Imperial College London

Peter Openshaw - Professor of Experimental Medicine

Faculty of MedicineNational Heart & Lung Institute

Proconsul, Professor of Experimental Medicine
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 3854p.openshaw Website CV

 
 
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Assistant

 

Ms Gale Lewis +44 (0)20 7594 0944

 
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Location

 

353Norfolk PlaceSt Mary's Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

412 results found

Liew F, Talwar S, Cross A, Willett B, Scott S, Logan N, Siggins M, Swieboda D, Sidhu J, Efstathiou C, Moore S, Davis C, Mohamed N, Nunag J, King C, Thompson AAR, Rowland-Jones S, Docherty A, Chalmers J, Ho L-P, Horsley A, Raman B, Poinasamy K, Marks M, Kon OM, Howard L, Wootton D, Dunachie S, Quint J, Evans R, Wain L, Fontanella S, de Silva T, Ho A, Harrison E, Baillie JK, Semple MG, Brightling C, Thwaites R, Turtle L, Openshaw Pet al., 2022, SARS-CoV-2-specific nasal IgA wanes 9 months after hospitalisation with COVID-19 and is not induced by subsequent vaccination., EBioMedicine, ISSN: 2352-3964

Journal article

Piggin M, Smith E, Mankone P, Ndegwa L, Gbesemete D, Pristera P, Bahrami-Hessari M, Johnson H, Catchpole AP, Openshaw PJM, Chiu C, Read RC, Ward H, Barker Cet al., 2022, The role of public involvement in the design of the first SARS-CoV-2 human challenge study during an evolving pandemic, EPIDEMICS, Vol: 41, ISSN: 1755-4365

Journal article

Li X, Hodgson D, Flaig J, Kieffer A, Herring WL, Beyhaghi H, Willem L, Jit M, Bilcke J, Beutels P, Nair H, Campbell H, Pollard A, Openshaw P, Martinon-Torres F, Heikkinen T, Meijer A, Fischer TK, van den Berge M, Giaquinto C, Abram M, Swanson K, Rizkalla B, Vernhes C, Gallichan S, Aerssens J, Kumar V, Molero Eet al., 2022, Cost-effectiveness of respiratory syncytial virus preventive interventions in children: a model comparison study., Value Health

OBJECTIVE: Model-based cost-effectiveness analyses on maternal vaccine (MV) and monoclonal antibody (mAb) interventions against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) use context-specific data and produce varied results. Through model comparison, we aim to characterise RSV cost-effectiveness models and examine drivers for their outputs. METHODS: We compared three static and two dynamic models using a common input parameter set for a hypothetical birth cohort of 100,000 infants. Year-round and seasonal programmes were evaluated for MV and mAb interventions, using available evidence during the study period (e.g., phase 3 MV and phase 2b mAb efficacy). RESULTS: Three static models estimated comparable medically-attended (MA) cases averted versus no intervention (MV: 1,019-1,073, mAb: 5,075-5,481), with the year-round MV directly saving ∼€1 million medical and €0.3 million non-medical costs, while gaining 4-5 discounted Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) annually in <1 year-olds, and mAb resulting in €4 million medical and €1.5 million non-medical cost savings, and 21-25 discounted QALYs gained. In contrast, both dynamic models estimated fewer MA cases averted (MV: 402-752, mAb: 3,362-4,622); one showed an age shift of RSV cases, whereas the other one reported many non-MA symptomatic cases averted, especially by MV (2014). These differences can be explained by model types, assumptions on non-MA burden and interventions' effectiveness over time. CONCLUSIONS: Our static and dynamic models produced overall similar hospitalisation and death estimates, but also important differences, especially in non-MA cases averted. Despite the small QALY decrement per non-MA case, their larger number makes them influential for the costs per QALY gained of RSV interventions.

