172 results found
Koudstaal T, Funke-Chambour M, Kreuter M, et al., 2023, Pulmonary fibrosis: from pathogenesis to clinical decision-making., Trends Mol Med
Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) encompasses a spectrum of chronic lung diseases that progressively impact the interstitium, resulting in compromised gas exchange, breathlessness, diminished quality of life (QoL), and ultimately respiratory failure and mortality. Various diseases can cause PF, with their underlying causes primarily affecting the lung interstitium, leading to their referral as interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). The current understanding is that PF arises from abnormal wound healing processes triggered by various factors specific to each disease, leading to excessive inflammation and fibrosis. While significant progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms of PF, its pathogenesis remains elusive. This review provides an in-depth exploration of the latest insights into PF pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and future perspectives.
Barnett JL, Maher TM, Quint JK, et al., 2023, Combination of Bronchoalveolar Lavage and CT Differentiates Progressive and Non-Progressive Fibrotic Lung Diseases., Am J Respir Crit Care Med
RATIONALE: Identifying patients with pulmonary fibrosis (PF) at risk of progression can guide management. We explore the utility of combining baseline bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and CT in differentiating progressive and non-progressive PF. METHODS: The derivation cohort consisted of incident cases of PF, for whom BAL was performed as part of diagnostic work-up. A validation cohort were prospectively recruited with identical inclusion criteria. Baseline thoracic CTs were scored for fibrosis extent and UIP pattern. BAL lymphocyte proportion was recorded. Annualized forced vital capacity decline >10% or death within one year defined disease progression. Multivariable logistic regression identified determinants of outcome. Optimum binary thresholds (maximal Wilcoxon rank statistic) at which CT fibrosis extent and BAL lymphocyte proportion could distinguish disease progression were identified. RESULTS: BAL lymphocyte proportion, UIP pattern and fibrosis extent were significantly and independently associated with disease progression in the derivation cohort (n=240 individuals). Binary thresholds for raised BAL lymphocyte proportion and extensive fibrosis were identified as 25% and 20% respectively. Raised BAL lymphocyte proportion was rare in patients with a UIP pattern (8/135[5.9%]) or with extensive fibrosis (7/144[4.9%]). In the validation cohort (n=290 subjects), a raised BAL lymphocyte proportion was associated with a significantly lower probability of disease progression in patients with non-extensive fibrosis or a non-UIP pattern. CONCLUSIONS: BAL lymphocytosis is rare in patients with extensive fibrosis or a UIP pattern on CT. In patients without a UIP pattern or with limited fibrosis, a BAL lymphocyte proportion of ≥ 25% was associated with a lower likelihood of progression.
Jackson C, Stewart ID, Plekhanova T, et al., 2023, Effects of sleep disturbance on dyspnoea and impaired lung function following hospital admission due to COVID-19 in the UK: a prospective multicentre cohort study, The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, Vol: 11, Pages: 673-684, ISSN: 2213-2600
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbance is common following hospital admission both for COVID-19 and other causes. The clinical associations of this for recovery after hospital admission are poorly understood despite sleep disturbance contributing to morbidity in other scenarios. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and nature of sleep disturbance after discharge following hospital admission for COVID-19 and to assess whether this was associated with dyspnoea. METHODS: CircCOVID was a prospective multicentre cohort substudy designed to investigate the effects of circadian disruption and sleep disturbance on recovery after COVID-19 in a cohort of participants aged 18 years or older, admitted to hospital for COVID-19 in the UK, and discharged between March, 2020, and October, 2021. Participants were recruited from the Post-hospitalisation COVID-19 study (PHOSP-COVID). Follow-up data were collected at two timepoints: an early time point 2-7 months after hospital discharge and a later time point 10-14 months after hospital discharge. Sleep quality was assessed subjectively using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire and a numerical rating scale. Sleep quality was also assessed with an accelerometer worn on the wrist (actigraphy) for 14 days. Participants were also clinically phenotyped, including assessment of symptoms (ie, anxiety [Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale questionnaire], muscle function [SARC-F questionnaire], dyspnoea [Dyspnoea-12 questionnaire] and measurement of lung function), at the early timepoint after discharge. Actigraphy results were also compared to a matched UK Biobank cohort (non-hospitalised individuals and recently hospitalised individuals). Multivariable linear regression was used to define associations of sleep disturbance with the primary outcome of breathlessness and the other clinical symptoms. PHOSP-COVID is registered on the ISRCTN Registry (ISRCTN10980107). FINDINGS: 2320 of 2468 participants in the PHOSP-COVID study attended
Guillen-Guio B, Paynton ML, Allen RJ, et al., 2023, Association study of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) variants and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis., medRxiv
INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic interstitial pneumonia marked by progressive lung fibrosis and a poor prognosis. Recent studies have highlighted the potential role of infection in the pathogenesis of IPF and a prior association of the HLA-DQB1 gene with idiopathic fibrotic interstitial pneumonia (including IPF) has been reported. Due to the important role that the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) region plays in the immune response, here we evaluated if HLA genetic variation was associated specifically with IPF risk. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of associations of the HLA region with IPF risk in individuals of European ancestry from seven independent case-control studies of IPF (comprising a total of 5,159 cases and 27,459 controls, including the prior study of fibrotic interstitial pneumonia). Single nucleotide polymorphisms, classical HLA alleles and amino acids were analysed and signals meeting a region-wide association threshold p <4.5×10 -4 and a posterior probability of replication >90% were considered significant. We sought to replicate the previously reported HLA-DQB1 association in the subset of studies independent of the original report. RESULTS: The meta-analysis of all seven studies identified four significant independent single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with IPF risk. However, none met the posterior probability for replication criterion. The HLA-DQB1 association was not replicated in the independent IPF studies. CONCLUSION: Variation in the HLA region was not consistently associated with risk in studies of IPF. However, this does not preclude the possibility that other genomic regions linked to the immune response may be involved in the aetiology of IPF.
