Imperial College London

Paul Fennell

Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Chemical Engineering

Professor of Clean Energy
 
 
 
//

Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 6637p.fennell

 
 
//

Location

 

228aBone BuildingSouth Kensington Campus

//

Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

162 results found

Driver JG, Hills T, Hodgson P, Sceats M, Fennell PSet al., 2022, Simulation of direct separation technology for carbon capture and storage in the cement industry, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL, Vol: 449, ISSN: 1385-8947

Journal article

Ghaedi H, Kalhor P, Zhao M, Clough PT, Anthony EJ, Fennell PSet al., 2022, Potassium carbonate-based ternary transition temperature mixture (deep eutectic analogues) for CO2 absorption: Characterizations and DFT analysis, FRONTIERS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & ENGINEERING, Vol: 16, ISSN: 2095-2201

Journal article

Hennequin LM, Kim S, Monroe EA, Eckles TP, Beck N, Mays WD, Fennell PS, Hallett JP, George A, Davis RWet al., 2022, Reclamation of nutrients, carbon, and metals from compromised surface waters fated to the Salton Sea: Biomass production and ecosystem services using an attached periphytic algae flow-way, ALGAL RESEARCH-BIOMASS BIOFUELS AND BIOPRODUCTS, Vol: 66, ISSN: 2211-9264

Journal article

Meka W, Szuhanszki J, Finnry K, Gudka B, Jones J, Pourkashanian M, Fennell PSet al., 2022, Modeling and Evaluation of Ash-Forming Element Fate and Occurrence in Woody Biomass Combustion in an Entrained-Flow Burner, ACS OMEGA, Vol: 7, Pages: 16306-16322, ISSN: 2470-1343

Journal article

Leonzio G, Mwabonje O, Fennell PS, Shah Net al., 2022, Environmental performance of different sorbents used for direct air capture, Sustainable Production and Consumption, Vol: 32, Pages: 101-111, ISSN: 2352-5509

Currently, conventional carbon dioxide (CO2) mitigation solutions may be insufficient to achieve the stringent environmental targets set for the coming decades. CO2 removal (CDR) technologies, such as direct air capture (DAC), capturing CO2 from the ambient air, are required.In this research, an independent life cycle assessment (LCA) of DAC adsorption systems based on three physisorbents (metal organic frameworks) and two chemisorbents (amine functionalized sorbents) is presented. These capture processes have been optimised by us in previous work.Results show that for the overall capture process, negative CO2 emissions are ensured by using a cellulose-based amine sorbent (cradle-to-gate) ensuring even the net removal of CO2 from the atmosphere (cradle-to-grave). Processes using physisorbents have poorer performances. Chemisorbents yield operating conditions allowing lower impacts on the environment. In 2050, these processes could reduce climate change but can generate other environmental impacts.With the aim to have better environmental performances of DAC systems, future research should be focused on improving the physical properties of sorbents such as the silica gel based amine sorbent to increase their capture capacities. If metal organic frameworks are to be used, it is necessary to drop their energy consumption (by increasing the loading) and the required mass of sorbent.

Journal article

Bahzad H, Fennell P, Shah N, Hallett J, Ali Net al., 2022, Techno-economic assessment for a pumped thermal energy storage integrated with open cycle gas turbine and chemical looping technology, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol: 255, Pages: 1-23, ISSN: 0196-8904

Pumped thermal energy storage offers a high energy density, potentially resulting in a relatively low cost per unit of energy stored. In this study, two novel energy storage systems were developed. The first system was developed by integrating pumped thermal energy storage and chemical looping technologies, whereas the second was formed by merging the first system with an open cycle gas turbine. Both systems used an oxygen depleted stream as a working fluid and iron-based oxygen carriers from a chemical looping water splitting process storage material for the pumped thermal energy storage system. In addition, hydrogen from the chemical looping process was employed for the gas turbine in the second system. Both systems were evaluated thermodynamically via the determination of the roundtrip efficiency. The results presented here indicate that the roundtrip efficiency of both systems developed was 77%. Furthermore, the capital requirements, operating costs, and daily profits from electricity generation were calculated for both systems over several days within the year. The capital and operating costs for the several days that were simulated for the integrated pumped thermal energy storage system were lower than that of a gas turbine based system. Consequently, the daily profit was estimated and found to be between 4.9% and 72.9% higher for the integrated pumped storage relative to the gas turbine based system. Moreover, an economic sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the factors that strongly affect the daily profits of the gas turbine system relative to the pumped storage system. Based on the analysis, the optimal hydrogen fuel percentage fed to the open cycle gas turbine was calculated for the days simulated. Finally, the impact of % error on the estimated capital and fuel production costs on daily profits were investigated. The outcome revealed a higher impact of computational errors on the fuel costs relative to the costs of the capital.