Journal article

Chang CWD, McCoul ED, Briggs SE, Guardiani EA, Durand ML, Hadlock TA, Hillel AT, Kattar N, Openshaw PJM, Osazuwa-Peters N, Poetker DM, Shin JJ, Chandrasekhar SS, Bradford CR, Brenner MJet al., 2022, Corticosteroid use in otolaryngology: current considerations during the COVID-19 era, Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Vol: 167, Pages: 803-820, ISSN: 0194-5998

Objective:To offer pragmatic, evidence-informed advice on administering corticosteroids in otolaryngology during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, considering therapeutic efficacy, potential adverse effects, susceptibility to COVID-19, and potential effects on efficacy of vaccination against SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19.Data Sources:PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CINAHL, and guideline databases.Review Methods:Guideline search strategies, supplemented by database searches on sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL), idiopathic facial nerve paralysis (Bell’s palsy), sinonasal polyposis, laryngotracheal disorders, head and neck oncology, and pediatric otolaryngology, prioritizing systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, and COVID-19–specific findings.Conclusions:Systemic corticosteroids (SCSs) reduce long-term morbidity in individuals with SSNHL and Bell’s palsy, reduce acute laryngotracheal edema, and have benefit in perioperative management for some procedures. Topical or locally injected corticosteroids are preferable for most other otolaryngologic indications. SCSs have not shown long-term benefit for sinonasal disorders. SCSs are not a contraindication to vaccination with COVID-19 vaccines approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention noted that these vaccines are safe for immunocompromised patients.Implications for Practice:SCS use for SSNHL, Bell’s palsy, laryngotracheal edema, and perioperative care should follow prepandemic standards. Local or topical corticosteroids are preferable for most other otolaryngologic indications. Whether SCSs attenuate response to vaccination against COVID-19 or increase susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection is unknown. Immunosuppression may lower vaccine efficacy, so immunocompromised patients should adhere to recommended infection control practices. COVID-19 vaccination with Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, or Johnson & Johns

Journal article

Grundmann A, Wu C-H, Hardwick M, Baillie JK, Openshaw PJ, Semple MG, Böhning D, Pett S, Michael BD, Thomas RH, Galea I, ISARIC4C investigatorset al., 2022, Fewer COVID-19 neurological complications with dexamethasone and remdesivir, Annals of Neurology, ISSN: 0364-5134

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of treatment with dexamethasone, remdesivir or both on neurological complications in acute COVID-19. METHODS: We used observational data from the International Severe Acute and emerging Respiratory Infection Consortium (ISARIC) WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol UK (CCP-UK). Hospital inpatients aged ≥18 years with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted between 31 January 2020 and 29 June 2021 were included. Treatment allocation was non-blinded and performed by reporting clinicians. A propensity scoring methodology was used to minimize confounding. Treatment with remdesivir, dexamethasone or both was assessed against standard of care. The primary outcome was a neurological complication occurring at the point of death, discharge, or resolution of the COVID-19 clinical episode. RESULTS: Out of 89,297 hospital inpatients, 64,088 had severe COVID-19 and 25,209 had non-hypoxic COVID-19. Neurological complications developed in 4.8% and 4.5% respectively. In both groups, neurological complications associated with increased mortality, ICU admission, worse self-care on discharge and time to recovery. In severe COVID-19, treatment with dexamethasone (n=21,129), remdesivir (n=1,428) and both combined (n=10,846) associated with a lower frequency of neurological complications: OR=0.76 (95% CI=0.69-0.83), OR 0.69 (95% CI=0.51-0.90) and OR=0.54, (95% CI=0.47-0.61) respectively. In non-hypoxic COVID-19, dexamethasone (n=2,580) associated with less neurological complications (OR=0.78, 95% CI 0.62-0.97), while the dexamethasone/remdesivir combination (n=460) showed a similar trend (OR=0.63, 95% CI=0.31-1.15). INTERPRETATION: Treatment with dexamethasone, remdesivir or both in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 associated with a lower frequency of neurological complications in an additive manner, such that the greatest benefit was observed in patients who received both drugs together. This article is protected by copyright. All

