Imperial College London

DrPeterGeorge

Faculty of MedicineNational Heart & Lung Institute

Honorary Clinical Senior Lecturer
 
 
 
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p.george

 
 
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Guy Scadding BuildingRoyal Brompton Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
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63 results found

Nolan CM, Patel S, Barker RE, Walsh JA, Polgar O, Maddocks M, George PM, Renzoni EA, Wells AU, Molyneaux PL, Kouranos V, Chua F, Maher TM, Man WD-Cet al., 2021, Muscle stimulation in advanced idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a randomised placebo-controlled feasibility study., BMJ Open, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 2044-6055

OBJECTIVES: To assess the acceptability of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) of the quadriceps muscles in people with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and to identify whether a future definitive trial is feasible. DESIGN: A randomised, parallel, two-group, participant and assessor-blinded, placebo-controlled feasibility trial with embedded qualitative interviews. SETTING: Outpatient department, Royal Brompton and Harefield Hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-two people with IPF: median (25th, 75th centiles) age 76 (74, 82) years, forced vital capacity 62 (50, 75) % predicted, 6 min walk test distance 289 (149, 360) m. INTERVENTIONS: Usual care (home-based exercise, weekly telephone support, breathlessness management leaflet) with either placebo or active NMES for 6 weeks, with follow-up at 6 and 12 weeks. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Feasibility of recruitment and retention, treatment uptake and adherence, outcome assessments, participant and outcome assessor blinding and adverse events related to interventions. SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcome measures with potential to be primary or secondary outcomes in a definitive clinical trial. In addition, purposively sampled participants were interviewed to capture their experiences and acceptability of the trial. RESULTS: Out of 364 people screened, 23 were recruited: 11 were allocated to each group and one was withdrawn prior to randomisation. Compared with the control group, a greater proportion of the intervention group completed the intervention, remained in the trial blinded to group allocation and experienced intervention-related adverse events. Assessor blinding was maintained. The secondary outcome measures were feasible with most missing data associated with the accelerometer. Small participant numbers precluded identification of an outcome measure suitable for a definitive trial. Qualitative findings demonstrated that trial process and active NMES were acceptable but there were concerns abo

Journal article

Stock CJW, Hoyles RK, Daccord C, Kokosi M, Visca D, De Lauretis A, Alfieri V, Kouranos V, Margaritopoulos G, George PM, Molyneaux PL, Chua F, Maher TM, Abraham DJ, Ong V, Donovan J, Sestini P, Denton CP, Wells AU, Renzoni EAet al., 2021, Serum markers of pulmonary epithelial damage in systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease and disease progression, Respirology, Vol: 26, Pages: 461-468, ISSN: 1323-7799

Background and objectiveThe course of systemic sclerosis‐associated interstitial lung disease (SSc‐ILD) is highly variable, and accurate prognostic markers are needed. KL‐6 is a mucin‐like glycoprotein (MUC1) expressed by type II pneumocytes, while CYFRA 21‐1 is expressed by alveolar and bronchiolar epithelial cells. Both are released into the blood from cell injury.MethodsSerum KL‐6 and CYFRA 21‐1 levels were measured in a retrospective (n = 189) and a prospective (n = 118) cohort of SSc patients. Genotyping of MUC1 rs4072037 was performed. Linear mixed‐effect models were used to evaluate the relationship with change in lung function parameters over time, while association with survival was evaluated with Cox proportional hazard analysis.ResultsIn both cohorts, KL‐6 and CYFRA 21‐1 were highest in patients with lung involvement, and in patients with extensive rather than limited ILD. KL‐6 was higher in patients carrying the MUC1 rs4072037 G allele in both cohorts. In patients with SSc‐ILD, serum KL‐6, but not CYFRA 21‐1, was significantly associated with DLCO decline in both cohorts (P = 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively), and with FVC decline in the retrospective cohort (P = 0.005), but not the prospective cohort. When combining the cohorts and subgrouping by severity (median CPI = 45.97), KL‐6 remained predictive of decline in DLCO in both milder (P = 0.007) and more severe disease (P = 0.02) on multivariable analysis correcting for age, gender, ethnicity, smoking history and MUC1 allele carriage.ConclusionOur results suggest serum KL‐6 predicts decline in lung function in SSc, suggesting its clinical utility in risk stratification for progressive SSc‐ILD.