Journal article

Leonzio G, Fennell PS, Shah N, 2022, A comparative study of different sorbents in the context of direct air capture (DAC): evaluation of key performance indicators and comparisons, Applied Sciences-Basel, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2076-3417

Direct air capture can be based on an adsorption system, and the used sorbent (chemisorbents or physisorbents) influences process. In this work, two amine-functionalized sorbents, as chemisorbents, and three different metal organic frameworks, as physisorbents, are considered and compared in terms of some key performance indicators. This was carried out by developing a mathematical model describing the adsorption and desorption stages. An independent analysis was carried out in order to verify data reported in the literature. Results show that the equilibrium loading is a critical parameter for adsorption capacity, energy consumption, and cost. The considered metal organic frameworks are characterized by a lower equilibrium loading (10−4 mol/kg) compared to chemisorbents (10−1 mol/kg). For this reason, physisorbents have higher overall energy consumptions and costs, while capturing a lower amount of carbon dioxide. A reasonable agreement is found on the basis of the operating conditions of the Climeworks company, modelling the use of the same amine cellulose-based sorbent. The same order of magnitude is found for total costs (751 USD/tonneCO2 for our analysis, compared to the value of 600 USD/tonneCO2 proposed by this company)

Journal article

Chambon CL, Verdía P, Fennell PS, Hallett JPet al., 2021, Process intensification of the ionoSolv pretreatment: effects of biomass loading, particle size and scale-up from 10 mL to 1 L, Scientific Reports, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 2045-2322

The ionoSolv process is one of the most promising technologies for biomass pretreatment in a biorefinery context. In order to evaluate the transition of the ionoSolv pretreatment of biomass from bench-scale experiments to commercial scale, there is a need to get better insight in process intensification. In this work, the effects of biomass loading, particle size, pulp washing protocols and 100-fold scale up for the pretreatment of the grassy biomass Miscanthus giganteus with the IL triethylammonium hydrogen sulfate, [TEA][HSO4], are presented as a necessary step in that direction. At the bench scale, increasing biomass loading from 10 to 50 wt% reduced glucose yields from 68 to 23% due to re-precipitation of lignin onto the pulp surface. Omitting the pulp air-drying step maintained saccharification yields at 66% at 50 wt% loading due to reduced fiber hornification. 100-fold scale-up (from 10 mL to 1 L) improved the efficacy of ionoSolv pretreatment and increasing loadings from 10 to 20 wt% reduced lignin reprecipitation and led to higher glucose yields due to the improved heat and mass transfer caused by efficient slurry mixing in the reactor. Pretreatment of particle sizes of 1–3 mm was more effective than fine powders (0.18–0.85 mm) giving higher glucose yields due to reduced surface area available for lignin re-precipitation while reducing grinding energy needs. Stirred ionoSolv pretreatment showed great potential for industrialization and further process intensification after optimization of the pretreatment conditions (temperature, residence time, stirring speed), particle size and biomass loading. Pulp washing protocols need further improvement to reduce the incidence of lignin precipitation and the water requirements of lignin washing.