Journal article

Zhou Y, Shalhoub R, Rogers SN, Yu S, Gu M, Fabre MA, Quiros PM, Shin T-H, Diangson A, Deng W, Anand S, Lu W, Cullen M, Godfrey AL, Preller J, Hadjadj J, Jouanguy E, Cobat A, Abel L, Rieux-Laucat F, Terrier B, Fischer A, Novik L, Gordon IJ, Strom L, Gaudinski MR, Lisco A, Sereti I, Gniadek TJ, Biondi A, Bonfanti P, Imberti L, Dalgard CL, Zhang Y, Dobbs K, Su HC, Notarangelo LD, Wu CO, Openshaw PJM, Semple MG, Mallat Z, Baillie K, Dunbar CE, Vassiliou GSet al., 2022, Clonal hematopoiesis is not significantly associated with COVID-19 disease severity., Blood, Vol: 140, Pages: 1650-1655

Journal article

Siggins MK, Davies K, Fellows R, Thwaites RS, Baillie JK, Semple MG, Openshaw PJM, Zelek WM, Harris CL, Morgan BP, ISARIC4C Investigatorset al., 2022, Alternative pathway dysregulation in tissues drives sustained complement activation and predicts outcome across the disease course in COVID-19, Immunology, ISSN: 0019-2805

Complement, a critical defence against pathogens, has been implicated as a driver of pathology in COVID-19. Complement activation products are detected in plasma and tissues and complement blockade considered for therapy. To delineate roles of complement in immunopathogenesis, we undertook the largest comprehensive study of complement in an COVID-19 to date, a comprehensive profiling of 16 complement biomarkers, including key components, regulators and activation products, in 966 plasma samples from 682 hospitalised COVID-19 patients collected across the hospitalisation period as part of the UK ISARIC4C study. Unsupervised clustering of complement biomarkers mapped to disease severity and supervised machine learning identified marker sets in early samples that predicted peak severity. Compared to heathy controls, complement proteins and activation products (Ba, iC3b, terminal complement complex) were significantly altered in COVID-19 admission samples in all severity groups. Elevated alternative pathway activation markers (Ba and iC3b) and decreased alternative pathway regulator (properdin) in admission samples associated with more severe disease and risk of death. Levels of most complement biomarkers were reduced in severe disease, consistent with consumption and tissue deposition. Latent class mixed modelling and cumulative incidence analysis identified the trajectory of increase of Ba to be a strong predictor of peak COVID-19 disease severity and death. The data demonstrate that early-onset, uncontrolled activation of complement, driven by sustained and progressive amplification through the alternative pathway amplification loop is a ubiquitous feature of COVID-19, further exacerbated in severe disease. These findings provide novel insights into COVID-19 immunopathogenesis and inform strategies for therapeutic intervention.

Journal article

Needham EJ, Ren AL, Digby RJ, Norton EJ, Ebrahimi S, Outtrim JG, Chatfield DA, Manktelow AE, Leibowitz MM, Newcombe VFJ, Doffinger R, Barcenas-Morales G, Fonseca C, Taussig MJ, Burnstein RM, Samanta RJ, Dunai C, Sithole N, Ashton NJ, Zetterberg H, Gisslén M, Edén A, Marklund E, Openshaw PJM, Dunning J, Griffiths MJ, Cavanagh J, Breen G, Irani SR, Elmer A, Kingston N, Summers C, Bradley JR, Taams LS, Michael BD, Bullmore ET, Smith KGC, Lyons PA, Coles AJ, Menon DK, Cambridge NeuroCOVID Group the CITIID-NIHR COVID-19 BioResource Collaboration and Cambridge NIHR Clinical Research Facilityet al., 2022, Brain injury in COVID-19 is associated with dysregulated innate and adaptive immune responses, Brain: a journal of neurology, ISSN: 0006-8950