Journal article

Invernizzi R, Wu BG, Barnett J, Ghai P, Kingston S, Hewitt RJ, Feary J, Li Y, Chua F, Wu Z, Wells AU, Renzoni EA, Nicholson AG, Rice A, Devaraj A, Segal LN, Byrne AJ, Maher TM, Lloyd CM, Molyneaux PLet al., 2021, The respiratory microbiome in chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis is distinct from that of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 203, Pages: 339-347, ISSN: 1073-449X

RATIONALE: Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP) is a condition that arises following repeated exposure and sensitisation to inhaled antigens. The lung microbiome is increasingly implicated in respiratory disease but to date, no study has investigated the composition of microbial communities in the lower airways in CHP. OBJECTIVE: To characterise and compare the airway microbiome in subjects with CHP, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and controls. METHODS: We prospectively recruited individuals diagnosed with CHP (n=110), IPF (n=45) and controls (n=28). Subjects underwent bronchoalveolar lavage and bacterial DNA was isolated, quantified by qPCR and the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced to characterise the bacterial communities in the lower airways. MAIN MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Distinct differences in the microbial profiles were evident in the lower airways of subjects with CHP and IPF. At the phylum level, the prevailing microbiota of both IPF and CHP subjects included Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. However, in IPF, Firmicutes dominated while the percentage of reads assigned to Proteobacteria in the same group was significantly lower compared to CHP subjects. At the genus level, Staphylococcus was increased in CHP and Actinomyces and Veillonella in IPF. The lower airway bacterial burden in CHP subjects was higher than controls but lower than those with IPF. In contrast to IPF, there was no association between bacterial burden and survival in CHP. CONCLUSIONS: The microbial profile of the lower airways in subjects with CHP is distinct from that of IPF and, notably, bacterial burden in individuals with CHP fails to predict survival.

Journal article

George PM, Hida T, Putman RK, Hino T, Desai SR, Devaraj A, Kumar S, Mackintosh JA, Gudnason V, Hatabu H, Gudmundsson G, Hunninghake GM, George PM, Hida T, Putman RK, Desai SR, Devaraj A, Kumar S, Mackintosh JA, Gudnason V, Hatabu H, Gudmundsson G, Hunninghake GMet al., 2020, Hiatus hernia and interstitial lung abnormalities, EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL, Vol: 56, ISSN: 0903-1936

Journal article

Ahmetaj-Shala B, Ricky V, Santosh A, Peter G, Nicholas K, Jane Met al., 2020, Cardiorenal tissues express SARS-CoV-2 entry genes and basigin (BSG/CD147) increases with age in endothelial cells, JACC: Basic to Translational Science, Vol: 5, Pages: 1111-1123, ISSN: 2452-302X

Objectives: To obtain mechanistic insight into COVID-19 within a cardiovascular setting.Background: Thrombosis and vascular dysfunction are part of the complex pathology seen in severe COVID-19 and advancing age is the most significant risk factor. Little is known about age and expression of pathways utilised by the COVID-19 virus, SARS-CoV-2, in cardiovascular tissues.Methods: We used publicly available databases (GTEx, GEO and Array Express) to investigate gene expression levels, in adult tissues, of the two putative SARS-CoV-2 receptors, ACE2 and BSG along with a selected range of genes thought to be involved in virus binding/processing. Our analysis included; vessels (aorta and coronary artery), heart (atrial appendage and left ventricle), kidney (cortex), whole blood, lung, colon and spleen along with endothelial cells, nasal and bronchial epithelium and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Gene expression levels were then analysed for age associations.Results: We found: (i) cardiovascular tissues/endothelial cells express the required genes for SARS-CoV-2 infection, (ii) SARS-CoV-2 receptor pathways, ACE2/TMPRSS2 and BSG/PPIB(A) polarise to lung/epithelium and vessel/endothelium respectively, (iii) expression of host genes are relatively stable with age and (iv) notable exceptions are ACE2 which decreases with age in some tissues and BSG which increases with age in endothelial cells.Conclusion: Our data identifies a positive correlation of BSG with age in endothelial cells. Since BSG is utilised by other pathogens and is implicated in a range of cardiovascular disease, our observations may have relevance to our understanding of mechanisms associated with other pathogens and in the diseases associated with aging respectively.

Journal article

George PM, Barratt SL, Condliffe R, Desai SR, Devaraj A, Forrest I, Gibbons MA, Hart N, Jenkins RG, McAuley DF, Patel BV, Thwaite E, Spencer LGet al., 2020, Respiratory follow-up of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, Thorax, Vol: 75, Pages: 1009-1016, ISSN: 0040-6376

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to an unprecedented surge in hospitalised patients with viral pneumonia. The most severely affected patients are older men, individuals of black and Asian minority ethnicity and those with comorbidities. COVID-19 is also associated with an increased risk of hypercoagulability and venous thromboembolism. The overwhelming majority of patients admitted to hospital have respiratory failure and while most are managed on general wards, a sizeable proportion require intensive care support. The long-term complications of COVID-19 pneumonia are starting to emerge but data from previous coronavirus outbreaks such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) suggest that some patients will experience long-term respiratory complications of the infection. With the pattern of thoracic imaging abnormalities and growing clinical experience, it is envisaged that interstitial lung disease and pulmonary vascular disease are likely to be the most important respiratory complications. There is a need for a unified pathway for the respiratory follow-up of patients with COVID-19 balancing the delivery of high-quality clinical care with stretched National Health Service (NHS) resources. In this guidance document, we provide a suggested structure for the respiratory follow-up of patients with clinicoradiological confirmation of COVID-19 pneumonia. We define two separate algorithms integrating disease severity, likelihood of long-term respiratory complications and functional capacity on discharge. To mitigate NHS pressures, virtual solutions have been embedded within the pathway as has safety netting of patients whose clinical trajectory deviates from the pathway. For all patients, we suggest a holistic package of care to address breathlessness, anxiety, oxygen requirement, palliative care and rehabilitation.

