Imperial College London

DrPhilipMolyneaux

Faculty of MedicineNational Heart & Lung Institute

Reader in Interstitial Lung Disease
 
 
 
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p.molyneaux

 
 
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Sir Alexander Fleming BuildingSouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

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136 results found

Dawes TJW, McCabe C, Dimopoulos K, Stewart I, Bax S, Harries C, Samaranayake CB, Kempny A, Molyneaux PL, Seitler S, Semple T, Li W, George PM, Kouranos V, Chua F, Renzoni EA, Kokosi M, Jenkins G, Wells AU, Wort SJ, Price LCet al., 2022, Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor treatment and survival in interstitial lung disease pulmonary hypertension: A Bayesian retrospective observational cohort study., Respirology

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary hypertension is a life-limiting complication of interstitial lung disease (ILD-PH). We investigated whether treatment with phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5i) in patients with ILD-PH was associated with improved survival. METHODS: Consecutive incident patients with ILD-PH and right heart catheterisation, echocardiography and spirometry data were followed from diagnosis to death, transplantation or censoring with all follow-up and survival data modelled by Bayesian methods. RESULTS: The diagnoses in 128 patients were idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (n = 74, 58%), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (n = 17, 13%), non-specific interstitial pneumonia (n = 12, 9%), undifferentiated ILD (n = 8, 6%) and other lung diseases (n = 17, 13%). Final outcomes were death (n = 106, 83%), transplantation (n = 9, 7%) and censoring (n = 13, 10%). Patients treated with PDE5i (n = 50, 39%) had higher mean pulmonary artery pressure (median 38 mm Hg [interquartile range, IQR: 34, 43] vs. 35 mm Hg [IQR: 31, 38], p = 0.07) and percentage predicted forced vital capacity (FVC; median 57% [IQR: 51, 73] vs. 52% [IQR: 45, 66], p=0.08) though differences did not reach significance. Patients treated with PDE5i survived longer than untreated patients (median 2.18 years [95% CI: 1.43, 3.04] vs. 0.94 years [0.69, 1.51], p = 0.003) independent of all other prognostic markers by Bayesian joint-modelling (HR 0.39, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.59, p < 0.001) and propensity-matched analyses (HR 0.38, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.58, p < 0.001). Survival difference with treatment was significantly larger if right ventricular function was normal, rather than abnormal, at presentation (+2.55 years, 95% CI: -0.03, +3.97 vs. +0.98 years, 95% CI: +0.47, +2.00, p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: PDE5i treatment i

Journal article

Allen RJ, Oldham JM, Jenkins DA, Leavy OC, Guillen-Guio B, Melbourne CA, Ma S-F, Jou J, Kim JS, CleanUP-IPF Investigators of the Pulmonary Trials Cooperative, Fahy WA, Oballa E, Hubbard RB, Navaratnam V, Braybrooke R, Saini G, Roach KM, Tobin MD, Hirani N, Whyte MKB, Kaminski N, Zhang Y, Martinez FJ, Linderholm AL, Adegunsoye A, Strek ME, Maher TM, Molyneaux PL, Flores C, Noth I, Gisli Jenkins R, Wain LVet al., 2022, Longitudinal lung function and gas transfer in individuals with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a genome-wide association study, The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, ISSN: 2213-2600

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an incurable lung disease characterised by progressive scarring leading to alveolar stiffness, reduced lung capacity, and impeded gas transfer. We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with declining lung capacity or declining gas transfer after diagnosis of IPF. METHODS: We did a genome-wide meta-analysis of longitudinal measures of forced vital capacity (FVC) and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) in individuals diagnosed with IPF. Individuals were recruited to three studies between June, 1996, and August, 2017, from across centres in the US, UK, and Spain. Suggestively significant variants were investigated further in an additional independent study (CleanUP-IPF). All four studies diagnosed cases following American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society guidelines. Variants were defined as significantly associated if they had a meta-analysis p<5 × 10-8 when meta-analysing across all discovery and follow-up studies, had consistent direction of effects across all four studies, and were nominally significant (p<0·05) in each study. FINDINGS: 1329 individuals with a total of 5216 measures were included in the FVC analysis. 975 individuals with a total of 3361 measures were included in the DLCO analysis. For the discovery genome-wide analyses, 7 611 174 genetic variants were included in the FVC analysis and 7 536 843 in the DLCO analysis. One variant (rs115982800) located in an antisense RNA gene for protein kinase N2 (PKN2) showed a genome-wide significant association with FVC decline (-140 mL/year per risk allele [95% CI -180 to -100]; p=9·14 × 10-12). INTERPRETATION: Our analysis identifies a genetic variant associated with disease progression, which might highlight a new biological mechanism for IPF. We found that PKN2, a Rho and Rac effector protein, is the most likely gene of interest fro

Journal article

Pugashetti JV, Adegunsoye A, Wu Z, Lee CT, Srikrishnan A, Ghodrati S, Vo V, Renzoni EA, Wells AU, Garcia CK, Chua F, Newton CA, Molyneaux PL, Oldham JMet al., 2022, Validation of proposed criteria for progressive pulmonary fibrosis., American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, ISSN: 1073-449X

RATIONALE: Criteria for progressive pulmonary fibrosis (PPF) have been proposed, but their prognostic value beyond categorical decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether proposed PPF criteria predict transplant-free survival (TFS) in patients with non-idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) forms of interstitial lung disease (ILD). METHODS: A retrospective, multi-center cohort analysis was performed. Patients diagnosed with fibrotic connective tissue disease associated ILD, fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis and non-IPF idiopathic interstitial pneumonia from three US centers and one UK center comprised test and validation cohorts, respectively. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to test the association between five-year TFS and 10% FVC decline, followed by thirteen additional PPF criteria satisfied in the absence of >=10% FVC decline. MAIN RESULTS: One thousand three hundred forty-one patients met inclusion criteria. A >=10% relative FVC decline was the strongest predictor of reduced TFS and showed consistent TFS association across cohorts, ILD subtypes and treatment groups, resulting in a phenotype that closely resembled IPF. Ten additional PPF criteria satisfied in the absence of >=10% relative FVC decline were also associated with reduced TFS in the US test cohort, with six maintaining TFS association in the UK validation cohort. Validated PPF criteria requiring a combination of physiologic, radiologic, and symptomatic worsening performed similarly to their stand-alone components but captured a smaller number of patients. CONCLUSIONS: An FVC decline of >=10% and six additional PPF criteria satisfied in the absence of such decline identify non-IPF ILD patients at increased risk of death or lung transplant.

