530 results found
Glocker B, Bai W, Oktay O, et al., Semi-Supervised Learning for Network-Based Cardiac MR Image Segmentation, Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention
Matthews PM, Datta G, Colasanti A, et al., [(11)C]PBR28 or [(18)F]PBR111 detect white matter inflammatory heterogeneity in multiple sclerosis., Journal of Nuclear Medicine, ISSN: 1535-5667
BRAINS Brain Imaging in Normal Subjects Expert Working Group, Shenkin SD, Pernet C, et al., 2017, Improving data availability for brain image biobanking in healthy subjects: Practice-based suggestions from an international multidisciplinary working group., Neuroimage, Vol: 153, Pages: 399-409
Brain imaging is now ubiquitous in clinical practice and research. The case for bringing together large amounts of image data from well-characterised healthy subjects and those with a range of common brain diseases across the life course is now compelling. This report follows a meeting of international experts from multiple disciplines, all interested in brain image biobanking. The meeting included neuroimaging experts (clinical and non-clinical), computer scientists, epidemiologists, clinicians, ethicists, and lawyers involved in creating brain image banks. The meeting followed a structured format to discuss current and emerging brain image banks; applications such as atlases; conceptual and statistical problems (e.g. defining 'normality'); legal, ethical and technological issues (e.g. consents, potential for data linkage, data security, harmonisation, data storage and enabling of research data sharing). We summarise the lessons learned from the experiences of a wide range of individual image banks, and provide practical recommendations to enhance creation, use and reuse of neuroimaging data. Our aim is to maximise the benefit of the image data, provided voluntarily by research participants and funded by many organisations, for human health. Our ultimate vision is of a federated network of brain image biobanks accessible for large studies of brain structure and function.
Bishop CA, Newbould RD, Lee JSZ, et al., 2017, Analysis of ageing-associated grey matter volume in patients with multiple sclerosis shows excess atrophy in subcortical regions, NEUROIMAGE-CLINICAL, Vol: 13, Pages: 9-15, ISSN: 2213-1582
Datta G, Colasanti A, Kalk N, et al., 2017, [(11)C]PBR28 or [(18)F]PBR111 detect white matter inflammatory heterogeneity in multiple sclerosis., J Nucl Med
Objective: To assess microglial activation in lesions and in normal appearing white matter of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients using positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: 34 MS patients (7 with secondary progressive MS (SPMS), 27 with relapsing remitting MS (RRMS)) and 30 healthy volunteers, genetically stratified for translocator protein (TSPO), binding status underwent PET scanning with TSPO radioligands ((11)C-PBR28 or (18)F-PBR111). Regional TSPO availability was measured as a distribution volume ratio (DVR) relative to the caudate (a pseudo-reference region). White matter lesions (WML) were classified as "active" (DVR highest in the lesion), "peripherally active" (peri-lesional DVR highest), "inactive" (DVR highest in surrounding normal appearing white matter, NAWM) or "undifferentiated" (similar DVR across lesion, peri-lesional and NAWM volumes). Results: The mean DVR in NAWM of patients was greater than that of the healthy volunteer white matter for both radioligands. Uptake for individual WML in patients was heterogeneous, but the median WML DVR and NAWM DVR for individual patients were strongly correlated (ρ = 0.94, P = 4x10-11). A higher proportion of lesions were inactive in patients with SPMS (35 %) than RRMS (23 %), but active lesions were found in all patients, including those on highly efficacious treatments. Conclusion: TSPO radioligand uptake was increased in brains of MS patients relative to healthy controls with two TSPO radiotracers. WML showed heterogeneous patterns of uptake. Active lesions were found in patients with both RRMS and SPMS. Their independent prognostic significance needs further investigation.