Nolan CM, Schofield SJ, Maddocks M, et al., 2023, Change in gait speed and adverse outcomes in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a prospective cohort study, Respirology, Vol: 28, Pages: 649-658, ISSN: 1323-7799
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Gait speed is associated with survival in individuals with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The extent to which four-metre gait speed (4MGS) decline predicts adverse outcome in IPF remains unclear. We aimed to examine longitudinal 4MGS change and identify a cut-point associated with adverse outcome. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, we recruited 132 individuals newly diagnosed with IPF and measured 4MGS change over 6 months. Death/first hospitalization at 6 months were composite outcome events. Complete data (paired 4MGS plus index event) were available in 85 participants; missing 4MGS data were addressed using multiple imputation. Receiver-Operating Curve plots identified a 4MGS change cut-point. Cox proportional-hazard regression assessed the relationship between 4MGS change and time to event. RESULTS: 4MGS declined over 6 months (mean [95% CI] change: -0.05 [-0.09 to -0.01] m/s; p = 0.02). A decline of 0.07 m/s or more in 4MGS over 6 months had better discrimination for the index event than change in 6-minute walk distance, forced vital capacity, Composite Physiologic Index or Gender Age Physiology index. Kaplan-Meier curves demonstrated a significant difference in time to event between 4MGS groups (substantial decline: >-0.07 m/s versus minor decline/improvers: ≤-0.07 m/s; p = 0.007). Those with substantial decline had an increased risk of hospitalization/death (adjusted hazard ratio [95% CI] 4.61 [1.23-15.83]). Similar results were observed in multiple imputation analysis. CONCLUSION: In newly diagnosed IPF, a substantial 4MGS decline over 6 months is associated with shorter time to hospitalization/death at 6 months. 4MGS change has potential as a surrogate endpoint for interventions aimed at modifying hospitalization/death.
Oldham JM, Johnson KW, Albers GJ, et al., 2023, Airway soluble CSF1R predicts progression in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis., ERJ Open Res, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2312-0541
This study provides the first evidence for a role of airway sCSF1R in IPF https://bit.ly/3KTBrCA.
Oldham JM, Allen RJ, Lorenzo-Salazar JM, et al., 2023, PCSK6 and survival in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 207, Pages: 1515-1524, ISSN: 1073-449X
RATIONALE: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating disease characterized by limited treatment options and high mortality. A better understanding of the molecular drivers of IPF progression is needed. OBJECTIVE: To identify and validate molecular determinants of IPF survival. METHODS: A staged genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed using paired genomic and survival data. Stage I cases were drawn from centers across the US and Europe and stage II cases from Vanderbilt University. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify gene variants associated with differential transplant-free survival (TFS). Stage I variants with nominal significance (p<5x10-5) were advanced for stage II testing and meta-analyzed to identify those reaching genome-wide significance (p<5x10-8). Downstream analyses were performed for genes and proteins associated with variants reaching genome-wide significance. MAIN RESULTS: After quality controls, 1481 stage I cases and 397 stage II cases were included in the analysis. After filtering, 9,075,629 variants were tested in stage I, with 158 meeting advancement criteria. Four variants associated with TFS with consistent effect direction were identified in stage II, including one in an intron of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 6 (PCSK6) reaching genome-wide significance (HR 4.11; 95%CI 2.54-6.67; p=9.45x10-9). PCSK6 protein was highly expressed in IPF lung parenchyma. PCSK6 lung staining intensity, peripheral blood gene expression and plasma concentration were associated with reduced transplant-free survival. CONCLUSIONS: We identified four novel variants associated with IPF survival, including one in PCSK6 that reached genome-wide significance. Downstream analyses suggested that PCSK6 protein plays a potentially important role in IPF progression. This article is open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/lic
Chua F, Low S, Chai GT, et al., 2023, Knowledge gaps in fibrotic interstitial lung disease in pan-Asian populations: data not missing at random?, The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, Vol: 11, Pages: 502-504, ISSN: 2213-2600
Zheng B, Vivaldi G, Daines L, et al., 2023, Determinants of recovery from post-COVID-19 dyspnoea: analysis of UK prospective cohorts of hospitalised COVID-19 patients and community-based controls, The Lancet Regional Health. Europe, Vol: 29, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 2666-7762
BackgroundThe risk factors for recovery from COVID-19 dyspnoea are poorly understood. We investigated determinants of recovery from dyspnoea in adults with COVID-19 and compared these to determinants of recovery from non-COVID-19 dyspnoea.MethodsWe used data from two prospective cohort studies: PHOSP-COVID (patients hospitalised between March 2020 and April 2021 with COVID-19) and COVIDENCE UK (community cohort studied over the same time period). PHOSP-COVID data were collected during hospitalisation and at 5-month and 1-year follow-up visits. COVIDENCE UK data were obtained through baseline and monthly online questionnaires. Dyspnoea was measured in both cohorts with the Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify determinants associated with a reduction in dyspnoea between 5-month and 1-year follow-up.FindingsWe included 990 PHOSP-COVID and 3309 COVIDENCE UK participants. We observed higher odds of improvement between 5-month and 1-year follow-up among PHOSP-COVID participants who were younger (odds ratio 1.02 per year, 95% CI 1.01–1.03), male (1.54, 1.16–2.04), neither obese nor severely obese (1.82, 1.06–3.13 and 4.19, 2.14–8.19, respectively), had no pre-existing anxiety or depression (1.56, 1.09–2.22) or cardiovascular disease (1.33, 1.00–1.79), and shorter hospital admission (1.01 per day, 1.00–1.02). Similar associations were found in those recovering from non-COVID-19 dyspnoea, excluding age (and length of hospital admission).InterpretationFactors associated with dyspnoea recovery at 1-year post-discharge among patients hospitalised with COVID-19 were similar to those among community controls without COVID-19.FundingPHOSP-COVID is supported by a grant from the MRC-UK Research and Innovation and the Department of Health and Social Care through the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) rapid response panel to tackle COVID-19. The views expressed in the publica