Journal article

Hewitt RJ, Bartlett EC, Ganatra R, Butt H, Kouranos V, Chua F, Kokosi M, Molyneaux PL, Desai SR, Wells AU, Jenkins RG, Renzoni EA, Kemp S, Devaraj A, George PMet al., 2022, Lung cancer screening provides an opportunity for early diagnosis and treatment of interstitial lung disease, THORAX, ISSN: 0040-6376

Journal article

Kozik AJ, Holguin F, Segal LN, Chatila TA, Dixon AE, Gern JE, Lozupone C, Lukacs N, Lumeng C, Molyneaux PL, Reisdorph N, Vujkovic-Cvijin I, Togias A, Huang YJet al., 2022, Microbiome, metabolism, and immunoregulation of asthma: an American Thoracic Society and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases workshop report., American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, Vol: 67, Pages: 155-163, ISSN: 1044-1549

This report presents the proceedings from a workshop titled "Microbiome, Metabolism and Immunoregulation of Asthma" that was held virtually May 13 and 14, 2021. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the American Thoracic Society (Assembly on Allergy, Immunology, and Inflammation) and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. It convened an interdisciplinary group of experts with backgrounds in asthma immunology, microbiome science, metabolomics, computational biology, and translational pulmonary research. The main purpose was to identify key scientific gaps and needs to further advance research on microbial and metabolic mechanisms that may contribute to variable immune responses and disease heterogeneity in asthma. Discussions were structured around several topics, including 1) immune and microbial mechanisms of asthma pathogenesis in murine models, 2) the role of microbes in pediatric asthma exacerbations, 3) dysregulated metabolic pathways in asthma associated with obesity, 4) metabolism effects on macrophage function in adipose tissue and the lungs, 5) computational approaches to dissect microbiome-metabolite links, and 6) potential confounders of microbiome-disease associations in human studies. This report summarizes the major points of discussion, which included identification of specific knowledge gaps, challenges, and suggested directions for future research. These include questions surrounding mechanisms by which microbiota and metabolites shape host health versus an allergic or asthmatic state; direct and indirect influences of other biological factors, exposures, and comorbidities on these interactions; and ongoing technical and analytical gaps for clinical translation.

Journal article

Evans RA, Leavy OC, Richardson M, Elneima O, McCauley HJC, Shikotra A, Singapuri A, Sereno M, Saunders RM, Harris VC, Houchen-Wolloff L, Aul R, Beirne P, Bolton CE, Brown JS, Choudhury G, Diar-Bakerly N, Easom N, Echevarria C, Fuld J, Hart N, Hurst J, Jones MG, Parekh D, Pfeffer P, Rahman NM, Rowland-Jones SL, Shah AM, Wootton DG, Chalder T, Davies MJ, De Soyza A, Geddes JR, Greenhalf W, Greening NJ, Heaney LG, Heller S, Howard LS, Jacob J, Jenkins RG, Lord JM, Man WD-C, McCann GP, Neubauer S, Openshaw PJM, Porter JC, Rowland MJ, Scott JT, Semple MG, Singh SJ, Thomas DC, Toshner M, Lewis KE, Thwaites RS, Briggs A, Docherty AB, Kerr S, Lone NI, Quint J, Sheikh A, Thorpe M, Zheng B, Chalmers JD, Ho LP, Horsley A, Marks M, Poinasamy K, Raman B, Harrison EM, Wain LV, Brightling CE, Abel K, Adamali H, Adeloye D, Adeyemi O, Adrego R, Aguilar Jimenez LA, Ahmad S, Ahmad Haider N, Ahmed R, Ahwireng N, Ainsworth M, Al-Sheklly B, Alamoudi A, Ali M, Aljaroof M, All AM, Allan L, Allen RJ, Allerton L, Allsop L, Almeida P, Altmann D, Alvarez Corral M, Amoils S, Anderson D, Antoniades C, Arbane G, Arias A, Armour C, Armstrong L, Armstrong N, Arnold D, Arnold H, Ashish A, Ashworth A, Ashworth M, Aslani S, Assefa-Kebede H, Atkin C, Atkin P, Aung H, Austin L, Avram C, Ayoub A, Babores M, Baggott R, Bagshaw J, Baguley D, Bailey L, Baillie JK, Bain S, Bakali M, Bakau M, Baldry E, Baldwin D, Ballard C, Banerjee A, Bang B, Barker RE, Barman L, Barratt S, Barrett F, Basire D, Basu N, Bates M, Bates A, Batterham R, Baxendale H, Bayes H, Beadsworth M, Beckett P, Beggs M, Begum M, Bell D, Bell R, Bennett K, Beranova E, Bermperi A, Berridge A, Berry C, Betts S, Bevan E, Bhui K, Bingham M, Birchall K, Bishop L, Bisnauthsing K, Blaikely J, Bloss A, Bolger A, Bonnington J, Botkai A, Bourne C, Bourne M, Bramham K, Brear L, Breen G, Breeze J, Bright E, Brill S, Brindle K, Broad L, Broadley A, Brookes C, Broome M, Brown A, Brown A, Brown J, Brown J, Brown M, Brown M, Brown V, Brugha T, Brunskill Net al., 2022, Clinical characteristics with inflammation profiling of long COVID and association with 1-year recovery following hospitalisation in the UK: a prospective observational study, The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, Vol: 10, Pages: 761-775, ISSN: 2213-2600

BackgroundNo effective pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions exist for patients with long COVID. We aimed to describe recovery 1 year after hospital discharge for COVID-19, identify factors associated with patient-perceived recovery, and identify potential therapeutic targets by describing the underlying inflammatory profiles of the previously described recovery clusters at 5 months after hospital discharge.MethodsThe Post-hospitalisation COVID-19 study (PHOSP-COVID) is a prospective, longitudinal cohort study recruiting adults (aged ≥18 years) discharged from hospital with COVID-19 across the UK. Recovery was assessed using patient-reported outcome measures, physical performance, and organ function at 5 months and 1 year after hospital discharge, and stratified by both patient-perceived recovery and recovery cluster. Hierarchical logistic regression modelling was performed for patient-perceived recovery at 1 year. Cluster analysis was done using the clustering large applications k-medoids approach using clinical outcomes at 5 months. Inflammatory protein profiling was analysed from plasma at the 5-month visit. This study is registered on the ISRCTN Registry, ISRCTN10980107, and recruitment is ongoing.Findings2320 participants discharged from hospital between March 7, 2020, and April 18, 2021, were assessed at 5 months after discharge and 807 (32·7%) participants completed both the 5-month and 1-year visits. 279 (35·6%) of these 807 patients were women and 505 (64·4%) were men, with a mean age of 58·7 (SD 12·5) years, and 224 (27·8%) had received invasive mechanical ventilation (WHO class 7–9). The proportion of patients reporting full recovery was unchanged between 5 months (501 [25·5%] of 1965) and 1 year (232 [28·9%] of 804). Factors associated with being less likely to report full recovery at 1 year were female sex (odds ratio 0·68 [95% CI 0·46–0·99]), obes