Journal article

Drake TM, Docherty AB, Harrison EM, Quint JK, Adamali H, Agnew S, Babu S, Barber CM, Barratt S, Bendstrup E, Bianchi S, Castillo Villegas D, Chaudhuri N, Chua F, Coker R, Chang W, Crawshaw A, Crowley LE, Dosanjh D, Fiddler CA, Forrest IA, George PM, Gibbons MA, Groom K, Haney S, Hart SP, Heiden E, Henry M, Ho L-P, Hoyles RK, Hutchinson J, Hurley K, Jones MG, Jones S, Kokosi M, Kreuter M, Mackay LS, Mahendran S, Margaritopoulos G, Molina-Molina M, Molyneaux PL, O'Brien A, O'Reilly K, Packham A, Parfrey H, Poletti V, Porter JC, Renzoni E, Rivera-Ortega P, Russell A-M, Saini G, Spencer LG, Stella GM, Stone H, Sturney S, Thickett D, Thillai M, Wallis T, Ward K, Wells AU, West A, Wickremasinghe M, Woodhead F, Hearson G, Howard L, Baillie JK, Openshaw PJM, Semple MG, Stewart I, Jenkins RG, ISARIC4C Investigatorset al., 2020, Outcome of hospitalization for COVID-19 in patients with interstitial lung disease: an international multicenter study., American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 202, Pages: 1656-1665, ISSN: 1073-449X

RATIONALE: The impact of COVID-19 on patients with Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) has not been established. OBJECTIVES: To assess outcomes in patients with ILD hospitalized for COVID-19 versus those without ILD in a contemporaneous age, sex and comorbidity matched population. METHODS: An international multicenter audit of patients with a prior diagnosis of ILD admitted to hospital with COVID-19 between 1 March and 1 May 2020 was undertaken and compared with patients, without ILD obtained from the ISARIC 4C cohort, admitted with COVID-19 over the same period. The primary outcome was survival. Secondary analysis distinguished IPF from non-IPF ILD and used lung function to determine the greatest risks of death. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Data from 349 patients with ILD across Europe were included, of whom 161 were admitted to hospital with laboratory or clinical evidence of COVID-19 and eligible for propensity-score matching. Overall mortality was 49% (79/161) in patients with ILD with COVID-19. After matching ILD patients with COVID-19 had higher mortality (HR 1.60, Confidence Intervals 1.17-2.18 p=0.003) compared with age, sex and co-morbidity matched controls without ILD. Patients with a Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) of <80% had an increased risk of death versus patients with FVC ≥80% (HR 1.72, 1.05-2.83). Furthermore, obese patients with ILD had an elevated risk of death (HR 2.27, 1.39-3.71). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with ILD are at increased risk of death from COVID-19, particularly those with poor lung function and obesity. Stringent precautions should be taken to avoid COVID-19 in patients with ILD. This article is open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Journal article

Stock CJ, Conti C, Montero-Fernandez Á, Caramori G, Molyneaux PL, George PM, Kokosi M, Kouranos V, Maher TM, Chua F, Rice A, Denton CP, Nicholson AG, Wells A, Sestini P, Renzoni EAet al., 2020, Interaction between the promoter MUC5B polymorphism and mucin expression: is there a difference according to ILD subtype?, Thorax, Vol: 75, Pages: 901-903, ISSN: 0040-6376

The MUC5B promoter variant rs35705950 is associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). MUC5B glycoprotein is overexpressed in IPF lungs. We examined immunohistochemical expression of MUC5B in different interstitial lung disease patterns according to rs35705950 T-allele carriage. We observed increased expression of MUC5B in T-allele carriers in both distal airways and honeycomb cysts in patients with IPF (n=23), but no difference in MUC5B expression according to T-carrier status in the distal airways of patients with idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonitis (n=17), in scleroderma-associated non-specific interstitial pneumonitis (n=15) or in control lungs (n=20), suggesting that tissue overexpression in MUC5B rs35705950 T-carriers is specific to IPF.

Journal article

George PM, Spagnolo P, Kreuter M, Altinisik G, Bonifazi M, Martinez FJ, Molyneaux PL, Renzoni EA, Richeldi L, Tomassetti S, Valenzuela C, Vancheri C, Varone F, Cottin V, Costabel U, Erice ILD working groupet al., 2020, Progressive fibrosing interstitial lung disease: clinical uncertainties, consensus recommendations, and research priorities., The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, Vol: 8, Pages: 925-934, ISSN: 2213-2600

Within the spectrum of fibrosing interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) is a subset of patients who have inexorable progression of pulmonary fibrosis despite treatment, which is known as the progressive fibrotic phenotype. Although the concept of progressive fibrosing ILD has been applied largely to patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), there is now an increasing focus on irreversible progressive fibrosis in a proportion of patients with a range of underlying ILD diagnoses. Evidence has emerged to support a possible role for antifibrotic therapy in these patients. In this Position Paper, we discuss the importance of retaining diagnostic scrutiny within the multidisciplinary team and suggest a multidomain definition for progressive fibrosis. We consider the potential role of antifibrotic drugs as second-line therapy in the treatment algorithm for patients with progressive non-IPF ILD. We highlight risk factors that might predispose individuals to developing progressive fibrosis. Finally, we discuss key uncertainties and future directions for research and clinical practice.