COVID-19 is associated with neurological complications including stroke, delirium and encephalitis. Furthermore, a post-viral syndrome dominated by neuropsychiatric symptoms is common, and is seemingly unrelated to COVID-19 severity. The true frequency and underlying mechanisms of neurological injury are unknown, but exaggerated host inflammatory responses appear to be a key driver of COVID-19 severity. We investigated the dynamics of, and relationship between, serum markers of brain injury (neurofilament light [NfL], glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP] and total tau) and markers of dysregulated host response (autoantibody production and cytokine profiles) in 175 patients admitted with COVID-19 and 45 patients with influenza. During hospitalisation, sera from patients with COVID-19 demonstrated elevations of NfL and GFAP in a severity-dependent manner, with evidence of ongoing active brain injury at follow-up 4 months later. These biomarkers were associated with elevations of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the presence of autoantibodies to a large number of different antigens. Autoantibodies were commonly seen against lung surfactant proteins but also brain proteins such as myelin associated glycoprotein. Commensurate findings were seen in the influenza cohort. A distinct process characterised by elevation of serum total tau was seen in patients at follow-up, which appeared to be independent of initial disease severity and was not associated with dysregulated immune responses unlike NfL and GFAP. These results demonstrate that brain injury is a common consequence of both COVID-19 and influenza, and is therefore likely to be a feature of severe viral infection more broadly. The brain injury occurs in the context of dysregulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses, with no single pathogenic mechanism clearly responsible.

Journal article

McGinley J, Thwaites R, Brebner W, Greenan-Barrett L, Aerssens J, Öner D, Bont L, Wildenbeest J, Martinón-Torres F, Nair H, Pollard AJ, Openshaw P, Drysdale S, REspiratory Syncytial virus Consortium in EUrope RESCEU Investigatorset al., 2022, A systematic review and meta-analysis of animal studies investigating the relationship between serum antibody, T lymphocytes, and respiratory syncytial virus disease, Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol: 226, Pages: S117-S129, ISSN: 0022-1899

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections occur in human populations around the globe, causing disease of variable severity, disproportionately affecting infants and older adults (>65 years of age). Immune responses can be protective but also contribute to disease. Experimental studies in animals enable detailed investigation of immune responses, provide insights into clinical questions, and accelerate the development of passive and active vaccination. We aimed to review the role of antibody and T-cell responses in relation to RSV disease severity in animals. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis of animal studies examining the association between T-cell responses/phenotype or antibody titers and severity of RSV disease. The PubMed, Zoological Record, and Embase databases were screened from January 1980 to May 2018 to identify animal studies of RSV infection that assessed serum antibody titer or T lymphocytes with disease severity as an outcome. Sixty-three studies were included in the final review. RESULTS: RSV-specific antibody appears to protect from disease in mice, but such an effect was less evident in bovine RSV. Strong T-cell, Th1, Th2, Th17, CD4/CD8 responses, and weak Treg responses accompany severe disease in mice. CONCLUSIONS: Murine studies suggest that measures of T-lymphocyte activity (particularly CD4 and CD8 T cells) may be predictive biomarkers of severity. Further inquiry is merited to validate these results and assess relevance as biomarkers for human disease.

Journal article

McGinley JP, Lin GL, Oner D, Golubchik T, O'Connor D, Snape MD, Gruselle O, Langedijk AC, Wildenbeest J, Openshaw P, Nair H, Aerssens J, Bont L, Martinon-Torres F, Drysdale SB, Pollard AJet al., 2022, Clinical and viral factors associated with disease severity and subsequent wheezing in infants with respiratory syncytial virus infection, Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol: 226, Pages: S45-S54, ISSN: 0022-1899

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes substantial morbidity and mortality in infants and young children worldwide. Here we evaluated host demographic and viral factors associated with RSV disease severity in 325 RSV-infected infants under 1 year of age from 3 European countries during 2017–2020. Younger infants had a higher clinical severity (ReSViNET) score and were more likely to require hospitalization, intensive care, respiratory support, and/or mechanical ventilation than older infants (<3 months vs 3 to <6 months and 3 to <6 months vs ≥6 months). Older age (≥6 months vs <3 months), higher viral load, and RSV-A were associated with a greater probability of fever. RSV-A and RSV-B caused similar disease severity and had similar viral dynamics. Infants with a more severe RSV infection, demonstrated by having a higher ReSViNET score, fever, and requiring hospitalization and intensive care, were more likely to have developed subsequent wheezing at 1 year of age.