Journal article

Stolting H, Baillon L, Frise R, Bonner K, Hewitt RJ, Molyneaux PL, Gore ML, Barclay WS, Saglani S, Lloyd CMet al., 2022, Distinct airway epithelial immune responses after infection with SARS-CoV-2 compared to H1N1, Mucosal Immunology, Vol: 15, Pages: 952-963, ISSN: 1933-0219

Children are less likely than adults to suffer severe symptoms when infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), while influenza A H1N1 severity is comparable across ages except for the very young or elderly. Airway epithelial cells play a vital role in the early defence against viruses via their barrier and immune functions. We investigated viral replication and immune responses in SARS-CoV-2-infected bronchial epithelial cells from healthy paediatric (n = 6; 2.5–5.6 years old) and adult (n = 4; 47–63 years old) subjects and compared cellular responses following infection with SARS-CoV-2 or Influenza A H1N1. While infection with either virus triggered robust transcriptional interferon responses, including induction of type I (IFNB1) and type III (IFNL1) interferons, markedly lower levels of interferons and inflammatory proteins (IL-6, IL-8) were released following SARS-CoV-2 compared to H1N1 infection. Only H1N1 infection caused disruption of the epithelial layer. Interestingly, H1N1 infection resulted in sustained upregulation of SARS-CoV-2 entry factors FURIN and NRP1. We did not find any differences in the epithelial response to SARS-CoV-2 infection between paediatric and adult cells. Overall, SARS-CoV-2 had diminished potential to replicate, affect morphology and evoke immune responses in bronchial epithelial cells compared to H1N1.

Journal article

Salciccioli J, Marshall D, Goodall R, Crowley C, Shalhoub J, Patel P, Molyneaux Pet al., 2022, Interstitial lung disease incidence and mortality in the United Kingdom and the European Union: an observational study, 2001-2017, ERJ Open Research, Vol: 8, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 2312-0541

Objective: To compare the trends in age-standardised incidence and mortality from interstitial lung diseases (ILD) in the United Kingdom (UK) and the European Union (EU).Design: Observational study using data obtained from the Global Burden of Disease Study.Setting and Participants: Residents of the UK and of the twenty-seven EU countries.Main outcome measures: ILD age-standardised incidence rates per 100 000 (ASIR), age-standardised death rates per 100 000 (ASDR), and mortality-to-incidence ratio (MIRs) are presented for males and females separately for each country, for the years 2001–2017. Trends were analysed using Joinpoint regression analysis.Results: For men, in 2017, the median incidence of ILD was 7.22 (IQR 5.57–8.96) per 100 000 population. For women, in 2017, the median incidence of ILD was 4.34 (IQR 3.36–6.29) per 100 000 population. For men, in 2017, the median ASDR attributed to ILD was 2.04 (IQR 1.13–2.71) per 100 000 population. For women, the median ASDR in 2017 for ILD was 1.02 (0.68–1.37) per 100 000 population. There was an overall increase in ASDR during the observation period with a median change of +20.42% (IQR 5.44–31.40) for men and an increase of +15.44% (IQR −1.01–31.52) for women. Despite increases in mortality over the entire observation period, there were decreasing mortality trends in the majority of countries at the end of the observation period (75% for men and 86% for women).Conclusion: Over the past two decades, there have been increases in the incidence and mortality of interstitial lung diseases in Europe. The most recent trends, however, demonstrate decreases in mortality from ILD in the majority of European countries for both men and women. These data support the ongoing improvements in the diagnosis and management of ILD.

Journal article

Zhang D, Povysil G, Kobeissy PH, Li Q, Wang B, Amelotte M, Jaouadi H, Newton CA, Maher TM, Molyneaux PL, Noth I, Martinez FJ, Raghu G, Todd JL, Palmer SM, Haefliger C, Platt A, Petrovski S, Garcia JA, Goldstein DB, Garcia CKet al., 2022, Rare and common variants in KIF15 contribute to genetic risk of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 206, ISSN: 1073-449X

RATIONALE: Genetic studies of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) have improved our understanding of this disease, but not all causal loci have been identified. OBJECTIVE: To identify genes enriched with rare deleterious variants in IPF and familial pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: We performed gene burden analysis of whole exome data, tested single variants for disease association, conducted KIF15 functional studies, and examined human lung single cell RNA sequencing data. MEASUREMENT AND MAIN RESULTS: Gene burden analysis of 1,725 cases and 23,509 controls identified heterozygous rare deleterious variants in KIF15, a kinesin involved in spindle separation during mitosis, and three telomere-related genes (TERT, RTEL1, PARN). KIF15 was implicated in autosomal dominant models of rare deleterious variants (OR 4.9 [95%CI 2.7, 8.8] P=2.55x10-7) and rare protein-truncating variants (OR 7.6 [3.3, 17.1], P=8.12x10-7). Meta-analysis of the discovery and replication cohorts, including 2,966 cases and 29,817 controls, confirm the involvement of KIF15, plus the three telomere-related genes. A common variant within a KIF15 intron (rs74341405, OR 1.6 [1.4, 1.9], P=5.63x10-10) is associated with IPF risk, confirming a prior report. Lymphoblastoid cells from individuals heterozygous for the common variant have decreased KIF15 and reduced rates of cell growth. Cell proliferation is dependent on KIF15 in the presence of an inhibitor of Eg5/KIF11, which has partially redundant function. KIF15 is expressed specifically in replicating human lung cells, and shows diminished expression in replicating epithelial cells of IPF patients. CONCLUSIONS: Both rare deleterious variants and common variants in KIF15 link a non-telomerase pathway of cell proliferation with IPF susceptibility.