Journal article

Drake TM, Docherty AB, Harrison EM, Quint JK, Adamali H, Agnew S, Babu S, Barber CM, Barratt S, Bendstrup E, Bianchi S, Villegas DC, Chaudhuri N, Chua F, Coker R, Chang W, Crawshaw A, Crowley LE, Dosanjh D, Fiddler CA, Forrest IA, George P, Gibbons MA, Groom K, Haney S, Hart SP, Heiden E, Henry M, Ho L-P, Hoyles RK, Hutchinson J, Hurley K, Jones M, Jones S, Kokosi M, Kreuter M, MacKay L, Mahendran S, Margaritopoulos G, Molina-Molina M, Molyneaux PL, OBrien A, OReilly K, Packham A, Parfrey H, Poletti V, Porter J, Renzoni E, Rivera-Ortega P, Russell A-M, Saini G, Spencer LG, Stella GM, Stone H, Sturney S, Thickett D, Thillai M, Wallis T, Ward K, Wells AU, West A, Wickremasinghe M, Woodhead F, Hearson G, Howard L, Baillie JK, Openshaw PJM, Semple MG, Stewart I, ISARIC4C Investigators, Jenkins RGet al., 2020, Outcome of hospitalisation for COVID-19 in patients with interstitial lung disease: an international multicentre study., Publisher: bioRxiv

Rationale: The impact of COVID-19 on patients with Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) has not been established. Objectives: To assess outcomes following COVID-19 in patients with ILD versus those without in a contemporaneous age, sex and comorbidity matched population. Methods: An international multicentre audit of patients with a prior diagnosis of ILD admitted to hospital with COVID-19 between 1 March and 1 May 2020 was undertaken and compared with patients, without ILD obtained from the ISARIC 4C cohort, admitted with COVID-19 over the same period. The primary outcome was survival. Secondary analysis distinguished IPF from non-IPF ILD and used lung function to determine the greatest risks of death. Measurements and Main Results: Data from 349 patients with ILD across Europe were included, of whom 161 were admitted to hospital with laboratory or clinical evidence of COVID-19 and eligible for propensity-score matching. Overall mortality was 49% (79/161) in patients with ILD with COVID-19. After matching ILD patients with COVID-19 had higher mortality (HR 1.60, Confidence Intervals 1.17-2.18 p=0.003) compared with age, sex and co-morbidity matched controls without ILD. Patients with a Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) of <80% had an increased risk of death versus patients with FVC ≥80% (HR 1.72, 1.05-2.83). Furthermore, obese patients with ILD had an elevated risk of death (HR 1.98, 1.13−3.46). Conclusions: Patients with ILD are at increased risk of death from COVID-19, particularly those with poor lung function and obesity. Stringent precautions should be taken to avoid COVID-19 in patients with ILD.

Working paper

Stock CJW, De Lauretis A, Visca D, Daccord C, Kokosi M, Kouranos V, Margaritopoulos G, George PM, Molyneaux PL, Nihtyanova S, Chua F, Maher TM, Ong V, Abraham DJ, Denton CP, Wells AU, Wain LV, Renzoni EAet al., 2020, Defining genetic risk factors for scleroderma-associated interstitial lung disease : IRF5 and STAT4 gene variants are associated with scleroderma while STAT4 is protective against scleroderma-associated interstitial lung disease, Clinical Rheumatology, Vol: 39, Pages: 1173-1179, ISSN: 0770-3198