, 2023, Erratum: Genome-wide Enrichment of TERT Rare Variants in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Patients of Latino Ancestry., Am J Respir Crit Care Med, Vol: 207
Myall KJ, West AG, Martinovic JL, et al., 2023, Nocturnal hypoxemia associates with symptom progression and mortality in patients with progressive fibrotic interstitial lung disease., Chest, Pages: 1-34, ISSN: 0012-3692
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and nocturnal hypoxemia (NH) are common in patients with fibrotic interstitial lung disease (F-ILD), but their relationship with disease outcomes remains unclear. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: What is the relationship between NH and OSA and clinical outcomes in patients with F-ILD? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Prospective observational cohort study of patients with F-ILD and without daytime hypoxemia. Subjects underwent home sleep study at baseline and were followed up for at least one year or until death. NH was defined as ≥ 10% of sleep with SpO2 <90%. OSA was defined as an apnea-hypopnea index of ≥ 15/hour. RESULTS: Among 102 (male 74.5%; age 73.0 ± 8.7 years; FVC 2.74 ± 0.78L; 91.1% idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis) participants, 20 (19.6%) demonstrated prolonged nocturnal hypoxemia (NH), and 32 (31.4%) had obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). There were no significant differences between those with and without NH or OSA at baseline. Despite this, nocturnal hypoxemia was associated with a more rapid decline in both quality of life as measured by the King's Brief Interstitial Lung Disease questionnaire (change -11.3 ± 5.3 points in the NH group vs -6.7 ± 6.5 in those without NH, p=0.005) and higher all-cause mortality at one year (HR 8.21; 95% CI 2.40-28.1, p<0.001). No statistically significant difference was seen between the groups in annualised change in measures of pulmonary function testing. INTERPRETATION: Prolonged NH but not OSA is associated with worsening disease-related quality of life and increased mortality in patients with F-ILD.
Maher TM, Ford P, Brown KK, et al., 2023, Ziritaxestat, a novel autotaxin inhibitor, and lung function in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol: 329, Pages: 1567-1578, ISSN: 0098-7484
Importance There is a major need for effective, well-tolerated treatments for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of the autotaxin inhibitor ziritaxestat in patients with IPF.Design, Setting, and Participants The 2 identically designed, phase 3, randomized clinical trials, ISABELA 1 and ISABELA 2, were conducted in Africa, Asia-Pacific region, Europe, Latin America, the Middle East, and North America (26 countries). A total of 1306 patients with IPF were randomized (525 patients at 106 sites in ISABELA 1 and 781 patients at 121 sites in ISABELA 2). Enrollment began in November 2018 in both trials and follow-up was completed early due to study termination on April 12, 2021, for ISABELA 1 and on March 30, 2021, for ISABELA 2.Interventions Patients were randomized 1:1:1 to receive 600 mg of oral ziritaxestat, 200 mg of ziritaxestat, or placebo once daily in addition to local standard of care (pirfenidone, nintedanib, or neither) for at least 52 weeks.Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was the annual rate of decline for forced vital capacity (FVC) at week 52. The key secondary outcomes were disease progression, time to first respiratory-related hospitalization, and change from baseline in St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire total score (range, 0 to 100; higher scores indicate poorer health-related quality of life).Results At the time of study termination, 525 patients were randomized in ISABELA 1 and 781 patients in ISABELA 2 (mean age: 70.0 [SD, 7.2] years in ISABELA 1 and 69.8 [SD, 7.1] years in ISABELA 2; male: 82.4% and 81.2%, respectively). The trials were terminated early after an independent data and safety monitoring committee concluded that the benefit to risk profile of ziritaxestat no longer supported their continuation. Ziritaxestat did not improve the annual rate of FVC decline vs placebo in either study. In ISABELA 1, the least-squares mean annual rate of FVC decline was –124.6 mL
Saunders P, Wu Z, Fahy WA, et al., 2023, The burden and impact of cough in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: an analysis of the prospective observational PROFILE study., Annals of the American Thoracic Society, ISSN: 1546-3222
RATIONALE: Cough is a commonly reported symptom in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) that negatively impacts patient-reported quality of life. However, both the burden of cough at diagnosis and the behaviour of cough over time have not been systematically described in patients with IPF. OBJECTIVES: By utilising data prospectively collected as part of the PROFILE study we sought to assess cough burden and the impact that this has on quality of life within a cohort of patients with newly diagnosed IPF. We also re-examined the previously described relationship between cough and mortality and the association of cough with the MUC5B promoter polymorphism. METHODS: The PROFILE study is a multicentre, prospective, observational, longitudinal cohort study of incident IPF. Leicester cough questionnaire (LCQ) scores were recorded at baseline in 632 subjects and then repeated 6 monthly in a subset (n=216) of the cohort. RESULTS: The median LCQ at diagnosis was 16.1 (inter-quartile range 6.5). LCQ scores remained stable over the subsequent year in the majority of patients. There was a weak association between LCQ score and baseline lung function with worse cough related quality of life associating with more severe physiological impairment. Cough scores were not associated with subsequent mortality after correcting for baseline lung function. Furthermore, there was no relationship between LCQ score and MUC5B promotor polymorphism status. CONCLUSION: The burden of cough in IPF is high. Although cough is weakly associated with disease severity at baseline, cough-specific QoL as measured by the LCQ, confers no prognostic value. Cough-specific QoL burden remains relatively stable over time and does not associate with MUC5B promotor polymorphism.