Journal article

Molyneaux PL, Fahy WA, Byrne AJ, Braybrooke R, Saunders P, Toshner R, Albers G, Chua F, Renzoni EA, Wells AU, Karkera Y, Oballa E, Saini G, Nicholson AG, Jenkins G, Maher TMet al., 2022, CYFRA 21-1 predicts progression in IPF: a prospective longitudinal analysis of the PROFILE cohort, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 205, Pages: 1440-1448, ISSN: 1073-449X

OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and inevitably fatal condition for which there are a lack of effective biomarkers to guide therapeutic decision making. RATIONALE: To determine the relationship between serum levels of the cytokeratin fragment CYFRA 21-1 and disease progression and mortality in individuals with IPF enrolled in the PROFILE study. METHODS: CYFRA 21-1 was identified by immunohistochemistry in samples of human lung. Concentrations of CYFRA 21-1 were measured using an Elisa-based assay in serum, collected at baseline, 1- and 3-months, from 491 individuals with an incident diagnosis of IPF enrolled in the PROFILE study and from 100 control subjects. Study subjects were followed for a minimum of 3 years. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: CYFRA 21-1 localises to hyperplastic epithelium in IPF lung. CYFRA 21-1 levels were significantly higher in IPF subjects compared to healthy controls in both discovery (n=132) (control 0.96±0.81 ng/mL versus IPF; 2.34±2.15 ng/mL, p < 0.0001) and validation (n=359) (control; 2.21±1.54 ng/mL and IPF; 4.13±2.77 ng/mL, p<0.0001) cohorts. Baseline levels of CYFRA 21-1 distinguished individuals at risk of 12-month disease progression (C-statistic 0.70 (95% CI 0.61-0.79), p < 0.0001) and were predictive of overall-mortality (HR 1.12 (1.06-1.19) per 1 ng/mL increase in CYFRA 21-1, p=0.0001). Furthermore, 3-month change in levels of CYFRA 21-1 separately predicted 12-month and overall survival in both the discovery and validation cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: CYFRA 21-1, a marker of epithelial damage and turnover, has the potential to be an important prognostic and therapeutic biomarker in individuals with IPF.

Journal article

Zhang D, Povysil G, Newton CA, Maher TM, Molyneaux PL, Noth I, Martinez FJ, Raghu G, Todd JL, Palmer SM, Platt A, Petrovski S, Goldstein DB, Garcia CKet al., 2022, Genome-wide enrichment of TERT rare variants in IPF patients of Latino ancestry., American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, ISSN: 1073-449X

Genome-wide rare variant studies of IPF patients of non-European ancestry have been understudied. Here, we evaluate the enrichment of rare genetic variants of 241 unrelated non-European cases, representing individuals of Latino, African, South Asian, East Asian, and Other Admixed ancestry. Gene burden analysis of deleterious rare (protein-truncating and missense) variants demonstrate an excess of TERT rare damaging variants (OR 67.1, 95% CI [23.1, 195.0], P = 9.4 x 10-14) in non-European subjects. Analysis by ancestry demonstrated an excess of rare, damaging TERT variants in the Latino subgroup (OR 80.9, 95% CI [17.3, 383.8], P = 2.6 x 10-8). Although the non-European group did not show enrichment of PARN, RTEL1, and KIF15 rare deleterious variants, these groups all showed a trend in the same direction as the European ancestry group. For TERT and KIF15, the inclusion of IPF patients of non-European ancestry led to a higher odds ratios and increased evidence in favor of rare deleterious variant contributions, thus demonstrating the increased power of multi-ethnic studies over single-ethnicity studies. To our knowledge, this is the first study that confirms the involvement of rare deleterious TERT variants for IPF patients of Latino and non-European ancestry. To better understand the genetic underpinnings of IPF patients of all ancestries, additional work will be needed to broaden patient recruitment to normalize imbalances.

Journal article

Molyneaux PL, Maher TM, authors of CYFRA 21-1 predicts progression in IPF; a prospective longitudinal analysis of the PROFILE cohort, 2022, Reply to: the need for a CYFRA 21-1 cut-off value to predict clinical progression of IPF in clinical practice., American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 206, Pages: 649-650, ISSN: 1073-449X

Journal article

Richeldi L, Azuma A, Cottin V, Hesslinger C, Stowasser S, Valenzuela C, Wijsenbeek MS, Zoz DF, Voss F, Maher TM, 1305-0013 Trial Investigatorset al., 2022, Trial of a preferential phosphodiesterase 4B inhibitor for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis., New England Journal of Medicine, Vol: 386, Pages: 2178-2187, ISSN: 0028-4793

BACKGROUND: Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibition is associated with antiinflammatory and antifibrotic effects that may be beneficial in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: In this phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we investigated the efficacy and safety of BI 1015550, an oral preferential inhibitor of the PDE4B subtype, in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive BI 1015550 at a dose of 18 mg twice daily or placebo. The primary end point was the change from baseline in the forced vital capacity (FVC) at 12 weeks, which we analyzed with a Bayesian approach separately according to background nonuse or use of an antifibrotic agent. RESULTS: A total of 147 patients were randomly assigned to receive BI 1015550 or placebo. Among patients without background antifibrotic use, the median change in the FVC was 5.7 ml (95% credible interval, -39.1 to 50.5) in the BI 1015550 group and -81.7 ml (95% credible interval, -133.5 to -44.8) in the placebo group (median difference, 88.4 ml; 95% credible interval, 29.5 to 154.2; probability that BI 1015550 was superior to placebo, 0.998). Among patients with background antifibrotic use, the median change in the FVC was 2.7 ml (95% credible interval, -32.8 to 38.2) in the BI 1015550 group and -59.2 ml (95% credible interval, -111.8 to -17.9) in the placebo group (median difference, 62.4 ml; 95% credible interval, 6.3 to 125.5; probability that BI 1015550 was superior to placebo, 0.986). A mixed model with repeated measures analysis provided results that were consistent with those of the Bayesian analysis. The most frequent adverse event was diarrhea. A total of 13 patients discontinued BI 1015550 treatment owing to adverse events. The percentages of patients with serious adverse events or severe adverse events were similar in the two trial groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this placebo-controlled trial, treatment with BI 1015550, either alone or with ba

Journal article

Chotirmall SH, Bogaert D, Chalmers JD, Cox MJ, Hansbro PM, Huang YJ, Molyneaux PL, O'Dwyer DN, Pragman AA, Rogers GB, Segal LN, Dickson RPet al., 2022, Therapeutic targeting of the respiratory microbiome., American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 206, Pages: 535-544, ISSN: 1073-449X

The last decade of research has revolutionized our understanding of respiratory microbiology, revealing that the lungs and airways contain diverse and dynamic microbial communities in health and disease. This "respiratory ecosystem"-a densely interconnected environment of microbial and host interactions-represents a tremendous and under-appreciated source of biological and clinical heterogeneity across patients with acute and chronic lung disease. Unlike other major sources of heterogeneity, such as comorbidities and host genetics, the respiratory microbiome is readily modifiable by clinical interventions, and therefore represents an untapped opportunity for therapeutic manipulation. As a potential "treatable trait" in efforts to subphenotype patients and deliver precision medicine, the respiratory microbiome is a promising therapeutic target. In this Pulmonary Perspective, we identify and discuss multiple challenges, both conceptual and practical, that must be overcome before the respiratory microbiome can be effectively modulated as a therapeutic target. Barriers include: 1) the need to identify specific microbiologic and ecologic "targets" for therapeutic modulation; 2) the need for an improved understanding of the efficacy and persistence of response to respiratory microbiome-modulating interventions; 3) the need for clinicians to be able to access, understand and utilize microbiome data for sub-phenotyping patients, and 4) specific concerns in special populations (including children, patients with chronic lung disease, and critically ill patients). By delineating these barriers, we identify opportunities for prospective research to advance our understanding of the respiratory microbiome, its role in human respiratory disease, and its genuine potential as a therapeutic target.