Journal article

Evans RA, Leavy OC, Richardson M, Elneima O, McCauley HJC, Shikotra A, Singapuri A, Sereno M, Saunders RM, Harris VC, Houchen-Wolloff L, Aul R, Beirne P, Bolton CE, Brown JS, Choudhury G, Diar-Bakerly N, Easom N, Echevarria C, Fuld J, Hart N, Hurst J, Jones MG, Parekh D, Pfeffer P, Rahman NM, Rowland-Jones SL, Shah AM, Wootton DG, Chalder T, Davies MJ, De Soyza A, Geddes JR, Greenhalf W, Greening NJ, Heaney LG, Heller S, Howard LS, Jacob J, Jenkins RG, Lord JM, Man WD-C, McCann GP, Neubauer S, Openshaw PJM, Porter JC, Rowland MJ, Scott JT, Semple MG, Singh SJ, Thomas DC, Toshner M, Lewis KE, Thwaites RS, Briggs A, Docherty AB, Kerr S, Lone NI, Quint J, Sheikh A, Thorpe M, Zheng B, Chalmers JD, Ho LP, Horsley A, Marks M, Poinasamy K, Raman B, Harrison EM, Wain LV, Brightling CE, Abel K, Adamali H, Adeloye D, Adeyemi O, Adrego R, Aguilar Jimenez LA, Ahmad S, Ahmad Haider N, Ahmed R, Ahwireng N, Ainsworth M, Al-Sheklly B, Alamoudi A, Ali M, Aljaroof M, All AM, Allan L, Allen RJ, Allerton L, Allsop L, Almeida P, Altmann D, Alvarez Corral M, Amoils S, Anderson D, Antoniades C, Arbane G, Arias A, Armour C, Armstrong L, Armstrong N, Arnold D, Arnold H, Ashish A, Ashworth A, Ashworth M, Aslani S, Assefa-Kebede H, Atkin C, Atkin P, Aung H, Austin L, Avram C, Ayoub A, Babores M, Baggott R, Bagshaw J, Baguley D, Bailey L, Baillie JK, Bain S, Bakali M, Bakau M, Baldry E, Baldwin D, Ballard C, Banerjee A, Bang B, Barker RE, Barman L, Barratt S, Barrett F, Basire D, Basu N, Bates M, Bates A, Batterham R, Baxendale H, Bayes H, Beadsworth M, Beckett P, Beggs M, Begum M, Bell D, Bell R, Bennett K, Beranova E, Bermperi A, Berridge A, Berry C, Betts S, Bevan E, Bhui K, Bingham M, Birchall K, Bishop L, Bisnauthsing K, Blaikely J, Bloss A, Bolger A, Bonnington J, Botkai A, Bourne C, Bourne M, Bramham K, Brear L, Breen G, Breeze J, Bright E, Brill S, Brindle K, Broad L, Broadley A, Brookes C, Broome M, Brown A, Brown A, Brown J, Brown J, Brown M, Brown M, Brown V, Brugha T, Brunskill Net al., 2022, Clinical characteristics with inflammation profiling of long COVID and association with 1-year recovery following hospitalisation in the UK: a prospective observational study, The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, Vol: 10, Pages: 761-775, ISSN: 2213-2600