van der Vis JJ, Prasse A, Renzoni EA, et al., 2023, MUC5B rs35705950 minor allele associates with older age and better survival in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, Respirology, Vol: 28, Pages: 455-464, ISSN: 1323-7799
Background and Objective:The minor T-allele of the MUC5B promoter polymorphism rs35705950 is strongly associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, conflicting results have been reported on the relationship between the MUC5B minor allele and survival and it is unknown whether a specific subgroup of IPF patients might benefit from MUC5B minor allele carriage. We investigated the association between MUC5B rs35705950, survival and patient characteristics in a real-world population of European IPF patients.Methods:In this retrospective study, 1751 patients with IPF from 8 European centres were included. MUC5B rs35705950 genotype, demographics, clinical characteristics at diagnosis and survival data were analysed.Results:In a multi-variate Cox proportional hazard model the MUC5B minor allele was a significant independent predictor of survival when adjusted for age, sex, high resolution computed tomography pattern, smoking behaviour and pulmonary function tests in IPF. MUC5B minor allele carriers were significantly older at diagnosis (p = 0.001). The percentage of MUC5B minor allele carriers increased significantly with age from 44% in patients aged <56 year, to 63% in patients aged >75. In IPF patients aged <56, the MUC5B minor allele was not associated with survival. In IPF patients aged ≥56, survival was significantly better for MUC5B minor allele carriers (45 months [CI: 42–49]) compared to non-carriers (29 months [CI: 26–33]; p = 4 × 10−12).Conclusion:MUC5B minor allele carriage associates with a better median transplant-free survival of 16 months in the European IPF population aged over 56 years. MUC5B genotype status might aid disease prognostication in clinical management of IPF patients.
Reynolds CJ, Del Greco M F, Allen RJ, et al., 2023, The causal relationship between gastro-esophageal reflux disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: A bidirectional two-sample Mendelian randomization study., Eur Respir J
BACKGROUND: Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in observational studies. It is not known if this association arises because GERD causes IPF, or IPF causes GERD, or because of confounding by factors, such as smoking, associated with both GERD and IPF. We used bidirectional Mendelian randomisation (MR), where genetic variants are used as instrumental variables to address issues of confounding and reverse causation, to examine how, if at all, GERD and IPF are causally related. METHODS AND RESULTS: A bidirectional two-sample MR was performed to estimate the causal effect of GERD on IPF risk, and of IPF on GERD risk, using genetic data from the largest GERD (78 707 cases and 288 734 controls) and IPF (4125 cases and 20 464 controls) genome-wide association meta-analyses currently available. GERD increased the risk of IPF, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.6 (95% Confidence Interval, CI: 1.04-2.49; p=0.032). There was no evidence of a causal effect of IPF on the risk of GERD, with an OR of 0.999 (95%CI: 0.997-1.000; p=0.245). CONCLUSION: We found that GERD increases the risk of IPF, but found no evidence that IPF increases the risk of GERD. GERD should be considered in future studies of IPF risk, and interest in it as a potential therapeutic target should be renewed. The mechanisms underlying the effect of GERD on IPF should also be investigated.
Garfield BE, Bianchi P, Arachchillage DJ, et al., 2023, A comparison of long-term outcomes in patients managed with venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom., Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 51, Pages: 1064-1073, ISSN: 0090-3493
OBJECTIVES: Early studies of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in COVID-19 have revealed similar outcomes to historical cohorts. Changes in the disease and treatments have led to differences in the patients supported on venovenous ECMO in the first and second waves. We aimed to compare these two groups in both the acute and follow-up phase. DESIGN: Retrospective single-center cohort study comparing mortality at censoring date (November 30, 2021) and decannulation, patient characteristics, complications and lung function and quality of life (QOL-by European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions 3 Level Version) at first follow-up in patients supported on venovenous ECMO between wave 1 and wave 2 of the COVID-19 pandemic. SETTING: Critical care department of a severe acute respiratory failure service. PATIENTS: Patients supported on ECMO for COVID-19 between wave 1 (March 17, 2020, to August 31, 2020) and wave 2 (January 9, 2020, to May 25, 2021). INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: One hundred twenty-three patients were included in our analysis. Survival at censoring date (χ2, 6.35; p = 0.012) and decannulation (90.4% vs 70.0%; p < 0.001) was significantly lower in the second wave, while duration of ECMO run was longer (12.0 d [18.0-30.0 d] vs 29.5 d [15.5-58.3 d]; p = 0.005). Wave 2 patients had longer application of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) prior to ECMO and a higher frequency of barotrauma. Patient age and NIV use were independently associated with increased mortality (odds ratio 1.07 [1.01-1.14]; p = 0.025 and 3.37 [1.12-12.60]; p = 0.043, respectively). QOL and lung function apart from transfer coefficient of carbon monoxide corrected for hemoglobin was similar at follow-up across the waves. CONCLUSIONS: Most patients with COVID-19 supported on ECMO in both waves survived in the short and longer term. At follow-up patients had similar lung function and QOL across the two waves. This suggests that ECMO has an ongoing role in
Stewart I, Molyneaux PL, Fabbri L, et al., 2023, Residual lung abnormalities following COVID-19 hospitalization: interim analysis of the UKILD Post-COVID study, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 207, Pages: 693-703, ISSN: 1073-449X