Journal article

Kraven LM, Taylor AR, Molyneaux PL, Maher T, McDonough J, Mura M, Yang I, Schwartz DA, Huang Y, Noth I, Ma SF, Yeo AJ, Fahy WA, Jenkins G, Wain Let al., 2022, Cluster analysis of transcriptomic datasets to identify endotypes of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, Thorax, ISSN: 0040-6376

Background Considerable clinical heterogeneity in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) suggests the existence of multiple disease endotypes. Identifying these endotypes would improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of IPF and could allow for a biomarker-driven personalised medicine approach. We aimed to identify clinically distinct groups of patients with IPF that could represent distinct disease endotypes.Methods We co-normalised, pooled and clustered three publicly available blood transcriptomic datasets (total 220 IPF cases). We compared clinical traits across clusters and used gene enrichment analysis to identify biological pathways and processes that were over-represented among the genes that were differentially expressed across clusters. A gene-based classifier was developed and validated using three additional independent datasets (total 194 IPF cases).Findings We identified three clusters of patients with IPF with statistically significant differences in lung function (p=0.009) and mortality (p=0.009) between groups. Gene enrichment analysis implicated mitochondrial homeostasis, apoptosis, cell cycle and innate and adaptive immunity in the pathogenesis underlying these groups. We developed and validated a 13-gene cluster classifier that predicted mortality in IPF (high-risk clusters vs low-risk cluster: HR 4.25, 95% CI 2.14 to 8.46, p=3.7×10−5).Interpretation We have identified blood gene expression signatures capable of discerning groups of patients with IPF with significant differences in survival. These clusters could be representative of distinct pathophysiological states, which would support the theory of multiple endotypes of IPF. Although more work must be done to confirm the existence of these endotypes, our classifier could be a useful tool in patient stratification and outcome prediction in IPF.

Journal article

Vijayakumar B, Boustani K, Ogger PP, Papadaki A, Tonkin J, Orton CM, Ghai P, Suveizdyte K, Hewitt RJ, Desai SR, Devaraj A, Snelgrove RJ, Molyneaux PL, Garner JL, Peters JE, Shah PL, Lloyd CM, Harker JAet al., 2022, Immuno-proteomic profiling reveals aberrant immune cell regulation in the airways of individuals with ongoing post-COVID-19 respiratory disease., Immunity, Vol: 55, Pages: 542-556.e5

Some patients hospitalized with acute COVID-19 suffer respiratory symptoms that persist for many months. We delineated the immune-proteomic landscape in the airways and peripheral blood of healthy controls and post-COVID-19 patients 3 to 6 months after hospital discharge. Post-COVID-19 patients showed abnormal airway (but not plasma) proteomes, with an elevated concentration of proteins associated with apoptosis, tissue repair, and epithelial injury versus healthy individuals. Increased numbers of cytotoxic lymphocytes were observed in individuals with greater airway dysfunction, while increased B cell numbers and altered monocyte subsets were associated with more widespread lung abnormalities. A one-year follow-up of some post-COVID-19 patients indicated that these abnormalities resolved over time. In summary, COVID-19 causes a prolonged change to the airway immune landscape in those with persistent lung disease, with evidence of cell death and tissue repair linked to the ongoing activation of cytotoxic T cells.

Journal article

Nolan CM, Polgar O, Schofield SJ, Patel S, Barker RE, Walsh JA, Ingram KA, George PM, Molyneaux PL, Maher TM, Man WD-Cet al., 2022, Pulmonary rehabilitation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and COPD: a propensity matched real-world study, Chest, Vol: 161, Pages: 728-737, ISSN: 0012-3692

BACKGROUND: The adherence to and clinical efficacy of pulmonary rehabilitation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), particularly in comparison to people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), remains uncertain. The objectives of this real-world study were to compare the responses of patients with IPF with a matched group of patients with COPD undergoing the same supervised, outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation program, and to determine whether pulmonary rehabilitation is associated with survival in IPF. RESEARCH QUESTION: Do people with IPF improve to the same extent with pulmonary rehabilitation as a matched group of individuals with COPD, and are non-completion of and/or non-response to pulmonary rehabilitation associated with one-year all-cause mortality in IPF? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Using propensity score matching, 163 patients with IPF were matched 1:1 with a control group of 163 patients with COPD referred to pulmonary rehabilitation. We compared between-group pulmonary rehabilitation completion rates and response. Survival status in the IPF cohort was recorded over one-year following pulmonary rehabilitation discharge. Cox proportional-hazards regression explored the association between pulmonary rehabilitation status and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Similar pulmonary rehabilitation completion rates (IPF: 69%; COPD: 63%; p=0.24) and improvements in exercise response were observed in both groups with no significant mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) between-group differences in incremental shuttle walk (ISW) change (2 (-18 to 22) meters). Pulmonary rehabilitation non-completion (hazard ratio (HR) (95%CI) 5.62 (2.24 to 14.08)) and non-response (HR (95%CI) 3.91 (1.54 to 9.93)) were independently associated with increased one-year all-cause mortality in IPF. INTERPRETATION: Compared with a matched group of patients with COPD, this real-word study demonstrates that patients with IPF have similar completion rates and magnitude of response to pul

Journal article

Singanayagam A, Footitt J, Marczynski M, Radicioni G, Cross MT, Finney LJ, Trujillo-Torralbo M-B, Calderazzo MA, Zhu J, Aniscenko J, Clarke TB, Molyneaux PL, Bartlett NW, Moffatt MF, Cookson WO, Wedzicha JA, Evans CM, Boucher RC, Kesimer M, Lieleg O, Mallia P, Johnston SLet al., 2022, Airway mucins promote immunopathology in virus-exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease., Journal of Clinical Investigation, Vol: 132, Pages: 1-16, ISSN: 0021-9738

The respiratory tract surface is protected from inhaled pathogens by a secreted layer of mucus rich in mucin glycoproteins. Abnormal mucus accumulation is a cardinal feature of chronic respiratory diseases but the relationship between mucus and pathogens during exacerbations is poorly understood. We identified elevations in airway MUC5AC and MUC5B concentrations during spontaneous and experimentally-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. MUC5AC was more sensitive to changes in expression during exacerbation and was therefore more predictably associated with virus load, inflammation, symptom severity, decrements in lung function, and secondary bacterial infections. MUC5AC was functionally related to inflammation as Muc5ac-deficient (Muc5ac-/-) mice had attenuated rhinovirus (RV)-induced airway inflammation and exogenous MUC5AC glycoprotein administration augmented inflammatory responses and increased release of extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in mice and human airway epithelial cell cultures. Hydrolysis of ATP suppressed MUC5AC augmentation of rhinovirus-induced inflammation in mice. Therapeutic suppression of mucin production using an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antagonist ameliorated immunopathology in a mouse COPD exacerbation model. The coordinated virus induction of MUC5AC and MUC5B suggests that non-Th2 mechanisms trigger mucin hypersecretion during exacerbations. Our data identifies a pro-inflammatory role for MUC5AC during viral infection and suggest that MUC5AC inhibition may ameliorate COPD exacerbations.