BackgroundNo effective pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions exist for patients with long COVID. We aimed to describe recovery 1 year after hospital discharge for COVID-19, identify factors associated with patient-perceived recovery, and identify potential therapeutic targets by describing the underlying inflammatory profiles of the previously described recovery clusters at 5 months after hospital discharge.MethodsThe Post-hospitalisation COVID-19 study (PHOSP-COVID) is a prospective, longitudinal cohort study recruiting adults (aged ≥18 years) discharged from hospital with COVID-19 across the UK. Recovery was assessed using patient-reported outcome measures, physical performance, and organ function at 5 months and 1 year after hospital discharge, and stratified by both patient-perceived recovery and recovery cluster. Hierarchical logistic regression modelling was performed for patient-perceived recovery at 1 year. Cluster analysis was done using the clustering large applications k-medoids approach using clinical outcomes at 5 months. Inflammatory protein profiling was analysed from plasma at the 5-month visit. This study is registered on the ISRCTN Registry, ISRCTN10980107, and recruitment is ongoing.Findings2320 participants discharged from hospital between March 7, 2020, and April 18, 2021, were assessed at 5 months after discharge and 807 (32·7%) participants completed both the 5-month and 1-year visits. 279 (35·6%) of these 807 patients were women and 505 (64·4%) were men, with a mean age of 58·7 (SD 12·5) years, and 224 (27·8%) had received invasive mechanical ventilation (WHO class 7–9). The proportion of patients reporting full recovery was unchanged between 5 months (501 [25·5%] of 1965) and 1 year (232 [28·9%] of 804). Factors associated with being less likely to report full recovery at 1 year were female sex (odds ratio 0·68 [95% CI 0·46–0·99]), obes

Journal article

Norris T, Razieh C, Zaccardi F, Yates T, Islam N, Gillies CL, Chudasama Y, Rowlands A, Davies MJ, McCann GP, Banerjee A, Lam CSP, Docherty AB, Openshaw PJM, Baillie JK, Semple MG, Lawson CA, Khunti Ket al., 2022, Impact of cardiometabolic multimorbidity and ethnicity on cardiovascular/renal complications in patients with COVID-19, Heart, Vol: 108, Pages: 1200-1208, ISSN: 1355-6037

Objective Using a large national database of people hospitalised with COVID-19, we investigated the contribution of cardio-metabolic conditions, multi-morbidity and ethnicity on the risk of in-hospital cardiovascular complications and death.Methods A multicentre, prospective cohort study in 302 UK healthcare facilities of adults hospitalised with COVID-19 between 6 February 2020 and 16 March 2021. Logistic models were used to explore associations between baseline patient ethnicity, cardiometabolic conditions and multimorbidity (0, 1, 2, >2 conditions), and in-hospital cardiovascular complications (heart failure, arrhythmia, cardiac ischaemia, cardiac arrest, coagulation complications, stroke), renal injury and death.Results Of 65 624 patients hospitalised with COVID-19, 44 598 (68.0%) reported at least one cardiometabolic condition on admission. Cardiovascular/renal complications or death occurred in 24 609 (38.0%) patients. Baseline cardiometabolic conditions were independently associated with increased odds of in-hospital complications and this risk increased in the presence of cardiometabolic multimorbidity. For example, compared with having no cardiometabolic conditions, 1, 2 or ≥3 conditions was associated with 1.46 (95% CI 1.39 to 1.54), 2.04 (95% CI 1.93 to 2.15) and 3.10 (95% CI 2.92 to 3.29) times higher odds of any cardiovascular/renal complication, respectively. A similar pattern was observed for all-cause death. Compared with the white group, the South Asian (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.29) and black (OR 1.53 to 95% CI 1.37 to 1.72) ethnic groups had higher risk of any cardiovascular/renal complication.Conclusions In hospitalised patients with COVID-19, cardiovascular complications or death impacts just under half of all patients, with the highest risk in those of South Asian or Black ethnicity and in patients with cardiometabolic multimorbidity.

