Imperial College London

Professor Paul M. Matthews

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Brain Sciences

Edmond and Lily Safra Chair, Head of Department



+44 (0)20 7594 2855p.matthews




Ms Siobhan Dillon +44 (0)20 7594 2855




E502Burlington DanesHammersmith Campus






BibTex format

author = {Matthews, P},
doi = {10.1038/s41582-019-0240-y},
journal = {Nature Reviews Neurology},
pages = {582--593},
title = {Chronic inflammation in multiple sclerosis — seeing what was always there},
url = {},
volume = {15},
year = {2019}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Activation of innate immune cells and other brain compartmentalized inflammatory cellsin the brains and spinal cords of people with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) and progressive MS have been well described histopathologically. However, conventional clinical MRI is largely insensitive to this inflammatory activity. The past two decades have seen the introduction of quantitative dynamic MRI scanning with contrast agents that are sensitive to the reduction in blood–brain barrier integrity associated with inflammation and to the trafficking of inflammatory myeloid cells. New MRI imaging sequences provide improved contrast for better detection of grey matter lesions. Quantitative lesion volume measures and magnetic resonance susceptibility imaging are sensitive to the activity of macrophages in the rims of white matter lesions. PET and magnetic resonance spectroscopy methods also can be used to detect contributions from innate immune activation in the brain and spinal cord. Some of these advanced research imaging methods for visualization of chronic inflammation are practical for relatively routine clinical applications. Observations using these techniques suggest ways of stratifying patients with MS to improve their care. The imaging methods also provide new tools to support the development of therapies for chronic inflammation in MS.
AU - Matthews,P
DO - 10.1038/s41582-019-0240-y
EP - 593
PY - 2019///
SN - 1759-4758
SP - 582
TI - Chronic inflammation in multiple sclerosis — seeing what was always there
T2 - Nature Reviews Neurology
UR -
UR -
VL - 15
ER -