Journal article

Wu Z, Banya W, Chaudhuri N, Jakupovic I, Maher TM, Patel B, Spencer LG, Thillai M, West A, Westoby J, Wijsenbeek M, Smith J, Molyneaux PLet al., 2022, PAciFy Cough-a multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of morphine sulphate for the treatment of pulmonary Fibrosis Cough, Trials, Vol: 23, ISSN: 1745-6215

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease that leads to lung scarring. Cough is reported by 85% of patients with IPF and can be a distressing symptom with a significant impact on patients' quality of life. There are no proven effective therapies for IPF-related cough. Whilst morphine is frequently used as a palliative agent for breathlessness in IPF, its effects on cough have never been tested. PAciFy Cough is a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of morphine sulphate for the treatment of cough in IPF. METHODS: We will recruit 44 subjects with IPF prospectively from three interstitial lung disease units in the UK, namely the Royal Brompton Hospital, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust (MFT) and Aintree University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust. Patients will be randomised (1:1) to either placebo twice daily or morphine sulphate 5 mg twice daily for 14 days. They will then crossover after a 7-day washout period. The primary endpoint is the percent change in daytime cough frequency (coughs per hour) from baseline as assessed by objective cough monitoring at day 14 of treatment. DISCUSSION: This multicentre, randomised trial will assess the effect of opioids on cough counts and cough associated quality of life in IPF subjects. If proven to be an effective intervention, it represents a readily available treatment for patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was approved by the UK Medicines and Healthcare Regulatory Agency (Ref: CTA 21268/0224/001-0001 - EUDRACT 2019-003571-19 - Protocol Number RBH2019/001) on 08 April 2020, in compliance with the European Clinical Trials Directive and the Medicines for Human Use (Clinical Trials) Regulations 2004 and its subsequent amendments. The study was provided with ethical approval by the London Brent Research Ethics Committee (Ref: 20/LO/0368) on 21 May 2020 and is registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04429516) on 12 June 2020, available at https://cli

Journal article

Boustani K, Ghai P, Invernizzi R, Hewitt R, Maher T, Li Q-Z, Molyneaux P, Harker Jet al., 2022, Autoantibodies are present in the bronchoalveolar lavage but not circulation in patients with fibrotic interstitial lung disease, ERJ Open Research, Vol: 8, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2312-0541

Fibrotic interstitial lung disease (fILD) has previously been associated with the presence of autoantibody. While studies have focused on systemic autoimmunity, the role of local autoantibodies in the airways remains unknown. We therefore extensively characterised the airway and peripheral autoantibody profiles in patients with fILD and assessed association with disease severity and outcome.Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was collected from a cohort of fILD patients and total BAL antibody concentrations were quantified. An autoantigen microarray was used to measure IgG and IgA autoantibodies against 122 autoantigens in BAL from 40 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), 20 chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP), 20 connective tissue disease-associated ILD (CTD-ILD) patients and 20 controls.A subset of patients with fILD but not healthy controls had a local autoimmune signature in their BAL that was not present systemically, regardless of disease. The proportion of patients with IPF with a local autoantibody signature was comparable to that of CTD-ILD, which has a known autoimmune pathology, identifying a potentially novel subset of patients. The presence of an airway autoimmune signature was not associated with reduced survival probability or changes in lung function

Journal article

Wu Z, Banya W, Chaudhuri N, Jakupovic I, Maher T, Patel B, Spencer L, Thillai M, west A, Westoby J, Wijsenbeek M, Smith J, Molyneaux Pet al., 2022, PAciFy Cough – A multicentre, double blind, placebo controlled, crossover trial of morphine sulfate for the treatment of PulmonAry Fibrosis Cough, Trials, ISSN: 1745-6215

Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease that leads to lung scarring, Cough is reported by 85% of patients with IPF and can be a distressing symptom with a significant impact on patients’ quality of life. There are no proven effective therapies for IPF related cough. While morphine is frequently used as a palliative agent for breathlessness in IPF, its effects on cough have never been tested. PAciFy Cough is a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of morphine sulfate for the treatment of cough in IPF.Methods: We will recruit 44 subjects with IPF prospectively from three interstitial lung disease units in the UK, namely the Royal Brompton Hospital, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust (MFT) and Aintree University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust. Patients will be randomized (1:1) to either placebo twice daily or morphine sulfate 5mg twice daily for 14 days. They will then crossover after a 7 day washout period. The primary endpoint is the percent change in daytime cough frequency (coughs per hour) from baseline as assessed by objective cough monitoring at Day 14 of treatment.Discussion: This multicentre, randomised trial will assess the effect of opioids on cough counts and cough associated quality of life in IPF subjects. If proven to be an effective intervention, it represents a readily available treatment for patients.Trial registration: The study was approved by the UK Medicines and Healthcare Regulatory Agency (Ref: CTA 21268/0224/001-0001 – EUDRACT 2019-003571-19 – Protocol Number RBH2019/001) on 08 April 2020, in compliance with the European Clinical Trials Directive and the Medicines for Human Use (Clinical Trials) Regulations 2004 and its subsequent amendments. The study was provided with ethical approval by the London Brent Research Ethics Committee (Ref: 20/LO/0368) on 21 May 2020 and is registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04429516) on 12 June 2020, available at https://clini

Journal article

Davies HJ, Bachtiger P, Williams I, Molyneaux PL, Peters NS, Mandic Det al., 2022, Wearable in-ear PPG: detailed respiratory variations enable classification of COPD, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, Vol: 69, ISSN: 0018-9294

An ability to extract detailed spirometry-like breath-ing waveforms from wearable sensors promises to greatly improve respiratory health monitoring. Photoplethysmography (PPG) has been researched in depth for estimation of respiration rate, given that it varies with respiration through overall intensity, pulse amplitude and pulse interval. We compare and contrast the extraction of these three respiratory modes from both the ear canal and finger and show a marked improvement in the respiratory power for respiration induced intensity variations and pulse amplitude variations when recording from the ear canal. We next employ a data driven multi-scale method, noise assisted multivariate empirical mode decomposition (NA-MEMD), which allows for simultaneous analysis of all three respiratory modes to extract detailed respiratory waveforms from in-ear PPG. For rigour, we considered in-ear PPG recordings from healthy subjects, both older and young, patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and healthy subjects with artificially obstructed breathing. Specific in-ear PPG waveform changes are observed for COPD, such as a decreased inspiratory duty cycle and an increased inspiratory magnitude, when compared with expiratory magnitude. These differences are used to classify COPD from healthy and IPF waveforms with a sensitivity of 87% and an overall accuracy of 92%. Our findings indicate the promise of in-ear PPG for COPD screening and unobtrusive respiratory monitoring in ambulatory scenarios and in consumer wearables.

