Imperial College London

Professor Paul M. Matthews

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Brain Sciences

Edmond and Lily Safra Chair, Head of Department



+44 (0)20 7594 2855p.matthews




Ms Siobhan Dillon +44 (0)20 7594 2855




E502Burlington DanesHammersmith Campus






BibTex format

author = {Gupta, RK and Newbould, RD and Matthews, PM},
doi = {10.1177/175114371201300309},
journal = {Journal of the Intensive Care Society},
pages = {209--215},
title = {Methods of measuring lung water},
url = {},
volume = {13},
year = {2012}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Pulmonary oedema can result from both cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic aetiologies and is a cause of considerable morbidity and mortality. Accurate methods of quantifying pulmonary oedema are needed for both clinical and research purposes. Applications could include early recognition, and thus prevention, of impending decompensation in heart failure patients, guidance of fluid management in patients with established pulmonary oedema, and as a pharmacodynamic outcome measure for early clinical trials of drugs for the treatment of pulmonary oedema. Magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, positron emission tomography, electrical impedance, and thermodilution methods have all been used with the aim of measuring lung water. These methods differ in their accuracy, cost, ionising radiation dose, invasiveness, portability, and ability to provide dynamic measures. To date, none have been established as a 'gold standard' clinical measurement to improve clinical outcomes or to assist drug development. This review aims to discuss each of these methods in turn, focussing on advantages, limitations, and possible future development and applications. © The Intensive Care Society 2012.
AU - Gupta,RK
AU - Newbould,RD
AU - Matthews,PM
DO - 10.1177/175114371201300309
EP - 215
PY - 2012///
SN - 1751-1437
SP - 209
TI - Methods of measuring lung water
T2 - Journal of the Intensive Care Society
UR -
VL - 13
ER -