Although several genetic associations with scleroderma (SSc) are defined, very little is known on genetic susceptibility to SSc-associated interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD). A number of common polymorphisms have been associated with SSc-ILD, but most have not been replicated in separate populations. Four SNPs in IRF5, and one in each of STAT4, CD226 and IRAK1, selected as having been previously the most consistently associated with SSc-ILD, were genotyped in 612 SSc patients, of European descent, of whom 394 had ILD. The control population (n = 503) comprised individuals of European descent from the 1000 Genomes Project. After Bonferroni correction, two of the IRF5 SNPs, rs2004640 (OR (95% CI)1.30 (1.10-1.54), pcorr = 0.015) and rs10488631 (OR 1.48 (1.14-1.92), pcorr = 0.022), and the STAT4 SNP rs7574865 (OR 1.43 (1.18-1.73), pcorr = 0.0015) were significantly associated with SSc compared with controls. However, none of the SNPs were significantly different between patients with SSc-ILD and controls. Two SNPs in IRF5, rs10488631 (OR 1.72 (1.24-2.39), pcorr = 0.0098), and rs2004640 (OR 1.39 (1.11-1.75), pcorr = 0.03), showed a significant difference in allele frequency between controls and patients without ILD, as did STAT4 rs7574865 (OR 1.86 (1.45-2.38), pcorr = 6.6 × 10-6). A significant difference between SSc with and without ILD was only observed for STAT4 rs7574865, being less frequent in patients with ILD (OR 0.66 (0.51-0.85), pcorr = 0.0084). In conclusion, IRF5 rs2004640 and rs10488631, and STAT4 rs7574865 were significantly associated with SSc as a whole. Only STAT4 rs7574865 showed a significant difference in allele frequency in SSc-ILD, with the T allele being protective against ILD.Key points• We confirm the associations of the IRF5 SNPs rs2004640 and rs10488631, and the STAT4 SNP rs7574865, with SSc as a whole.&b

Journal article

George PM, Wells AU, 2020, Contemporary Concise Review 2019: Interstitial lung disease, RESPIROLOGY, Vol: 25, Pages: 756-763, ISSN: 1323-7799

Journal article

Hoffmann-Vold A-M, Maher TM, Philpot EE, Ashrafzadeh A, Barake R, Barsotti S, Bruni C, Carducci P, Carreira PE, Castellví I, Del Galdo F, Distler JHW, Foeldvari I, Fraticelli P, George PM, Griffiths B, Guillén-Del-Castillo A, Hamid AM, Horváth R, Hughes M, Kreuter M, Moazedi-Fuerst F, Olas J, Paul S, Rotondo C, Rubio-Rivas M, Seferian A, Tomčík M, Uzunhan Y, Walker UA, Więsik-Szewczyk E, Distler Oet al., 2020, The identification and management of interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis: evidence-based European consensus statements, The Lancet Rheumatology, Vol: 2, Pages: e71-e83, ISSN: 2665-9913

BackgroundSystemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD) carries a high mortality risk; expert guidance is required to aid early recognition and treatment. We aimed to develop the first expert consensus and define an algorithm for the identification and management of the condition through application of well established methods.MethodsEvidence-based consensus statements for systemic sclerosis-associated ILD management were established for six domains (ie, risk factors, screening, diagnosis and severity assessment, treatment initiation and options, disease progression, and treatment escalation) using a modified Delphi process based on a systematic literature analysis. A panel of 27 Europe-based pulmonologists, rheumatologists, and internists with expertise in systemic sclerosis-associated ILD participated in three rounds of online surveys, a face-to-face discussion, and a WebEx meeting, followed by two supplemental Delphi rounds, to establish consensus and define a management algorithm. Consensus was considered achieved if at least 80% of panellists indicated agreement or disagreement.FindingsBetween July 1, 2018, and Aug 27, 2019, consensus agreement was reached for 52 primary statements and six supplemental statements across six domains of management, and an algorithm was defined for clinical practice use. The agreed statements most important for clinical use included: all patients with systemic sclerosis should be screened for systemic sclerosis-associated ILD using high-resolution CT; high-resolution CT is the primary tool for diagnosing ILD in systemic sclerosis; pulmonary function tests support screening and diagnosis; systemic sclerosis-associated ILD severity should be measured with more than one indicator; it is appropriate to treat all severe cases; no pharmacological treatment is an option for some patients; follow-up assessments enable identification of disease progression; progression pace, alongside disease severity, drives decisions to e

Journal article

Bax S, Jacob J, Ahmed R, Bredy C, Dimopoulos K, Kempny A, Kokosi M, Kier G, Renzoni E, Molyneaux PL, Chua F, Kouranos V, George P, McCabe C, Wilde M, Devaraj A, Wells A, Wort SJ, Price LCet al., 2020, Right ventricle to left ventricle ratio at CTPA predicts mortality in interstitial lung disease, Chest, Vol: 157, Pages: 89-98, ISSN: 0012-3692

INTRODUCTION: Patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) may develop pulmonary hypertension (PH), often disproportionate to ILD severity. Right ventricle to left ventricle diameter ratio (RV:LV) measured at CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA), has been shown to provide valuable information in pulmonary arterial hypertension patients and to predict death or deterioration in acute pulmonary embolism. METHODS: Demographics, ILD subtype, echocardiography and detailed CTPA measurements were collected in consecutive patients undergoing both CTPA and right heart catheterisation (RHC) at the Royal Brompton Hospital between 2005 and 2015. Fibrosis severity was formally scored using CT criteria. RV:LV ratio at CTPA was evaluated by three different methods. Cox-proportional hazard analysis was used to assess the relation of CTPA-derived parameters to predict death or lung transplantation. RESULTS: 92 patients were included: 64% male, mean age 65±11 years, with FVC 57±20% (predicted), TLCOc 22±8% (predicted) and KCOc 51±17% (predicted). PH was confirmed at RHC in 78%. Of all CTPA-derived measures, an RV:LV ratio ≥1.0 strongly predicted mortality or transplantation at univariate analysis (HR 3.26, 95%CI:1.49-7.13, p=0.003), whereas invasive haemodynamic data did not. The RV:LV ratio remained an independent predictor at multivariate analysis (HR: 3.19, CI:1.44-7.10, p=0.004), adjusting for an ILD diagnosis of IPF and CT derived ILD severity. CONCLUSION: An increased RV:LV ratio measured at CTPA provides a simple, non-invasive method of risk stratification in patients with suspected ILD-PH. This should prompt closer follow up, more aggressive treatment and consideration of lung transplantation.