Gafson A, Craner MJ, Matthews PM, 2017, Personalised medicine for multiple sclerosis care, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS JOURNAL, Vol: 23, Pages: 362-369, ISSN: 1352-4585
He S, Yong M, Matthews PM, et al., 2017, tranSMART-XNAT Connector tranSMART-XNAT connector-image selection based on clinical phenotypes and genetic profiles, BIOINFORMATICS, Vol: 33, Pages: 787-788, ISSN: 1367-4803
Lema A, Bishop C, Malik O, et al., 2017, A Comparison of Magnetization Transfer Methods to Assess Brain and Cervical Cord Microstructure in Multiple Sclerosis, JOURNAL OF NEUROIMAGING, Vol: 27, Pages: 221-226, ISSN: 1051-2284
Owen DR, Narayan N, Wells L, et al., 2017, Pro-inflammatory activation of primary microglia and macrophages increases 18 kDa translocator protein expression in rodents but not humans., J Cereb Blood Flow Metab
The 18kDa Translocator Protein (TSPO) is the most commonly used tissue-specific marker of inflammation in positron emission tomography (PET) studies. It is expressed in myeloid cells such as microglia and macrophages, and in rodent myeloid cells expression increases with cellular activation. We assessed the effect of myeloid cell activation on TSPO gene expression in both primary human and rodent microglia and macrophages in vitro, and also measured TSPO radioligand binding with (3)H-PBR28 in primary human macrophages. As observed previously, we found that TSPO expression increases (∼9-fold) in rodent-derived macrophages and microglia upon pro-inflammatory stimulation. However, TSPO expression does not increase with classical pro-inflammatory activation in primary human microglia (fold change 0.85 [95% CI 0.58-1.12], p = 0.47). In contrast, pro-inflammatory activation of human monocyte-derived macrophages is associated with a reduction of both TSPO gene expression (fold change 0.60 [95% CI 0.45-0.74], p = 0.02) and TSPO binding site abundance (fold change 0.61 [95% CI 0.49-0.73], p < 0.0001). These findings have important implications for understanding the biology of TSPO in activated macrophages and microglia in humans. They are also clinically relevant for the interpretation of PET studies using TSPO targeting radioligands, as they suggest changes in TSPO expression may reflect microglial and macrophage density rather than activation phenotype.
Poldrack RA, Baker CI, Durnez J, et al., 2017, Scanning the horizon: towards transparent and reproducible neuroimaging research, NATURE REVIEWS NEUROSCIENCE, Vol: 18, Pages: 115-126, ISSN: 1471-003X
Robinson R, Valindria V, Bai W, et al., 2017, Automatic Quality Control of Cardiac MRI Segmentation in Large-scale Population Imaging, Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention
Wilman HR, Kelly M, Garratt S, et al., 2017, Characterisation of liver fat in the UK Biobank cohort, PLOS ONE, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1932-6203
Colasanti A, Guo Q, Giannetti P, et al., 2016, Hippocampal Neuroinflammation, Functional Connectivity, and Depressive Symptoms in Multiple Sclerosis, BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY, Vol: 80, Pages: 62-72, ISSN: 0006-3223
Comninos AN, Anastasovska J, Sahuri-Arisoylu M, et al., 2016, Kisspeptin signaling in the amygdala modulates reproductive hormone secretion, BRAIN STRUCTURE & FUNCTION, Vol: 221, Pages: 2035-2047, ISSN: 1863-2653
Datta G, Colasanti A, Kalk NJ, et al., 2016, In vivo translocator protein positron emission tomography imaging detects a heterogeneity of lesion inflammatory activity in multiple sclerosis not evident by MRI., 32nd Congress of the European-Committee-for-Treatment-and-Research-in-Multiple-Sclerosis (ECTRIMS), Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, Pages: 36-37, ISSN: 1352-4585
Datta G, Violante IR, Scott G, et al., 2016, Translocator positron-emission tomography and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging of brain glial cell activation in multiple sclerosis., Mult Scler
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterised by a diffuse inflammatory response mediated by microglia and astrocytes. Brain translocator protein (TSPO) positron-emission tomography (PET) and [myo-inositol] magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) were used together to assess this. OBJECTIVE: To explore the in vivo relationships between MRS and PET [(11)C]PBR28 in MS over a range of brain inflammatory burden. METHODS: A total of 23 patients were studied. TSPO PET imaging with [(11)C]PBR28, single voxel MRS and conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences were undertaken. Disability was assessed by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC). RESULTS: [(11)C]PBR28 uptake and [ myo-inositol] were not associated. When the whole cohort was stratified by higher [(11)C]PBR28 inflammatory burden, [ myo-inositol] was positively correlated to [(11)C]PBR28 uptake (Spearman's ρ = 0.685, p = 0.014). Moderate correlations were found between [(11)C]PBR28 uptake and both MRS creatine normalised N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) concentration and grey matter volume. MSFC was correlated with grey matter volume (ρ = 0.535, p = 0.009). There were no associations between other imaging or clinical measures. CONCLUSION: MRS [ myo-inositol] and PET [(11)C]PBR28 measure independent inflammatory processes which may be more commonly found together with more severe inflammatory disease. Microglial activation measured by [(11)C]PBR28 uptake was associated with loss of neuronal integrity and grey matter atrophy.
