratory Health in European Cohorts: A harmonised approach in the BioShare project, Pages: 137-142
Copyright © (2015) by EAA-NAG-ABAV, All rights reserved Background and aims: Few studies have investigated joint effects of road traffic noise and air pollution on cardiorespiratory outcomes. This project aims to quantify the joint and separate effects of both exposures on prevalent and incident cardiovascular disease and asthma as part of the EU-funded BioSHaRE project involving five European cohorts (EPIC-Oxford, EPIC-Turin, HUNT, Lifelines, UK Biobank). Methods: Health outcomes have been ascertained by self-report (prevalence) and medical record (incidence) and retrospectively harmonised across cohorts. Residential road traffic noise exposures for each participant are estimated using a European noise model based on Common Noise Assessment Methods in Europe (CNOSSOS-EU). Road traffic air pollution estimates at home address were derived from Land Use Regression models. Cross-sectional and incident epidemiological analyses are in progress, using individual level data, virtually pooled using DataSHIELD methodology. Results: In total, 742,950 men and women are included from all five cohorts, mostly >40 years. Prevalence of self-reported myocardial infarction from these five cohorts is 2.1% (N=15,031) while prevalence of self-reported stroke is 1.4% (N=10,077). Initial pooled analysis of EPIC-Oxford, HUNT and Lifelines showed median day-time (07:00-19:00) noise estimate of 51.8 dB(A) and night-time (23:00-07:00) noise estimate of 43.5 dB(A). Correlations between noise estimates and NO2 are generally low (r=0.1 to 0.4). Conclusions: Pooling of individual level harmonised data from established cohorts offers the large sample sizes and exposure variations needed to investigate effects of road traffic noise and ambient air pollution on cardio-respiratory diseases.
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