Journal article

Alfieri V, Crisafulli E, Visca D, Chong WH, Stock C, Mori L, de Lauretis A, Tsipouri V, Chua F, Kouranos V, Kokosi M, Hogben C, Molyneaux PL, George PM, Maher TM, Chetta AA, Sestini P, Wells AU, Renzoni EAet al., 2019, Physiological predictors of exertional oxygen desaturation in patients with fibrotic interstitial lung disease, European Respiratory Journal, Vol: 55, Pages: 1-4, ISSN: 0903-1936

Journal article

Nolan CM, Birring SS, Maddocks M, Maher TM, Patel S, Barker RE, Jones SE, Walsh JA, Wynne SC, George PM, Man WD-Cet al., 2019, King's Brief Interstitial Lung Disease questionnaire: responsiveness and minimum clinically important difference, European Respiratory Journal, Vol: 54, ISSN: 0903-1936

Health status is increasingly used in clinical practice to quantify symptom burden and as a clinical trial endpoint in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). The Kings Brief Interstitial Lung Disease (KBILD) questionnaire is a brief validated 15-item, disease-specific, health-related quality of life questionnaire that is increasingly used in clinical trials, but little data exist regarding the minimum clinically important difference (MCID). Using pulmonary rehabilitation as a model, we aimed to determine responsiveness of the KBILD and provide estimates of the MCID.KBILD, Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ), Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale (MRC) and incremental shuttle walk test (ISW) were measured in 209 patients with ILD (105 with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF)) before and after an outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation programme. Changes with intervention and Cohen's effect size were calculated. Anchor- (linear regression and Receiver Operating Characteristic plots) or distribution-based approaches (0.5 * standard deviation, standard error of measurement) were used to estimate the MCID of KBILD domain and total scores.KBILD, CRQ, MRC and ISW improved with intervention and the effect sizes of KBILD domain and total scores ranged from 0.28 to 0.38. Using anchor-based estimates, the MCID estimate for KBILD-Psychological, KBILD-Breathlessness and activities and KBILD-Total score were 5.4, 4.4 and 3.9 respectively. Using distribution-based methods, the MCID estimate for KBILD-Chest symptoms was 9.8. The MCID estimates for KBILD in IPF patients were similar.In patients with ILD and IPF, KBILD is responsive to intervention with an estimated MCID of 3.9 for the total score.

Journal article

Mackintosh JA, Desai SR, Adamali H, Patel K, Chua F, Devaraj A, Kouranos V, Kokosi M, Margaritopoulos G, Renzoni EA, Wells AU, Molyneaux PL, Kumar S, Maher TM, George PMet al., 2019, In patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis the presence of hiatus hernia is associated with disease progression and mortality, European Respiratory Journal, Vol: 53, ISSN: 0903-1936

Journal article

George PM, Patterson CM, Reed AK, Thillai Met al., 2019, Lung transplantation for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, LANCET RESPIRATORY MEDICINE, Vol: 7, Pages: 271-282, ISSN: 2213-2600

Journal article

Nolan CM, Maddocks M, Maher TM, Banya W, Patel S, Barker RE, Jones SE, George P, Cullinan P, Man WD-Cet al., 2018, Gait speed and prognosis in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a prospective cohort study, European Respiratory Journal, Vol: 53, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 0903-1936

The four metre gait speed (4 MGS), a simple physical performance measure and surrogate marker of frailty, consistently predicts adverse prognosis in older adults. We hypothesised that 4 MGS could predict all-cause mortality and non-elective hospitalisation in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).4 MGS and lung function were measured at baseline in 130 outpatients newly diagnosed with IPF. Survival status and non-elective hospital admissions were recorded over one year. We assessed the predictive value of 4 MGS (as a continuous variable and as a binary variable: slow versus preserved 4 MGS) by calculating hazard ratios (HR) using Cox proportional regression, adjusting for potential confounding variables. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves assessed discrimination between the multivariable regression models and established prognostic indices.Continuous 4 MGS and slow 4 MGS were independent predictors of all-cause mortality (4 MGS: HR 0.03 (0.01-0.31), p=0.004; slow 4 MGS: 2.63 (1.01-6.87), p=0.049) and hospitalisation (4 MGS: HR 0.02 (0.01-0.14), p<0.001; slow 4 MGS: 2.76 (1.16-6.58), p=0.02). Multivariable models incorporating 4 MGS or slow 4 MGS had better discrimination for predicting mortality than either the Gender Age Physiology index or Composite Physiologic Index.In patients with IPF, 4 MGS is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality and non-elective hospitalisation.