Rationale: Shared symptoms and genetic architecture between coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and lung fibrosis suggest severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may lead to progressive lung damage.Objectives: The UK Interstitial Lung Disease Consortium (UKILD) post–COVID-19 study interim analysis was planned to estimate the prevalence of residual lung abnormalities in people hospitalized with COVID-19 on the basis of risk strata.Methods: The PHOSP–COVID-19 (Post-Hospitalization COVID-19) study was used to capture routine and research follow-up within 240 days from discharge. Thoracic computed tomography linked by PHOSP–COVID-19 identifiers was scored for the percentage of residual lung abnormalities (ground-glass opacities and reticulations). Risk factors in linked computed tomography were estimated with Bayesian binomial regression, and risk strata were generated. Numbers within strata were used to estimate posthospitalization prevalence using Bayesian binomial distributions. Sensitivity analysis was restricted to participants with protocol-driven research follow-up.Measurements and Main Results: The interim cohort comprised 3,700 people. Of 209 subjects with linked computed tomography (median, 119 d; interquartile range, 83–155), 166 people (79.4%) had more than 10% involvement of residual lung abnormalities. Risk factors included abnormal chest X-ray (risk ratio [RR], 1.21; 95% credible interval [CrI], 1.05–1.40), percent predicted DlCO less than 80% (RR, 1.25; 95% CrI, 1.00–1.56), and severe admission requiring ventilation support (RR, 1.27; 95% CrI, 1.07–1.55). In the remaining 3,491 people, moderate to very high risk of residual lung abnormalities was classified at 7.8%, and posthospitalization prevalence was estimated at 8.5% (95% CrI, 7.6–9.5), rising to 11.7% (95% CrI, 10.3–13.1) in the sensitivity analysis.Conclusions: Residual lung abnormalities were estimated in up to 11% of
Dawes TJW, McCabe C, Dimopoulos K, et al., 2023, Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor treatment and survival in interstitial lung disease pulmonary hypertension: A Bayesian retrospective observational cohort study, Respirology, Vol: 28, Pages: 262-272, ISSN: 1323-7799
Background and ObjectivePulmonary hypertension is a life-limiting complication of interstitial lung disease (ILD-PH). We investigated whether treatment with phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5i) in patients with ILD-PH was associated with improved survival.MethodsConsecutive incident patients with ILD-PH and right heart catheterisation, echocardiography and spirometry data were followed from diagnosis to death, transplantation or censoring with all follow-up and survival data modelled by Bayesian methods.ResultsThe diagnoses in 128 patients were idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (n = 74, 58%), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (n = 17, 13%), non-specific interstitial pneumonia (n = 12, 9%), undifferentiated ILD (n = 8, 6%) and other lung diseases (n = 17, 13%). Final outcomes were death (n = 106, 83%), transplantation (n = 9, 7%) and censoring (n = 13, 10%). Patients treated with PDE5i (n = 50, 39%) had higher mean pulmonary artery pressure (median 38 mm Hg [interquartile range, IQR: 34, 43] vs. 35 mm Hg [IQR: 31, 38], p = 0.07) and percentage predicted forced vital capacity (FVC; median 57% [IQR: 51, 73] vs. 52% [IQR: 45, 66], p=0.08) though differences did not reach significance. Patients treated with PDE5i survived longer than untreated patients (median 2.18 years [95% CI: 1.43, 3.04] vs. 0.94 years [0.69, 1.51], p = 0.003) independent of all other prognostic markers by Bayesian joint-modelling (HR 0.39, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.59, p < 0.001) and propensity-matched analyses (HR 0.38, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.58, p < 0.001). Survival difference with treatment was significantly larger if right ventricular function was normal, rather than abnormal, at presentation (+2.55 years, 95% CI: −0.03, +3.97 vs. +0.98 years, 95% CI: +0.47, +2.00, p = 0.04).ConclusionPDE5i treatment in ILD-PH should be investigated by a prospective randomized trial.
McAuley HJC, Evans RA, Bolton CE, et al., 2023, Prevalence of physical frailty, including risk factors, up to 1 year after hospitalisation for COVID-19 in the UK: a multicentre, longitudinal cohort study., EClinicalMedicine, Vol: 57, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 2589-5370
BACKGROUND: The scale of COVID-19 and its well documented long-term sequelae support a need to understand long-term outcomes including frailty. METHODS: This prospective cohort study recruited adults who had survived hospitalisation with clinically diagnosed COVID-19 across 35 sites in the UK (PHOSP-COVID). The burden of frailty was objectively measured using Fried's Frailty Phenotype (FFP). The primary outcome was the prevalence of each FFP group-robust (no FFP criteria), pre-frail (one or two FFP criteria) and frail (three or more FFP criteria)-at 5 months and 1 year after discharge from hospital. For inclusion in the primary analysis, participants required complete outcome data for three of the five FFP criteria. Longitudinal changes across frailty domains are reported at 5 months and 1 year post-hospitalisation, along with risk factors for frailty status. Patient-perceived recovery and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were retrospectively rated for pre-COVID-19 and prospectively rated at the 5 month and 1 year visits. This study is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN10980107. FINDINGS: Between March 5, 2020, and March 31, 2021, 2419 participants were enrolled with FFP data. Mean age was 57.9 (SD 12.6) years, 933 (38.6%) were female, and 429 (17.7%) had received invasive mechanical ventilation. 1785 had measures at both timepoints, of which 240 (13.4%), 1138 (63.8%) and 407 (22.8%) were frail, pre-frail and robust, respectively, at 5 months compared with 123 (6.9%), 1046 (58.6%) and 616 (34.5%) at 1 year. Factors associated with pre-frailty or frailty were invasive mechanical ventilation, older age, female sex, and greater social deprivation. Frail participants had a larger reduction in HRQoL compared with before their COVID-19 illness and were less likely to describe themselves as recovered. INTERPRETATION: Physical frailty and pre-frailty are common following hospitalisation with COVID-19. Improvement in frailty was seen between 5 and 12 months although
