Imperial College London

DrPaulKinsler

Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Physics

Research Associate in Quantum Imaging
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 7734p.kinsler

 
 
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Location

 

635Blackett LaboratorySouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

120 results found

Gratus J, Seviour R, Kinsler P, Jaroszynski DAet al., 2021, Temporal boundaries in electromagnetic materials, NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSICS, Vol: 23, ISSN: 1367-2630

Journal article

Gratus J, Kinsler P, McCall MW, 2021, Temporary Singularities and Axions: An Analytic Solution that Challenges Charge Conservation, ANNALEN DER PHYSIK, Vol: 533, ISSN: 0003-3804

Journal article

Kinsler P, 2021, A new introduction to spatial dispersion: Reimagining the basic concepts, Publisher: ELSEVIER

Working paper

McCall M, Kinsler P, Tymms V, 2020, Catapult Description of Magnetic Fields and Forces, PHYSICS TEACHER, Vol: 58, Pages: 416-417, ISSN: 0031-921X

Journal article

Kinsler P, 2020, Faraday's Law and Magnetic Induction: Cause and Effect, Experiment and Theory, PHYSICS, Vol: 2, Pages: 150-163

Journal article

Gratus J, McCall MW, Kinsler P, 2020, Electromagnetism, axions, and topology: A first-order operator approach to constitutive responses provides greater freedom, Physical Review A: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, Vol: 101, Pages: 043804-1-043804-18, ISSN: 1050-2947

We show how the standard constitutive assumptions for the macroscopic Maxwell equations can be relaxed. This is done by arguing that the Maxwellian excitation fields (D, H) should be dispensed with, on the grounds that they (a) cannot be measured, and (b) act solely as gauge potentials for the charge and current. In the resulting theory, it is only the links between the fields (E, B) and the charge and current (ρ, J) that matter; and so we introduce appropriate linear operator equations that combine the Gauss and Maxwell-Ampère equations with the constitutive relations, eliminating (D, H). The result is that we can admit more types of electromagnetic media, notably, these relations can allow coupling in the bulk to a homogeneous axionic material; in contrast to standard electromagnetism where any homogeneous axionlike field is completely decoupled in the bulk, and only accessible at boundaries. We also consider a wider context, including the role of topology, extended nonaxionic constitutive parameters, and treatment of Ohmic currents. A range of examples including an axionic response material is presented, including static electromagnetic scenarios, a possible metamaterial implementation, and how the transformation optics paradigm would be modified. Notably, these examples include one where topological considerations make it impossible to model using (D, H).

Journal article

Gratus J, Kinsler P, McCall M, 2019, Evaporating black-holes, wormholes, and vacuum polarisation: must they always conserve charge?, Foundations of Physics, Vol: 49, Pages: 330-350, ISSN: 0015-9018

A careful examination of the fundamentals of electromagnetic theory showsthat due to the underlying mathematical assumptions required for Stokes’ Theorem,global charge conservation cannot be guaranteed in topologically non-trivial space-times. However, in order to break the charge conservation mechanism we must alsoallow the electromagnetic excitation fieldsD,Hto possess a gauge freedom, just asthe electromagnetic scalar and vector potentialsφandAdo. This has implicationsfor the treatment of electromagnetism in spacetimes where black holes both form andthen evaporate, as well as extending the possibilities for treating vacuum polarisation.Using this gauge freedom ofD,Hwe also propose an alternative to the acceptednotion that a charge passing through a wormhole necessarily leads to an additional(effective) charge on the wormhole’s mouth.

Journal article

Gratus J, Kinsler P, McCall MW, 2019, Maxwell's (D, H) excitation fields: lessons from permanent magnets, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICS, Vol: 40, ISSN: 0143-0807

Journal article

Boyd T, Gratus J, Kinsler P, Letizia R, Seviour Ret al., 2018, Mode Profile Shaping in Wire Media: Towards An Experimental Verification, APPLIED SCIENCES-BASEL, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2076-3417

Journal article

McCall M, Pendry J, Galdi V, Lai Y, Horsley S, Li J, Zhu J, Mitchell-Thomas R, Quevedo-Teruel O, Tassin P, Ginis V, Martini E, Manatti G, Maci S, Ebrahimpouri M, Hao Y, Kinsler P, Gratus J, Lukens J, Weiner A, Leonhardt U, Smolyaninov I, Smolyaninova V, Thompson R, Wegener M, Kadic M, Cummer Set al., 2018, Roadmap on transformation optics, Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics, Vol: 20, ISSN: 1464-4258