Journal article

Hennequin LM, Tan S-Y, Jensen E, Fennell P, Hallett JPet al., 2021, Combining phytoremediation and biorefinery: Metal extraction from lead contaminated Miscanthus during pretreatment using the ionoSolv process, INDUSTRIAL CROPS AND PRODUCTS, Vol: 176, ISSN: 0926-6690

Journal article

Eschenbacher A, Fennell P, Jensen AD, 2021, A Review of Recent Research on Catalytic Biomass Pyrolysis and Low-Pressure Hydropyrolysis, ENERGY & FUELS, Vol: 35, Pages: 18333-18369, ISSN: 0887-0624

Journal article

Fennell PS, Davis SJ, Mohammed A, 2021, Decarbonizing cement production, JOULE, Vol: 5, Pages: 1305-1311, ISSN: 2542-4351

Journal article

Hennequin L, Sas E, Frémont A, Jerbi A, Legault N, Lamontagne J, Fagoaga N, Sarrazin M, Hallett J, Fennell P, Barnabé S, Labrecque M, Brereton N, Pitre Fet al., 2021, Biorefinery potential of sustainable municipal wastewater treatment using fast-growing willow, Science of the Total Environment, ISSN: 0048-9697

Journal article

Hallett J, 2021, Rhododendron and Japanese Knotweed: invasive species as innovative crops for second generation biofuels, RSC Advances: an international journal to further the chemical sciences, Vol: 11, Pages: 18395-18403, ISSN: 2046-2069

We investigated the potential of two terrestrial biomass invasive species in the United-Kingdom as lignocellulosic biofuel feedstocks: Japanese Knotweed (Fallopia japonica) and Rhododendron (Rhododendron ponticum). We demonstrate that a pretreatment technique using a low-cost protic ionic liquid, the ionoSolv process, can be used for such types of plant species considered as waste, to allow their integration into a biorefinery. N,N,N-Dimethylbutylammonium hydrogen sulfate ([DMBA][HSO4]) was able to fractionate the biomass into a cellulose-rich pulp and a lignin stream at high temperatures (150–170 °C) and short reaction times (15–60 minutes). More than 70–80% of the subsequent cellulose was hydrolysed into fermentable sugars, which were fermented into the renewable energy vector bioethanol.

Journal article

Yao JG, Tan S-Y, Metcalfe P, Fennell PS, Kelsall GH, Hallett JPet al., 2021, Demetallization of Sewage Sludge Using Low-Cost Ionic Liquids, ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 55, Pages: 5291-5300, ISSN: 0013-936X

Journal article

Patzschke CF, Boot-Handford ME, Song Q, Fennell PSet al., 2021, Co-precipitated Cu-Mn mixed metal oxides as oxygen carriers for chemical looping processes, Chemical Engineering Journal, Vol: 407, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 1385-8947

Chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) and chemical looping air separation (CLAS) are novel and potentially promising processes for the combustion of solid fuels (e.g. biomass) for power generation with inherent CO2 capture. Redox-experiments at 850–950 °C confirmed that copper manganese spinel oxides are promising oxygen carriers for these processes, as they combine a relatively high O2 release capacity and fast O2 release kinetics. Furthermore, this work presents a novel method to calculate the O2 partial pressure equilibrium and the heat of O2 release from observed rates of reaction. To demonstrate this method, oxygen carriers were prepared via mechanical mixing and co-precipitation with varying molar Cu:Mn ratios and synthesis conditions, thereby tuning material properties and the pore structure. The precursors and calcined materials were characterised, and the crystalline phases were determined using X-ray diffraction. The insights from the post cycling analysis of the oxygen carriers and the experimentally obtained O2 release capacities were combined to elucidate the redox-reactions relevant for the two processes. It was found that the presence of a higher partial pressure of O2 during the O2 release results in the formation of different (perovskite-like) phases than those occurring during the decomposition in an O2-free environment. The oxygen carriers demonstrated excellent stability at CLOU and CLAS process conditions during extended redox cycling (100 cycles in a thermo-gravimetric analyser and 50 cycles in a fluidised bed reactor), showing no significant loss of reactivity or O2 release capacity and a high resistance towards attrition and agglomeration. The degree of degradation after 100 cycles was in the order: temperature swing (CLAS) < O2 partial pressure swing (CLOU) < reduction with CH4 (chemical looping combustion).