Journal article

Macaluso C, Furcada JM, Alzaher O, Chaube R, Chua F, Wells AU, Maher TM, George PM, Renzoni EA, Molyneaux PLet al., 2018, The potential impact of azithromycin in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, European Respiratory Journal, Vol: 53, Pages: 1-3, ISSN: 0903-1936

Journal article

Visca D, Mori L, Tsipouri V, Fleming S, Firouzi A, Bonini M, Pavitt MJ, Alfieri V, Canu S, Bonifazi M, Boccabella C, De Lauretis A, Stock CJW, Saunders P, Montgomery A, Hogben C, Stockford A, Pittet M, Brown J, Chua F, George PM, Molyneaux PL, Margaritopoulos GA, Kokosi M, Kouranos V, Russell AM, Birring SS, Chetta A, Maher TM, Cullinan P, Hopkinson NS, Banya W, Whitty JA, Adamali H, Spencer LG, Farquhar M, Sestini P, Wells AU, Renzoni EAet al., 2018, Effect of ambulatory oxygen on quality of life for patients with fibrotic lung disease (AmbOx): a prospective, open-label, mixed-method, crossover randomised controlled trial, Lancet Respiratory Medicine, Vol: 6, Pages: 759-770, ISSN: 2213-2600

BACKGROUND: In fibrotic interstitial lung diseases, exertional breathlessness is strongly linked to health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Breathlessness is often associated with oxygen desaturation, but few data about the use of ambulatory oxygen in patients with fibrotic interstitial lung disease are available. We aimed to assess the effects of ambulatory oxygen on HRQOL in patients with interstitial lung disease with isolated exertional hypoxia. METHODS: AmbOx was a prospective, open-label, mixed-method, crossover randomised controlled clinical trial done at three centres for interstitial lung disease in the UK. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, had fibrotic interstitial lung disease, were not hypoxic at rest but had a fall in transcutaneous arterial oxygen saturation to 88% or less on a screening visit 6-min walk test (6MWT), and had self-reported stable respiratory symptoms in the previous 2 weeks. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to either oxygen treatment or no oxygen treatment for 2 weeks, followed by crossover for another 2 weeks. Randomisation was by a computer-generated sequence of treatments randomly permuted in blocks of constant size (fixed size of ten). The primary outcome, which was assessed by intention to treat, was the change in total score on the King's Brief Interstitial Lung Disease questionnaire (K-BILD) after 2 weeks on oxygen compared with 2 weeks of no treatment. General linear models with treatment sequence as a fixed effect were used for analysis. Patient views were explored through semi-structured topic-guided interviews in a subgroup of participants. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02286063, and is closed to new participants with all follow-up completed. FINDINGS: Between Sept 10, 2014, and Oct 5, 2016, 84 patients were randomly assigned, 41 randomised to ambulatory oxygen first and 43 to no oxygen. 76 participants completed the trial. Compared with no oxygen, ambulatory oxygen was ass

Journal article

Shanks A-M, Desai SR, Rice A, Thomas SR, Polkey MI, George PMet al., 2018, Restrictive lung defects: parenchymal, chest wall and neuromuscular, THORAX, Vol: 73, Pages: 989-991, ISSN: 0040-6376

Journal article

Rogers C, Kent-Bramer J, Devaraj A, Nicholson AG, Molyneaux PL, Wells AU, Saikia S, Maher TM, George PMet al., 2018, Rapidly progressive cystic lung disease, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 198, Pages: 264-264, ISSN: 1073-449X

Journal article

Keir GJ, John Wort S, Kokosi M, George PM, Walsh SLF, Jacob J, Price L, Bax S, Renzoni EA, Maher TM, MacDonald P, Hansell DM, Wells AUet al., 2018, Pulmonary hypertension in interstitial lung disease: limitations of echocardiography compared to cardiac catheterization, Respirology, Vol: 23, Pages: 687-694, ISSN: 1323-7799

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In interstitial lung disease (ILD), pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a major adverse prognostic determinant. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is the most widely used tool when screening for PH, although discordance between TTE and right heart catheter (RHC) measured pulmonary haemodynamics is increasingly recognized. We evaluated the predictive utility of the updated European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society (ESC/ERS) TTE screening recommendations against RHC testing in a large, well-characterized ILD cohort. METHODS: Two hundred and sixty-five consecutive patients with ILD and suspected PH underwent comprehensive assessment, including RHC, between 2006 and 2012. ESC/ERS recommended tricuspid regurgitation (TR) velocity thresholds for assigning high (>3.4 m/s), intermediate (2.9-3.4 m/s) and low (<2.8 m/s) probabilities of PH were evaluated against RHC testing. RESULTS: RHC testing confirmed PH in 86% of subjects with a peak TR velocity >3.4 m/s, and excluded PH in 60% of ILD subjects with a TR velocity <2.8 m/s. Thus, the ESC/ERS guidelines misclassified 40% of subjects as 'low probability' of PH, when PH was confirmed on subsequent RHC. Evaluating alternative TR velocity thresholds for assigning a low probability of PH did not significantly improve the ability of TR velocity to exclude a diagnosis of PH. CONCLUSION: In patients with ILD and suspected PH, currently recommended ESC/ERS TR velocity screening thresholds were associated with a high positive predictive value (86%) for confirming PH, but were of limited value in excluding PH, with 40% of patients misclassified as low probability when PH was confirmed at subsequent RHC.