Transformation Optics asks Maxwell’s equations what kind of electromagnetic medium recreate some smooth deformation of space. The guiding principle is Einstein’s principle of covariance: that any physical theory must take the same form in any coordinate system. This requirement fixes very precisely the required electromagnetic medium.The impact of this insight cannot be overestimated. Many practitioners were used to thinking that only a few analytic solutions to Maxwell’s equations existed, such as the monochromatic plane wave in a homogeneous, isotropic medium. At a stroke, Transformation Optics increases that landscape from ‘few’ to ‘infinity’, and to each of the infinitude of analytic solutions dreamt up by the researcher, corresponds an electromagnetic medium capable of reproducing that solution precisely. The most striking example is the electromagnetic cloak, thought to be an unreachable dream of science fiction writers, but realised in the laboratory a few months after the papers proposing the possibility were published. But the practical challenges are considerable, requiring meta-media that are at once electrically and magnetically inhomogeneous and anisotropic. How far have we come since the first demonstrations over a decade ago? And what does the future hold? If the wizardry of perfect macroscopic optical invisibility still eludes us in practice, then what compromises still enable us to create interesting, useful, devices? While 3D cloaking remains a significant technical challenge, much progress has been made in 2-dimensions. Carpet cloaking, wherein an object is hidden under a surface that appears optically flat, relaxes the constraints of extreme electromagnetic parameters. Surface wave cloaking guides sub-wavelength surface waves, making uneven surfaces appear flat. Two dimensions is also the setting in which conformal and complex coordinate transformations are realisable, and the possibilities in this restr

Journal article

Kinsler P, 2018, Impedance rescaling and scattering from transformation optics devices, JOURNAL OF PHYSICS COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 2, ISSN: 2399-6528

Journal article

Boyd T, Gratus J, Kinsler P, Letizia Ret al., 2018, Customizing longitudinal electric field profiles using spatial dispersion in dielectric wire arrays, OPTICS EXPRESS, Vol: 26, Pages: 2478-2494, ISSN: 1094-4087

Journal article

Kinsler P, 2018, A comparison of the factorization approach to temporal and spatial propagation in the case of some acoustic waves, JOURNAL OF PHYSICS COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 2, ISSN: 2399-6528

Journal article

Kinsler P, 2018, Uni-directional optical pulses, temporal propagation, and spatial and temporal dispersion, JOURNAL OF OPTICS, Vol: 20, ISSN: 2040-8978

Journal article

Kinsler P, McCall MW, 2017, Generalized transformation design: metrics, speeds, and diffusion, Wave Motion, Vol: 77, Pages: 91-106, ISSN: 0165-2125

We show that a unified and maximally generalized approach to spatialtransformation design is possible, one that encompasses all second order waves,rays, and diffusion processes in anisotropic media. Until the final step, it isunnecessary to specify the physical process for which a specific transformationdesign is to be implemented. The principal approximation is the neglect of waveimpedance, an attribute that plays no role in ray propagation, and is thereforeirrelevant for pure ray devices; another constraint is that for waves thespatial variation in material parameters needs to be sufficiently smallcompared with the wavelength. The key link between our general formulation anda specific implementation is how the spatial metric relates to the speed ofdisturbance in a given medium, whether it is electromagnetic, acoustic, ordiffusive. Notably, we show that our generalised ray theory, in allowing foranisotropic indexes (speeds), generates the same predictions as does a wavetheory, and the results are closely related to those for diffusion processes.

Journal article

McCall MW, Kinsler P, 2017, Space-time Cloaking, World Scientific Handbook of Metamaterials and Plasmonics: In 4 Volumes, Editors: Craster, Guenneau, Publisher: World Scientific Series in Nan, Pages: 173-203, ISBN: 9789813227613

Book chapter

Gratus J, Kinsler P, Letizia R, Boyd Tet al., 2017, Subwavelength mode profile customization using functional materials, JOURNAL OF PHYSICS COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 1, ISSN: 2399-6528

Journal article

Gratus J, Kinsler P, Letizia R, Boyd Tet al., 2017, Electromagnetic mode profile shaping in waveguides, APPLIED PHYSICS A-MATERIALS SCIENCE & PROCESSING, Vol: 123, ISSN: 0947-8396

Journal article

McCall MW, Gratus J, Kinsler P, Thompson Ret al., 2016, On spacetime transformation optics: temporal and spatial dispersion, New Journal of Physics, Vol: 18, ISSN: 1367-2630

The electromagnetic implementation of cloaking, the hiding ofobjectsfrom sight by di-verting and reassembling illuminating electromagnetic fields has now been with us ten years,while the notion of hidingeventsis now five. Both schemes as initially presented neglectedthe inevitable dispersion that arises when a designed medium replaces vacuum under trans-formation. Here we define a transformation design protocol that incorporates both spacetimetransformations and dispersive material responses in a natural and rigorous way. We showhow this methodology is applied to an event cloak designed to appear as a homogeneousand isotropic butdispersivemedium. The consequences for spacetime transformation de-sign in dispersive materials are discussed, and some parameter and bandwidth constraintsidentified.