Journal article

Ghaedi H, Zhao M, Clough PT, Anthony EJ, Fennell PSet al., 2020, High CO2 absorption in new amine based-transition-temperature mixtures (deep eutectic analogues) and reporting thermal stability, viscosity and surface tension: Response surface methodology (RSM), JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR LIQUIDS, Vol: 316, ISSN: 0167-7322

Journal article

González B, KokotBlamey J, Fennell P, 2020, Enhancement of CaO‐based sorbent for CO 2 capture through doping with seawater, Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, Vol: 10, Pages: 878-883, ISSN: 2152-3878

Limestone can be used to generate a sorbent suitable for CO2 capture via the reversible carbonation of CaO, in a process often referred to as calcium looping. This sorbent loses reactivity to CO2 upon cycles of carbonation and calcination (the reverse of carbonation). Several methods of improving sorbent performance have previously been investigated, including by generating synthetic sorbents or simple doping. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, that sorbent performance can be enhanced by simple doping with seawater. This effect is consistent across five different limestones investigated and can be enhanced by steam addition. This would be a simple and inexpensive method for improving sorbent performance in calcium looping processes. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Journal article

Gschwend FJ, Hennequin LM, Brandt-Talbot A, Bedoya-Lora F, Kelsall GH, Polizzi K, Fennell PS, Hallett JPet al., 2020, Towards an environmentally and economically sustainable biorefinery: heavy metal contaminated waste wood as a low-cost feedstock in a low-cost ionic liquid process, Green Chemistry, Vol: 22, Pages: 5032-5041, ISSN: 1463-9262

In the present study, we used a low-cost protic ionic liquid, 1-methylimidazolium chloride, to simultaneously fractionate heavy metal contaminated wood and extract the metals from the wood at elevated temperature and short reaction time. This treatment selectively dissolves the lignin and hemicellulose in the biomass, leaving a solid cellulose-rich pulp, while coordinating and extracting 80–100% of the metal species present in the wood in a one-pot process. The lignin stream was recovered from the liquor and the cellulose was hydrolysed and then fermented into ethanol. The ionic liquid was recycled 6 times and the metals were recovered from the liquor via electrodeposition. This is the first time that highly contaminated waste wood has been integrated into a process which does not produce a contaminated waste stream, but instead valorises the wood as a feedstock for renewable chemicals, materials and fuels, while efficiently recovering the metals, converting a toxic environmental hazard into a rich source of biorenewables. We have therefore used an otherwise problematic waste as a low-cost lignocellulsoic feedstock for a circular bioeconomy concept.

Journal article

Firth AEJ, Mac Dowell N, Fennell PS, Hallett JPet al., 2020, Assessing the economic viability of wetland remediation of wastewater, and the potential for parallel biomass valorisation, Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, Vol: 6, Pages: 2103-2121, ISSN: 2053-1400

Constructed wetlands have been shown to consistently remove a wide range of pollutants from contaminated water. However, no wide-ranging studies exist on the economic viability of this technology. This paper performs a high-level economic comparison between wetland remediation and conventional water remediation technologies, for a wide range of contaminant inputs, outputs, and flow rates. The cases considered are nutrient removal from wastewater, and remediation of low-pH and circumneutral acid mine drainage (AMD). The first-order P-k-C* model is used for nutrient removal, while a zeroth-order model is used for AMD remediation, with removal rate data taken from the literature. The number of wetland cells employed was found to significantly affect the overall cost of nutrient removal, allowing savings of up to 86% and 42% for biochemical oxygen demand and phosphorus removal, particularly for low concentrations and flow rates. For integrated secondary and tertiary treatment, wetland remediation was economically competitive down to stringent effluent standards. A sensitivity analysis was performed on sizing and costing parameters of nutrient removal wetlands, with required wetland size found to be most strongly correlated with the assumed removal rate, and land costs found to have relatively little effect on overall costs. Wetland remediation of AMD was only found to be economically favourable for less severe conditions and lower flow rates when treating low-pH drainage, and was heavily influenced by the acidity removal rate. However, the majority of site data from literature was found to fall within this range of conditions. For circumneutral AMD, wetland remediation was found to be cheaper for all simulated cases. The feasibility of offsetting wetland remediation costs through biomass valorisation was investigated for a range of products, with area requirements for minimum economic production identified as the principal barrier.