Asghar S, Monkley S, Smith DJF, et al., 2023, Epithelial senescence in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is propagated by small extracellular vesicles, Respiratory Research, Vol: 24, Pages: 1-16, ISSN: 1465-9921
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic lung disease that affects 3 million people worldwide. Senescence and small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of IPF, although how sEVs promote disease remains unclear. Here, we profile sEVs from bronchial epithelial cells and determine small RNA (smRNA) content. METHODS: Conditioned media was collected and sEVs were isolated from normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEs) and IPF-diseased human bronchial epithelial cells (DHBEs). RESULTS: Increased sEV release from DHBEs compared to NHBEs (n = 4; p < 0.05) was detected by nanoparticle tracking analysis. NHBEs co-cultured with DHBE-derived sEVs for 72 h expressed higher levels of SA-β-Gal and γH2AX protein, p16 and p21 RNA and increased secretion of IL6 and IL8 proteins (all n = 6-8; p < 0.05). sEVs were also co-cultured with healthy air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures and similar results were observed, with increases in p21 and p16 gene expression and IL6 and IL8 (basal and apical) secretion (n = 6; p < 0.05). Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurements, a reflection of epithelial barrier integrity, were decreased upon the addition of DHBE-derived sEVs (n = 6; p < 0.05). smRNA-sequencing identified nineteen significantly differentially expressed miRNA in DHBE-derived sEVs compared to NHBE-derived sEVs, with candidate miRNAs validated by qPCR (all n = 5; p < 0.05). Four of these miRNAs were upregulated in NHBEs co-cultured with DHBE-derived sEVs and three in healthy ALI cultures co-cultured with DHBE-derived sEVs (n = 3-4; p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This data demonstrates that DHBE-derived sEVs transfer senescence to neighbouring healthy cells, promoting the disease state in IPF.
Nakshbandi G, Moor CC, Antoniou K, et al., 2023, Study protocol of an international patient-led registry in patients with pulmonary fibrosis using online home monitoring: I-FILE, BMC Pulmonary Medicine, Vol: 23, Pages: 51-51, ISSN: 1471-2466
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is caused by a heterogeneous group of diseases, with a high inter-individual variability in disease trajectory. Identifying disease progression in patients with PF has impact on clinical management decisions. However, strategies to early identify and predict disease progression for these patients are currently lacking. In this study, we aim to assess long-term FVC change in patients with PF measured with home spirometry, and evaluate the feasibility of a multinational patient-led registry in PF. In addition, we will assess validity of patient-reported outcomes (PROMs) for the different subgroups of patients with PF. METHODS: In this international, prospective, multicenter, observational study, we aim to include 700 patients across seven European countries. Patients will monitor their disease course for a period of two years using an online home monitoring program (I-FILE), which includes home spirometry, pulse oximetry, and PROMs. Results will be directly sent to the hospital via the online application. Patients will be asked to perform daily home spirometry and pulse oximetry in the first three months, followed by once weekly measurements for a period of two years. PROMs will be completed in the online I-FILE application every six months, including the King's brief Interstitial Lung Disease Health Status, The EuroQol five dimensions five-level, Visual Analogue Scales on cough, dyspnea, fatigue and general complaints, Leicester Cough Questionnaire, Fatigue Assessment Scale, Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire, Global Rating of Change Scale, and Living with Pulmonary Fibrosis questionnaire. DISCUSSION: This study will provide much needed insights in disease trajectories of the different subgroups of patients with PF. Simultaneously, the I-FILE study will yield valuable information on the use and feasibility of home-based data collection. This international patient-led registry will facilitate trans-border collab
Peljto AL, Blumhagen RZ, Walts AD, et al., 2023, Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is associated with common genetic variants and limited rare variants, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 207, Pages: 1194-1202, ISSN: 1073-449X
Rationale: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a rare, irreversible, and progressive disease of the lungs. Common genetic variants, in addition to non-genetic factors, have been consistently associated with IPF. Rare variants identified by candidate gene, family-based, and exome studies have also been reported to associate with IPF. However, the extent to which rare variants genome-wide may contribute to the risk of IPF remains unknown. Objectives: We used whole-genome sequencing to investigate the role of rare variants, genome-wide, on IPF risk. Methods: As part of the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine Program, we sequenced 2,180 cases of IPF. Association testing focused on the aggregated effect of rare variants (minor allele frequency ≤0.01) within genes or regions. We also identified individual variants that are influential within genes and estimated the heritability of IPF based on rare and common variants. Measurements and Main Results: Rare variants in both TERT and RTEL1 were significantly associated with IPF. A single rare variant in each of the TERT and RTEL1 genes was found to consistently influence the aggregated test statistics. There was no significant evidence of association with other previously reported rare variants. The SNP-heritability of IPF was estimated to be 32% (s.e. 3%). Conclusions: Rare variants within the TERT and RTEL1 genes and well-established common variants have the largest contribution to IPF risk overall. Efforts in risk profiling or development of therapies for IPF that focus on TERT, RTEL1, common variants, and environmental risk factors are likely to have the largest impact on this complex disease.