Journal article

Kinsler P, Gratus J, McCall MW, Thompson RTet al., 2016, Dispersion in space-time transformation optics, URSI International Symposium on Electromagnetic Theory (EMTS), Publisher: IEEE, ISSN: 2163-405X

The use of spacetime cloaking to hide events is an intriguing trick, but the unavoidable presence of dispersion limits the performance of any implementation, and needs to be accounted for. We show how the dispersion changes under transformation.

Conference paper

McCall MW, Kinsler P, Topf RDM, 2016, The refractive index of reciprocal electromagnetic media, Journal of Optics, Vol: 18, ISSN: 2040-8978

We study the electromagnetics of media described by identical inhomogeneous relative dielectric and magnetic tensors, ${\boldsymbol{\epsilon }}={\boldsymbol{\mu }}.$ Such media occur generically as spatial transformation media, i.e. electromagnetic media that are defined by a deformation of space. We show that such media are completely described by a refractive index $n({\bf{r}},\hat{{\bf{s}}})$ that depends on position ${\bf{r}}$ and direction $\hat{{\bf{s}}},$ but is independent of polarization. The phase surface is always ellipsoidal, and $n({\bf{r}},\hat{{\bf{s}}})$ is therefore represented by the radius vector to the surface of the ellipsoid. We apply our method to calculate the angular dependence of the refractive index in the well-studied cylindrical cloak and to a new kind of structurally chiral medium induced by a twist deformation. By way of a simple example we also show that media for which ${\boldsymbol{\epsilon }}={\boldsymbol{\mu }}$ do not in general preserve the impedance properties of vacuum. The implications of this somewhat surprising conclusion for the field of transformation optics are discussed.

Journal article

McCall M, Kinsler P, 2016, The Limits and Extension of Transformation Optics, URSI International Symposium on Electromagnetic Theory (EMTS), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 603-604, ISSN: 2163-405X

Conference paper

Boyd T, Kinsler P, Gratus J, Letizia Ret al., 2016, Electromagnetic Mode Profile Shaping in Waveguides, URSI International Symposium on Electromagnetic Theory (EMTS), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 725-727, ISSN: 2163-405X

Conference paper

Kinsler P, 2015, Measure for carrier shocking, Journal of the Optical Society of America B - Optical Physics, Vol: 32, Pages: 1889-1893, ISSN: 0740-3224

I propose a definition for a “shocking coefficient” S intended to make determinations of the degree of waveform shocking, and comparisons thereof, more quantitative. This means we can avoid having to make ad hoc judgments on the basis of the visual comparison of wave profiles.

Journal article

Kinsler P, McCall MW, 2015, The futures of transformations and metamaterials, Photonics and Nanostructures-Fundamentals and Applications, Vol: 15, Pages: 10-23, ISSN: 1569-4429

Journal article

Kinsler P, McCall MW, 2014, Transformation devices: Event carpets in space and space-time, PHYSICAL REVIEW A, Vol: 89, ISSN: 1050-2947

Journal article

Kinsler P, McCall MW, 2014, Cloaks, editors, and bubbles: applications of spacetime transformation theory, Annalen der Physik, Vol: 526, Pages: 51-62, ISSN: 0003-3804

Spacetime or ‘event’ cloaking was recently introduced as a concept, and the theoretical design for such a cloak was presented for illumination by electromagnetic waves [McCall et al., J. Opt. 2011]. Here it is described how event cloaks can be designed for simple wave systems, using either an approximate ‘speed cloak’ method, or an exact full‐wave one. Further, details of many of the implications of spacetime transformation devices are discussed, including their (usually) directional nature, spacetime distortions (as opposed to cloaks), and how leaky cloaks manifest themselves. More exotic concepts are also addressed, in particular concepts that follow naturally on from considerations of simple spacetime transformation devices, such as spacetime modeling and causality editors. A proposal for implementing an interrupt‐without‐interrupt concept is described. Finally, the design for a time‐dependent ‘bubbleverse’ is presented, based on temporally modulated Maxwell's Fisheye transformation device (T‐device) in a flat background spacetime.

Journal article

Kinsler P, 2013, How to be causal: time, spacetime, and spectra (vol 32, pg 1687, 2011), EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICS, Vol: 34, Pages: 205-205, ISSN: 0143-0807

Journal article

Kinsler P, Tan J, Thio TCY, Trant C, Kandapper Net al., 2012, Maxwell's fishpond, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICS, Vol: 33, Pages: 1737-1750, ISSN: 0143-0807

Journal article

Kinsler P, 2011, How to be causal: time, spacetime and spectra, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICS, Vol: 32, Pages: 1687-1700, ISSN: 0143-0807

Journal article

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