Journal article

Rissman J, Bataille C, Masanet E, Aden N, Morrow WR, Zhou N, Elliott N, Dell R, Heeren N, Huckestein B, Cresko J, Miller SA, Roy J, Fennell P, Cremmins B, Blank TK, Hone D, Williams ED, du Can SDLR, Sisson B, Williams M, Katzenberger J, Burtraw D, Sethi G, Ping H, Danielson D, Lu H, Lorber T, Dinkel J, Helseth Jet al., 2020, Technologies and policies to decarbonize global industry: Review and assessment of mitigation drivers through 2070, APPLIED ENERGY, Vol: 266, ISSN: 0306-2619

Journal article

Yao JG, Boot-Handford ME, Zhang Z, Maitland GC, Fennell PSet al., 2020, Pressurized In Situ CO2 Capture from Biomass Combustion via the Calcium Looping Process in a Spout-Fluidized-Bed Reactor, INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH, Vol: 59, Pages: 8571-8580, ISSN: 0888-5885

Journal article

Katayama K, Bahzad H, Boot-Handford M, Patzschke CF, Fennell PSet al., 2020, Process Integration of Chemical Looping Water Splitting with a Sintering Plant for Iron Making, INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH, Vol: 59, Pages: 7021-7032, ISSN: 0888-5885

Journal article

Chambon CL, Fitriyanti V, Verdía P, Yang SM, Hérou S, Titirici M-M, Brandt-Talbot A, Fennell PS, Hallett JPet al., 2020, Fractionation by sequential antisolvent precipitation of grass, softwood, and hardwood lignins isolated using low-cost ionic liquids and water, ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, Vol: 8, Pages: 3751-3761, ISSN: 2168-0485

In this study, fractionation by sequential antisolvent precipitation was applied to ionoSolv lignins for the first time. Pretreatment with the aqueous low-cost protic ionic liquid N,N-dimethylbutylammonium hydrogen sulfate ([DMBA][HSO4], 80 wt % in water) was applied to Miscanthus (herbaceous), willow (hardwood), and pine (softwood) to extract lignin. Then, lignin was sequentially precipitated by the addition of water as an antisolvent. Fractionation appeared to be controlled by the molecular weight of lignin polymers. Fractions isolated with minimal water volumes were shown to have high molecular weight, polydispersity, thermal stability, and Tg (178 °C). Later precipitates were more monodisperse and had high phenolic and total hydroxyl content and lower thermal stability and Tg (136 °C). Addition of 1 g of water per gram of dry IL was able to precipitate up to 90 wt % of lignin. Fractional precipitation represents a novel lignin isolation technique that can be performed as part of the lignin recovery procedure enabling a high degree of control of lignin properties. The effect of the fractionation on lignin structural, chemical, and thermal properties was thoroughly examined by two-dimensional heteronuclear single quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance, gel permeation chromatography, thermogravimetric analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry and compared to the unfractionated lignin precipitate obtained by addition of an excess of water.

Journal article

Yao JG, Fennell PS, Hallett JP, 2020, Chapter 4: Ionic liquids, RSC Energy and Environment Series, Pages: 69-105, ISBN: 9781788014700

The use of ionic liquids (ILs) is a relatively new and promising technology for CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Ionic liquids, which are essentially organic salts with melting points below 100 °C, are particularly attractive owing to their negligible volatility, chemical and thermal stability, and most importantly, their designability. Their low reaction enthalpy with CO2 allows regeneration under less energy intensive conditions relative to conventional amine solvents, and choosing their anion/cation pairing can allow their properties to be controlled. Although conventional ILs are able to physically absorb CO2, greater capture capacities can be achieved by tethering functional groups which can chemically bind to CO2 on either or both of the cation and anion. In addition to liquid-gas capture, ILs have also demonstrated success when incorporated into gas separation membranes. To date, most studies have been focused at the laboratory scale and under ideal conditions (i.e., capture under high CO2 partial pressures, and regeneration in N2); however, in order to progress with this technology, it is imperative to explore the behaviour of ILs under industrially-relevant environments. In addition, further process simulation and economic studies should be carried out to help scale up the technology.