Journal article

Amati F, Stainer A, Mantero M, Gramegna A, Simonetta E, Suigo G, Voza A, Nambiar AM, Cariboni U, Oldham J, Molyneaux PL, Spagnolo P, Blasi F, Aliberti Set al., 2022, Lung microbiome in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and other interstitial lung diseases, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Vol: 23, Pages: 1-16, ISSN: 1422-0067

Interstitial lung diseases represent a heterogeneous and wide group of diseases in which factors leading to disease initiation and progression are not fully understood. Recent evidence suggests that the lung microbiome might influence the pathogenesis and progression of interstitial lung diseases. In recent years, the utilization of culture-independent methodologies has allowed the identification of complex and dynamic communities of microbes, in patients with interstitial lung diseases. However, the potential mechanisms by which these changes may drive disease pathogenesis and progression are largely unknown. The aim of this review is to discuss the role of the altered lung microbiome in several interstitial lung diseases. Untangling the host–microbiome interaction in the lung and airway of interstitial lung disease patients is a research priority. Thus, lung dysbiosis is a potentially treatable trait across several interstitial lung diseases, and its proper characterization and treatment might be crucial to change the natural history of these diseases and improve outcomes.

Journal article

Macaluso C, Boccabella C, Kokosi M, Sivarasan N, Kouranos V, George PM, Margaritopoulos G, Molyneaux PL, Chua F, Maher TM, Jenkins GR, Nicholson AG, Desai SR, Devaraj A, Wells AU, Renzoni EA, Stock CJWet al., 2022, Short-term lung function changes predict mortality in patients with fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis, Respirology, Vol: 27, Pages: 202-208, ISSN: 1323-7799

Background and objectiveA proportion of patients with fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (fHP) follow a progressive disease course despite immunosuppressive treatment. Little is known about predictors of mortality in fHP. We aimed to investigate the impact of short-term lung function changes in fHP on mortality.MethodsBaseline demographics for 145 consecutive patients with a multi-disciplinary team diagnosis of fHP, as well as baseline and 1-year follow-up of lung function, baseline echocardiographic findings, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cellularity and all-cause mortality were recorded. Changes in forced vital capacity (FVC) ≥ 5% and ≥10%, and diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) ≥ 10% and ≥15% at 1 year were calculated. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to test for associations with mortality.ResultsBaseline lung function severity, age, presence of honeycombing on computed tomography (CT) and echocardiographic pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) ≥ 40 mm Hg were associated with early mortality, while BAL lymphocytosis was associated with improved survival. A decline in FVC ≥ 5% (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.10, 95% CI: 2.00–4.81, p < 0.001), FVC ≥ 10% (HR: 3.11, 95% CI: 1.94–4.99, p < 0.001), DLCO ≥ 10% (HR: 2.80, 95% CI: 1.78–4.42, p < 0.001) and DLCO ≥ 15% (HR: 2.92, 95% CI: 1.18–4.72, p < 0.001) at 1 year was associated with markedly reduced survival on univariable and multivariable analyses after correcting for demographic variables, disease severity, honeycombing on CT and treatment, as well as BAL lymphocytosis and PASP ≥ 40 mm Hg on echocardiography, in separate models.ConclusionWorsening in FVC and DLCO at 1 year, including a marginal decline in FVC ≥ 5% and DLCO&th

Journal article

Furusawa H, Peljto AL, Walts AD, Cardwell J, Molyneaux PL, Lee JS, Fernández Pérez ER, Wolters PJ, Yang IV, Schwartz DAet al., 2022, Common idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis risk variants are associated with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, Thorax, Vol: 77, ISSN: 0040-6376

A subset of patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) develop lung fibrosis that is clinically similar to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). To address the aetiological determinants of fibrotic HP, we investigated whether the common IPF genetic risk variants were also relevant in study subjects with fibrotic HP. Our findings indicate that common genetic variants in TERC, DSP, MUC5B and IVD were significantly associated with fibrotic HP. These findings provide support for a shared etiology and pathogenesis between fibrotic HP and IPF.

Journal article

McElroy AN, Invernizzi R, Laskowska JW, O'Neill A, Doroudian M, Moghoofei M, Mostafaei S, Li F, Przybylski AA, O'Dwyer DN, Bowie AG, Fallon PG, Maher TM, Hogaboam CM, Molyneaux PL, Hirani N, Armstrong ME, Donnelly SCet al., 2022, Candidate role for toll-like receptor 3 L412F polymorphism and infection in acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 205, ISSN: 1073-449X

Rationale: The Toll-like receptor 3 Leu412Phe (TLR3 L412F) polymorphism attenuates cellular anti-viral responses and is associated with accelerated disease progression in IPF. The role of TLR3 L412F in bacterial infection in IPF or in acute exacerbations (AE) has not been reported. Objective: To characterize the association between TLR3 L412F and AE-related death in IPF. To determine the effect of TLR3 L412F on the lung microbiome and on anti-bacterial TLR-responses of primary lung fibroblasts from IPF patients. Methods: TLR-mediated anti-bacterial and anti-viral responses were quantitated in L412F-wild-type and 412F-heterozygous primary lung fibroblasts from IPF patients using ELISA, western blot analysis and qPCR. Hierarchical heatmap analysis was employed to establish bacterial and viral clustering in nasopharyngeal lavage (NPL) samples from AE-IPF patients. 16S rRNA qPCR and pyrosequencing were used to determine the effect of TLR3 L412F on the IPF lung microbiome. Measurements and Main Results: A significant increase in AE-related death in 412F-variant IPF patients was reported. We established that 412F-heterozygous IPF lung fibroblasts have reduced anti-bacterial TLR responses to LPS (TLR4), Pam3CYSK4 (TLR1/2), flagellin (TLR5) and FSL-1 (TLR6/1) and have reduced responses to live Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Using 16S rRNA sequencing, we demonstrated that 412F-heterozygous IPF patients have a dysregulated lung microbiome with increased frequencies of Streptococcus and Staphylococcus spp. Conclusions: This study reveals that TLR3 L412F dysregulates the IPF lung microbiome and reduces the responses of IPF lung fibroblasts to bacterial TLR-agonists and live bacterial infection. These findings identify a candidate role for TLR3 L412F in viral- and bacterial-mediated AE-death.