Allen RJ, Oldham JM, Jenkins DA, et al., 2023, Longitudinal lung function and gas transfer in individuals with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a genome-wide association study, The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, Vol: 11, Pages: 65-73, ISSN: 2213-2600
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an incurable lung disease characterised by progressive scarring leading to alveolar stiffness, reduced lung capacity, and impeded gas transfer. We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with declining lung capacity or declining gas transfer after diagnosis of IPF. METHODS: We did a genome-wide meta-analysis of longitudinal measures of forced vital capacity (FVC) and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) in individuals diagnosed with IPF. Individuals were recruited to three studies between June, 1996, and August, 2017, from across centres in the US, UK, and Spain. Suggestively significant variants were investigated further in an additional independent study (CleanUP-IPF). All four studies diagnosed cases following American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society guidelines. Variants were defined as significantly associated if they had a meta-analysis p<5 × 10-8 when meta-analysing across all discovery and follow-up studies, had consistent direction of effects across all four studies, and were nominally significant (p<0·05) in each study. FINDINGS: 1329 individuals with a total of 5216 measures were included in the FVC analysis. 975 individuals with a total of 3361 measures were included in the DLCO analysis. For the discovery genome-wide analyses, 7 611 174 genetic variants were included in the FVC analysis and 7 536 843 in the DLCO analysis. One variant (rs115982800) located in an antisense RNA gene for protein kinase N2 (PKN2) showed a genome-wide significant association with FVC decline (-140 mL/year per risk allele [95% CI -180 to -100]; p=9·14 × 10-12). INTERPRETATION: Our analysis identifies a genetic variant associated with disease progression, which might highlight a new biological mechanism for IPF. We found that PKN2, a Rho and Rac effector protein, is the most likely gene of interest fro
Maher TM, Tudor VA, Saunders P, et al., 2023, Rituximab versus intravenous cyclophosphamide in patients with connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease in the UK (RECITAL): a double-blind, double-dummy, randomised, controlled, phase 2b trial, The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, Vol: 11, Pages: 45-54, ISSN: 2213-2600
BACKGROUND: Rituximab is often used as rescue therapy in interstitial lung disease (ILD) associated with connective tissue disease (CTD), but has not been studied in clinical trials. This study aimed to assess whether rituximab is superior to cyclophosphamide as a treatment for severe or progressive CTD associated ILD. METHODS: We conducted a randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, phase 2b trial to assess the superiority of rituximab compared with cyclophosphamide. Patients aged 18-80 years with severe or progressive ILD related to scleroderma, idiopathic inflammatory myositis, or mixed CTD, recruited across 11 specialist ILD or rheumatology centres in the UK, were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive rituximab (1000 mg at weeks 0 and 2 intravenously) or cyclophosphamide (600 mg/m2 body surface area every 4 weeks intravenously for six doses). The primary endpoint was rate of change in forced vital capacity (FVC) at 24 weeks compared with baseline, analysed using a mixed-effects model with random intercepts, adjusted for baseline FVC and CTD type. Prespecified secondary endpoints reported in this Article were change in FVC at 48 weeks versus baseline; changes from baseline in 6 min walk distance, diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO), physician-assessed global disease activity (GDA) score, and quality-of-life scores on the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), King's Brief Interstitial Lung Disease (KBILD) questionnaire, and European Quality of Life Five-Dimension (EQ-5D) questionnaire at 24 and 48 weeks; overall survival, progression-free survival, and time to treatment failure; and corticosteroid use. All endpoints were analysed in the modified intention-to-treat population, which comprised all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01862926). FINDINGS: Between Dec 1, 2014, and March 31, 2020, we screened 145 participants, of whom 101 participants were randomly allocated
Liew F, Talwar S, Cross A, et al., 2023, SARS-CoV-2-specific nasal IgA wanes 9 months after hospitalisation with COVID-19 and is not induced by subsequent vaccination, EBioMedicine, Vol: 87, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 2352-3964
Background:Most studies of immunity to SARS-CoV-2 focus on circulating antibody, giving limited insights into mucosal defences that prevent viral replication and onward transmission. We studied nasal and plasma antibody responses one year after hospitalisation for COVID-19, including a period when SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was introduced.Methods:In this follow up study, plasma and nasosorption samples were prospectively collected from 446 adults hospitalised for COVID-19 between February 2020 and March 2021 via the ISARIC4C and PHOSP-COVID consortia. IgA and IgG responses to NP and S of ancestral SARS-CoV-2, Delta and Omicron (BA.1) variants were measured by electrochemiluminescence and compared with plasma neutralisation data.Findings:Strong and consistent nasal anti-NP and anti-S IgA responses were demonstrated, which remained elevated for nine months (p < 0.0001). Nasal and plasma anti-S IgG remained elevated for at least 12 months (p < 0.0001) with plasma neutralising titres that were raised against all variants compared to controls (p < 0.0001). Of 323 with complete data, 307 were vaccinated between 6 and 12 months; coinciding with rises in nasal and plasma IgA and IgG anti-S titres for all SARS-CoV-2 variants, although the change in nasal IgA was minimal (1.46-fold change after 10 months, p = 0.011) and the median remained below the positive threshold determined by pre-pandemic controls. Samples 12 months after admission showed no association between nasal IgA and plasma IgG anti-S responses (R = 0.05, p = 0.18), indicating that nasal IgA responses are distinct from those in plasma and minimally boosted by vaccination.Interpretation:The decline in nasal IgA responses 9 months after infection and minimal impact of subsequent vaccination may explain the lack of long-lasting nasal defence against reinfection and the limited effects of vaccination on transmission. These findings highlight the need to develop vaccines that enhance nasal immunity.Funding:This
Solomon JJ, Danoff SK, Woodhead FA, et al., 2023, Safety, tolerability, and efficacy of pirfenidone in patients with rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 study., Lancet Respir Med, Vol: 11, Pages: 87-96