De Guio F, Jouvent E, Biessels GJ, et al., 2016, Reproducibility and variability of quantitative magnetic resonance imaging markers in cerebral small vessel disease, JOURNAL OF CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW AND METABOLISM, Vol: 36, Pages: 1319-1337, ISSN: 0271-678X
Dong H, Matthews PM, Guo Y, 2016, A New Soft Material Based In-the-Ear EEG Recording Technique, 38th Annual International Conference of the IEEE-Engineering-in-Medicine-and-Biology-Society (EMBC), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 5709-5712, ISSN: 1557-170X
Gafson AR, Nicholas R, Giovannoni G, et al., 2016, Plasma cytokine concentration changes in multiple sclerosis patients after treatment with dimethyl fumarate, 32nd Congress of the European-Committee-for-Treatment-and-Research-in-Multiple-Sclerosis (ECTRIMS), Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, Pages: 670-671, ISSN: 1352-4585
James A, Joyce E, Lunn D, et al., 2016, Abnormal frontostriatal connectivity in adolescent-onset schizophrenia and its relationship to cognitive functioning (vol 35C, pg 32, 2016), EUROPEAN PSYCHIATRY, Vol: 38, Pages: 22-22, ISSN: 0924-9338
James A, Joyce E, Lunn D, et al., 2016, Abnormal frontostriatal connectivity in adolescent-onset schizophrenia and its relationship to cognitive functioning, EUROPEAN PSYCHIATRY, Vol: 35, Pages: 32-38, ISSN: 0924-9338
Khamis RY, Woollard KJ, Hyde GD, et al., 2016, Near Infrared Fluorescence (NIRF) Molecular Imaging of Oxidized LDL with an Autoantibody in Experimental Atherosclerosis, SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, Vol: 6, ISSN: 2045-2322
Lovestone S, Rossor M, Gallacher J, et al., 2016, Better together for better dementia research and care, LANCET PSYCHIATRY, Vol: 3, Pages: 503-504, ISSN: 2215-0374
Maron E, Near J, Wallis G, et al., 2016, A pilot study of the effect of short-term escitalopram treatment on brain metabolites and gamma-oscillations in healthy subjects, JOURNAL OF PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY, Vol: 30, Pages: 579-580, ISSN: 0269-8811
Matthews PM, Hampshire A, 2016, Clinical Concepts Emerging from fMRI Functional Connectomics, NEURON, Vol: 91, Pages: 511-528, ISSN: 0896-6273
Matthews PM, Roncaroli F, Waldman A, et al., 2016, A practical review of the neuropathology and neuroimaging of multiple sclerosis., Pract Neurol, Vol: 16, Pages: 279-287
The variability in the severity and clinical course of multiple sclerosis (MS) has as its basis an extreme heterogeneity in the location, nature and extent of pathology in the brain and spinal cord. Understanding the underlying neuropathology and associated pathogenetic mechanisms of the disease helps to communicate the rationale for treatment and disease monitoring to patients. Neuroimaging is an important tool for this: it allows clinicians to relate neuropathological changes to clinical presentations and to monitor the course of their disease. Here, we review MS neuropathology and its imaging correlates to provide a practical guide for using MRI to assess disease severity and treatment responses. This provides a foundation for optimal management of patients based on the principle that they show 'no evidence of disease activity'.
Miller KL, Alfaro-Almagro F, Bangerter NK, et al., 2016, Multimodal population brain imaging in the UK Biobank prospective epidemiological study, NATURE NEUROSCIENCE, Vol: 19, Pages: 1523-1536, ISSN: 1097-6256
Nie L, Matthews PM, Guo Y, 2016, Inferring Individual-Level Variations in the Functional Parcellation of the Cerebral Cortex, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, Vol: 63, Pages: 2505-2517, ISSN: 0018-9294
Petersen SE, Matthews PM, Francis JM, et al., 2016, UK Biobank's cardiovascular magnetic resonance protocol., Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, Vol: 18, ISSN: 1532-429X
BACKGROUND: UK Biobank's ambitious aim is to perform cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in 100,000 people previously recruited into this prospective cohort study of half a million 40-69 year-olds. METHODS/DESIGN: We describe the CMR protocol applied in UK Biobank's pilot phase, which will be extended into the main phase with three centres using the same equipment and protocols. The CMR protocol includes white blood CMR (sagittal anatomy, coronary and transverse anatomy), cine CMR (long axis cines, short axis cines of the ventricles, coronal LVOT cine), strain CMR (tagging), flow CMR (aortic valve flow) and parametric CMR (native T1 map). DISCUSSION: This report will serve as a reference to researchers intending to use the UK Biobank resource or to replicate the UK Biobank cardiovascular magnetic resonance protocol in different settings.
Ricotti V, Evans MRB, Sinclair CDJ, et al., 2016, Upper Limb Evaluation in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Fat-Water Quantification by MRI, Muscle Force and Function Define Endpoints for Clinical Trials, PLOS ONE, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1932-6203
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