Journal article

Torrisi SE, Kahn N, Wälscher J, Polke M, Lee JS, Molyneaux PL, Sambataro FM, Heussel CP, Vancheri C, Kreuter Met al., 2021, Outcomes and incidence of PF-ILD according to different definitions in a real-world setting, Frontiers in Pharmacology, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1663-9812

Background: Almost one-third of fibrosing ILD (fILDs) have a clinical disease behavior similar to IPF, demonstrating a progressive phenotype (PF-ILD). However, there are no globally accepted criteria on the definition of a progressive phenotype in non-IPF fILD yet. Four different definitions have been used; however, no internationally accepted definition currently exists.Research Question: To compare the clinical and functional characteristics of progressive fILD according to the currently available definitions.Study design and methods: Cases of fILD were identified retrospectively from the database of the tertiary referral center for ILD in Heidelberg. Lung function, clinical signs of progression, and radiological changes were evaluated. Patients with fILD were considered to have progression according to each of the four available definitions: Cottin (CO), RELIEF (RE), INBUILD (IN), and UILD study. Lung function changes, expressed as mean absolute decline of FVC%, were reported every 3 months following diagnosis and analyzed in the context of each definition. Survival was also analyzed.Results: A total of 566 patients with non-IPF fILD were included in the analysis. Applying CO-, RE-, IN-, and UILD-definitions, 232 (41%), 183 (32%), 274 (48%), and 174 (31%) patients were defined as PF-ILD, respectively. RE- and UILD-criteria were the most stringent, with only 32 and 31% patients defined as progressive, while IN- was the most broad, with almost 50% of patients defined as progressive. CO- definition was in-between, classifying 41% as progressive. PF ILD patients with a UILD definition had worse prognosis.Interpretation: Depending on the definition used, the existing criteria identify different groups of patients with progressive fILD, and this may have important prognostic and therapeutic implications.

Journal article

Wu Z, Molyneaux PL, 2021, Choosing pharmacotherapy for ILD in patients with connective tissue disease, Breathe, Vol: 17, ISSN: 1810-6838

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a well-recognised complication of connective tissue diseases (CTD), leading to significant mortality and morbidity. The pathogenesis is thought to be driven by immune-mediated inflammation and subsequent architectural damage [1]. Current pharmacotherapy options predominantly focus on the use of immune suppression, although recently antifibrotic therapy has shown some promise. This article will highlight the best available evidence for treatment options in the most common forms of CTD-ILD.

Journal article

Oldham JM, Lee CT, Wu Z, Bowman WS, Pugashetti JV, Dao N, Tonkin J, Seede H, Echt G, Adegunsoye A, Chua F, Maher TM, Garcia CK, Strek ME, Newton CA, Molyneaux Pet al., 2021, Lung function trajectory in progressive fibrosing interstitial lung disease, European Respiratory Journal, Vol: 59, ISSN: 0903-1936

Proposed criteria for progressive fibrosing interstitial lung disease (PF-ILD) have been linked to increased mortality risk, but lung function trajectory after satisfying individual criterion remains unknown. Because survival is rarely employed as the primary endpoint in therapeutic trials, identifying PF-ILD criteria that best predict subsequent change in forced vital capacity (FVC) could improve clinical trial design. A retrospective, multi-center longitudinal cohort analysis was performed in consecutive patients with fibrotic connective tissue disease-associated ILD (CTD-ILD), chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis and idiopathic interstitial pneumonia at three US centers (test cohort) and one UK center (validation cohort). One-year change in FVC after satisfying proposed PF-ILD criteria was estimated using joint modeling. Subgroup analyses were performed to determine whether results varied across key subgroups. One thousand two hundred twenty-seven patients were included, with CTD-ILD predominating. Six of nine PF-ILD criteria were associated with differential one-year change in FVC, with radiologic progression of fibrosis, alone and in combination with other features, associated with the largest subsequent decline in FVC. Findings varied significantly by ILD subtype, with CTD-ILD demonstrating little change in FVC after satisfying most PF-ILD criteria, while other ILDs showed significantly larger changes. Findings did not vary after stratification by radiologic pattern or exposure to immunosuppressant therapy. Near-term change in FVC after satisfying proposed PF-ILD criteria was heterogeneous depending on the criterion assessed and was strongly influenced by ILD subtype. These findings may inform future clinical trial design and suggest ILD subtype should be taken into consideration when applying PF-ILD criteria.

Journal article

Hindocha S, Campbell D, Ahmed M, Giorgakoudi K, Sharma B, Yosaf N, Molyneaux P, Hunter B, Kalsi H, Cui W, Davidson M, Bhosle J, Minchom A, Locke I, McDonald F, O'Brien M, Popat S, Lee Ret al., 2021, Immune checkpoint inhibitor and radiotherapy-related pneumonitis: an informatics approach to determine real-world incidence, severity, management & resource implications, Frontiers in Medicine, Vol: 8, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2296-858X

Pneumonitis is a well-described, potentially life-threatening adverse effect of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) and thoracic radiotherapy. It can require additional investigations, treatment, and interruption of cancer therapy. It is important for clinicians to have an awareness of its incidence and severity, however real-world data are lacking and do not always correlate with findings from clinical trials. Similarly, there is a dearth of information on cost impact of symptomatic pneumonitis. Informatics approaches are increasingly being applied to healthcare data for their ability to identify specific patient cohorts efficiently, at scale. We developed a Structured Query Language (SQL)-based informatics algorithm which we applied to CT report text to identify cases of ICI and radiotherapy pneumonitis between 1/1/2015 and 31/12/2020. Further data on severity, investigations, medical management were also acquired from the electronic health record. We identified 248 cases of pneumonitis attributable to ICI and/or radiotherapy, of which 139 were symptomatic with CTCAE severity grade 2 or more. The grade ≥2 ICI pneumonitis incidence in our cohort is 5.43%, greater than the all-grade 1.3–2.7% incidence reported in the literature. Time to onset of ICI pneumonitis was also longer in our cohort (mean 4.5 months, range 4 days-21 months), compared to the median 2.7 months (range 9 days−19.2 months) described in the literature. The estimated average healthcare cost of symptomatic pneumonitis is £3932.33 per patient. In this study we use an informatics approach to present new real-world data on the incidence, severity, management, and resource burden of ICI and radiotherapy pneumonitis. To our knowledge, this is the first study to look at real-world incidence and healthcare resource utilisation at the per-patient level in a UK cancer hospital. Improved management of pneumonitis may facilitate prompt continuation of cancer therapy, and improved outcomes f

Journal article

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