Book chapter

Hills TP, Sceats MG, Fennell PS, 2020, Chapter 10: Applications of CCS in the cement industry, RSC Energy and Environment Series, Pages: 315-352, ISBN: 9781788014700

Cement manufacture is responsible for around 7% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions. The process is unique in that around two-Thirds of the direct CO2 emissions are unavoidable as they come from the process chemistry rather than from fuel combustion. This makes reducing them particularly difficult, and carbon capture and storage is currently the only option that can reduce emissions by the extent required to allow cement manufacture to continue beyond the transition to low CO2-emission economies. Post-combustion capture options, which are similar to those described in Chapter 4, are available. Equally, oxy-fuel combustion is possible. Pre-combustion capture can only deal with one-Third of emissions from combustion, and so is generally not considered. Other cement-specific options exist, such as direct separation, and the synergies between calcium looping and cement manufacture are noteworthy. High CO2 intensity coupled with the relatively low price of cement means that CCS is expensive per unit of cement manufactured. The lack of large-scale capture facilities means that the costs are rather uncertain, although several estimates are given in this chapter. A summary of existing pilot plants is provided, the challenges of rolling out carbon capture in the cement sector are discussed, and a way forward is suggested.

Book chapter

Ghosh S, Fennell PS, 2020, Design and Techno-Economic Analysis of a Fluidized Bed-based CaO/Ca(OH)(2) Thermochemical Energy Combined Storage/Discharge Plant with Concentrated Solar Power, International Conference on Concentrating Solar Power and Chemical Energy Systems (SolarPACES), Publisher: AMER INST PHYSICS, ISSN: 0094-243X

Conference paper

Bahzad H, Katayama K, Boot-Handford ME, Mac Dowell N, Shah N, Fennell PSet al., 2019, Iron-based chemical-looping technology for decarbonising iron and steel production, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GREENHOUSE GAS CONTROL, Vol: 91, ISSN: 1750-5836

Journal article

Bahzad H, Shah N, Dowell NM, Boot-Handford M, Soltani SM, Ho M, Fennell PSet al., 2019, Development and techno-economic analyses of a novel hydrogen production process via chemical looping, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol: 44, Pages: 21251-21263, ISSN: 0360-3199

In this work, a novel hydrogen production process (Integrated Chemical Looping Water Splitting “ICLWS”) has been developed. The modelled process has been optimised via heat integration between the main process units. The effects of the key process variables (i.e. the oxygen carrier-to-fuel ratio, steam flow rate and discharged gas temperature) on the behaviour of the reducer and oxidiser reactors were investigated. The thermal and exergy efficiencies of the process were studied and compared against a conventional steam-methane reforming (SMR) process. Finally, the economic feasibility of the process was evaluated based on the corresponding CAPEX, OPEX and first-year plant cost per kg of the hydrogen produced. The thermal efficiency of the ICLWS process was improved by 31.1% compared to the baseline (Chemical Looping Water Splitting without heat integration) process. The hydrogen efficiency and the effective efficiencies were also higher by 11.7% and 11.9%, respectively compared to the SMR process. The sensitivity analysis showed that the oxygen carrier–to-methane and -steam ratios enhanced the discharged gas and solid conversions from both the reducer and oxidiser. Unlike for the oxidiser, the temperature of the discharged gas and solids from the reducer had an impact on the gas and solid conversion. The economic evaluation of the process indicated hydrogen production costs of $1.41 and $1.62 per kilogram of hydrogen produced for Fe-based oxygen carriers supported by ZrO2 and MgAl2O4, respectively - 14% and 1.2% lower for the SMR process H2 production costs respectively.

Journal article

Patzschke CF, Bahzad H, Boot-Handford ME, Fennell PSet al., 2019, Simulation of a 100-MW solar-powered thermo-chemical air separation system combined with an oxy-fuel power plant for bio-energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS), Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, ISSN: 1381-2386

Journal article

Ghosh S, Kokot-Blamey J, Boot-Handford ME, Fennell PSet al., 2019, Kinetics Modeling, Development, and Comparison for the Reaction of Calcium Oxide with Steam, ENERGY & FUELS, Vol: 33, Pages: 5505-5517, ISSN: 0887-0624

Journal article

This data is extracted from the Web of Science and reproduced under a licence from Thomson Reuters. You may not copy or re-distribute this data in whole or in part without the written consent of the Science business of Thomson Reuters.

Request URL: http://wlsprd.imperial.ac.uk:80/respub/WEB-INF/jsp/search-html.jsp Request URI: /respub/WEB-INF/jsp/search-html.jsp Query String: respub-action=search.html&id=00526516&limit=30&person=true