Journal article

Bax S, Bredy C, Kempny A, Dimopoulos K, Devaraj A, Walsh S, Jacob J, Nair A, Kokosi M, Keir G, Kouranos V, George PM, McCabe C, Wilde M, Wells A, Li W, Wort SJ, Price LCet al., 2018, A stepwise composite echocardiographic score predicts severe pulmonary hypertension in patients with interstitial lung disease, ERJ Open Research, Vol: 4, ISSN: 2312-0541

European Respiratory Society (ERS) guidelines recommend the assessment of patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) and severe pulmonary hypertension (PH), as defined by a mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) ≥35 mmHg at right heart catheterisation (RHC). We developed and validated a stepwise echocardiographic score to detect severe PH using the tricuspid regurgitant velocity and right atrial pressure (right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP)) and additional echocardiographic signs. Consecutive ILD patients with suspected PH underwent RHC between 2005 and 2015. Receiver operating curve analysis tested the ability of components of the score to predict mPAP ≥35 mmHg, and a score devised using a stepwise approach. The score was tested in a contemporaneous validation cohort. The score used "additional PH signs" where RVSP was unavailable, using a bootstrapping technique. Within the derivation cohort (n=210), a score ≥7 predicted severe PH with 89% sensitivity, 71% specificity, positive predictive value 68% and negative predictive value 90%, with similar performance in the validation cohort (n=61) (area under the curve (AUC) 84.8% versus 83.1%, p=0.8). Although RVSP could be estimated in 92% of studies, reducing this to 60% maintained a fair accuracy (AUC 74.4%). This simple stepwise echocardiographic PH score can predict severe PH in patients with ILD.

Journal article

George PM, Wells AU, 2018, Disease staging and sub setting of interstitial lung disease associated with systemic sclerosis: impact on therapy, EXPERT REVIEW OF CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 14, Pages: 127-135, ISSN: 1744-666X

Journal article

Mohamed NA, Davies RP, Lickiss PD, Ahmetaj-Shala B, Reed DM, Gashaw HH, Saleem H, Freeman GR, George PM, Wort SJ, Morales-Cano D, Barreira B, Tetley TD, Chester AH, Yacoub MH, Kirkby NS, Moreno L, Mitchell JAet al., 2017, Chemical and biological assessment of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) in pulmonary cells and in an acute in vivo model: relevance to pulmonary arterial hypertension therapy, Pulmonary Circulation, Vol: 7, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 2045-8940

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive and debilitating condition. Despite promoting vasodilation, current drugs have a therapeutic window within which they are limited by systemic side effects. Nanomedicine uses nanoparticles to improve drug delivery and/or reduce side effects. We hypothesize that this approach could be used to deliver PAH drugs avoiding the systemic circulation. Here we report the use of iron metal organic framework (MOF) MIL-89 and PEGylated MIL-89 (MIL-89 PEG) as suitable carriers for PAH drugs. We assessed their effects on viability and inflammatory responses in a wide range of lung cells including endothelial cells grown from blood of donors with/without PAH. Both MOFs conformed to the predicted structures with MIL-89 PEG being more stable at room temperature. At concentrations up to 10 or 30 µg/mL, toxicity was only seen in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells where both MOFs reduced cell viability and CXCL8 release. In endothelial cells from both control donors and PAH patients, both preparations inhibited the release of CXCL8 and endothelin-1 and in macrophages inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase activity. Finally, MIL-89 was well-tolerated and accumulated in the rat lungs when given in vivo. Thus, the prototypes MIL-89 and MIL-89 PEG with core capacity suitable to accommodate PAH drugs are relatively non-toxic and may have the added advantage of being anti-inflammatory and reducing the release of endothelin-1. These data are consistent with the idea that these materials may not only be useful as drug carriers in PAH but also offer some therapeutic benefit in their own right.

Journal article

George PM, Wells AU, 2017, Pirfenidone for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis., Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol

Journal article

George PM, Devaraj A, Nicholson AG, Chua Fet al., 2016, Interactive grand round at The Royal Brompton Hospital: Emerging Interstitial Lung Disease, Publisher: Elsevier: Lancet

Other

George PM, Devaraj A, Nicholson AG, Chua Fet al., 2016, An emerging interstitial lung disease., Lancet Respiratory Medicine, Vol: 4, Pages: 762-762, ISSN: 2213-2619

Journal article

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