BACKGROUND: Interstitial lung disease is a known complication of rheumatoid arthritis, with a lifetime risk of developing the disease in any individual of 7·7%. We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of pirfenidone for the treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD). METHODS: TRAIL1 was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial done in 34 academic centres specialising in interstitial lung disease in four countries (the UK, the USA, Australia, and Canada). Adults aged 18-85 years were eligible for inclusion if they met the 2010 American College of Rheumatology and European Alliance of Associations for Rheumatology criteria for rheumatoid arthritis and had interstitial lung disease on a high-resolution CT scan imaging and, when available, lung biopsy. Exclusion criteria include smoking, clinical history of other known causes of interstitial lung disease, and coexistant clinically significant COPD or asthma. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 2403 mg oral pirfenidone (pirfenidone group) or placebo (placebo group) daily. The primary endpoint was the incidence of the composite endpoint of a decline from baseline in percent predicted forced vital capacity (FVC%) of 10% or more or death during the 52-week treatment period assessed in the intention-to-treat population. Key secondary endpoints included change in absolute and FVC% over 52 weeks, the proportion of patients with a decline in FVC% of 10% or more, and the frequency of progression as defined by Outcome Measures in Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinical Trials (OMERACT) in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02808871. FINDINGS: From May 15, 2017, to March 31, 2020, 231 patients were assessed for inclusion, of whom 123 patients were randomly assigned (63 [51%] to the pirfenidone group and 60 [49%] to the placebo group). The trial was stopped early (March 31, 2020) d
Drohan CM, Molyneaux PL, Dickson RP, 2022, How to understand a revolution: guts, lungs, and bronchiectasis, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 207, Pages: 1-3, ISSN: 1073-449X
Suppose a scholar seeks to understand the American Revolutionary War: its causes, consequences, and what lessons we may learn from it. They begin by reading biographies of key participants, but soon realize the scope of these books is too narrow. Broadening the scope to study demography (e.g., census reports, immigration records) helps them understand not merely the leaders of the revolution but also the people they led. Yet even this isn’t enough to understand the colonists’ activities, so the scope is broadened further to interactions: in governance (political science), in the marketplace (economics), and in culture (sociology). Finally, our historian realizes they cannot understand the events of Boston, Philadelphia, and Yorktown without also studying England: the leaders, people, and interactions that influenced arevolution from across an ocean.
Fainberg HP, Oldham JM, Molyneau PL, et al., 2022, Forced vital capacity trajectories in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a secondary analysis of a multicentre, prospective, observational cohort, The Lancet Digital Health, Vol: 4, Pages: e862-e872, ISSN: 2589-7500
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive fibrotic lung disease with a variable clinical trajectory. Decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) is the main indicator of progression; however, missingness prevents long-term analysis of patterns in lung function. We aimed to identify distinct clusters of lung function trajectory among patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis using machine learning techniques. METHODS: We did a secondary analysis of longitudinal data on FVC collected from a cohort of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis from the PROFILE study; a multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study. We evaluated the imputation performance of conventional and machine learning techniques to impute missing data and then analysed the fully imputed dataset by unsupervised clustering using self-organising maps. We compared anthropometric features, genomic associations, serum biomarkers, and clinical outcomes between clusters. We also performed a replication of the analysis on data from a cohort of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis from an independent dataset, obtained from the Chicago Consortium. FINDINGS: 415 (71%) of 581 participants recruited into the PROFILE study were eligible for further analysis. An unsupervised machine learning algorithm had the lowest imputation error among tested methods, and self-organising maps identified four distinct clusters (1-4), which was confirmed by sensitivity analysis. Cluster 1 comprised 140 (34%) participants and was associated with a disease trajectory showing a linear decline in FVC over 3 years. Cluster 2 comprised 100 (24%) participants and was associated with a trajectory showing an initial improvement in FVC before subsequently decreasing. Cluster 3 comprised 113 (27%) participants and was associated with a trajectory showing an initial decline in FVC before subsequent stabilisation. Cluster 4 comprised 62 (15%) participants and was associated with a trajectory showing stable lung
Molyneaux PL, Forbes W, Bortey E, et al., 2022, EFFICACY OF ORAL NALBUPHINE EXTENDED RELEASE FOR THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC COUGH IN IDIOPATHIC PULMONARY FIBROSIS: ANALYSIS OF A PHASE 2 STUDY, British Thoracic Society Winter Conference, Publisher: BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: A13-A14, ISSN: 0040-6376
Zhang D, Povysil G, Newton CA, et al., 2022, Genome-wide enrichment of TERT rare variants in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis patients of Latino ancestry, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 206, Pages: 903-905, ISSN: 1073-449X
Genome-wide rare variant studies of IPF patients of non-European ancestry have been understudied. Here, we evaluate the enrichment of rare genetic variants of 241 unrelated non-European cases, representing individuals of Latino, African, South Asian, East Asian, and Other Admixed ancestry. Gene burden analysis of deleterious rare (protein-truncating and missense) variants demonstrate an excess of TERT rare damaging variants (OR 67.1, 95% CI [23.1, 195.0], P = 9.4 x 10-14) in non-European subjects. Analysis by ancestry demonstrated an excess of rare, damaging TERT variants in the Latino subgroup (OR 80.9, 95% CI [17.3, 383.8], P = 2.6 x 10-8). Although the non-European group did not show enrichment of PARN, RTEL1, and KIF15 rare deleterious variants, these groups all showed a trend in the same direction as the European ancestry group. For TERT and KIF15, the inclusion of IPF patients of non-European ancestry led to a higher odds ratios and increased evidence in favor of rare deleterious variant contributions, thus demonstrating the increased power of multi-ethnic studies over single-ethnicity studies. To our knowledge, this is the first study that confirms the involvement of rare deleterious TERT variants for IPF patients of Latino and non-European ancestry. To better understand the genetic underpinnings of IPF patients of all ancestries, additional work will be needed to broaden patient recruitment to normalize imbalances.
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