Journal article

McNaughton AL, Paton RS, Edmans M, Youngs J, Wellens J, Phalora P, Fyfe A, Belij-Rammerstorfer S, Bolton JS, Ball J, Carnell GW, Dejnirattisai W, Dold C, Eyre DW, Hopkins P, Howarth A, Kooblall K, Klim H, Leaver S, Lee LN, López-Camacho C, Lumley SF, Macallan DC, Mentzer AJ, Provine NM, Ratcliff J, Slon-Compos J, Skelly D, Stolle L, Supasa P, Temperton N, Walker C, Wang B, Wyncoll D, Oxford Protective T Cell Immunology for COVID-19 OPTIC consortium, Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service SNBTS consortium, Simmonds P, Lambe T, Baillie JK, Semple MG, Openshaw PJ, International Severe Acute Respiratory and emerging Infection Consortium Coronavirus Clinical Characterisation Consortium ISARIC4C investigators, Obolski U, Turner M, Carroll M, Mongkolsapaya J, Screaton G, Kennedy SH, Jarvis L, Barnes E, Dunachie S, Lourenço J, Matthews PC, Bicanic T, Klenerman P, Gupta S, Thompson CPet al., 2022, Fatal COVID-19 outcomes are associated with an antibody response targeting epitopes shared with endemic coronaviruses., JCI Insight, Vol: 7

The role of immune responses to previously seen endemic coronavirus epitopes in severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and disease progression has not yet been determined. Here, we show that a key characteristic of fatal outcomes with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is that the immune response to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is enriched for antibodies directed against epitopes shared with endemic beta-coronaviruses and has a lower proportion of antibodies targeting the more protective variable regions of the spike. The magnitude of antibody responses to the SARS-CoV-2 full-length spike protein, its domains and subunits, and the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid also correlated strongly with responses to the endemic beta-coronavirus spike proteins in individuals admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) with fatal COVID-19 outcomes, but not in individuals with nonfatal outcomes. This correlation was found to be due to the antibody response directed at the S2 subunit of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, which has the highest degree of conservation between the beta-coronavirus spike proteins. Intriguingly, antibody responses to the less cross-reactive SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid were not significantly different in individuals who were admitted to an ICU with fatal and nonfatal outcomes, suggesting an antibody profile in individuals with fatal outcomes consistent with an "original antigenic sin" type response.

Journal article

Dayananda P, Chiu C, Openshaw P, 2022, Controlled human infection challenge studies with RSV., Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, Editors: Ahmed, Akira, Casadevall, Galan, Garcia-Sastre, Malissen, Rappuoli, Pages: 1-28

Despite considerable momentum in the development of RSV vaccines and therapeutics, there remain substantial barriers to the development and licensing of effective agents, particularly in high-risk populations. The unique immunobiology of RSV and lack of clear protective immunological correlates has held back RSV vaccine development, which, therefore, depends on large and costly clinical trials to demonstrate efficacy. Studies involving the deliberate infection of human volunteers offer an intermediate step between pre-clinical and large-scale studies of natural infection. Human challenge has been used to demonstrate the potential efficacy of vaccines and antivirals while improving our understanding of the protective immunity against RSV infection. Early RSV human infection challenge studies determined the role of routes of administration and size of inoculum on the disease. However, inherent limitations, the use of highly attenuated/laboratory-adapted RSV strains and the continued evolutionary adaptation of RSV limits extrapolation of results to present-day vaccine testing. With advances in technology, it is now possible to perform more detailed investigations of human mucosal immunity against RSV in experimentally infected adults and, more recently, older adults to optimise the design of vaccines and novel therapies. These studies identified defects in RSV-induced humoral and CD8+ T cell immunity that may partly explain susceptibility to recurrent RSV infection. We discuss the insights from human infection challenge models, ethical and logistical considerations, potential benefits, and role in streamlining and accelerating novel antivirals and vaccines against RSV. Finally, we consider how human challenges might be extended to include relevant at-risk populations.

Book chapter

Ijaz S, Dicks S, Jegatheesan K, Parker E, Katsanovskaja K, Vink E, McClure MO, Shute J, Hope J, Cook N, Cherepanov P, Turtle L, Paxton WA, Pollakis G, Ho A, Openshaw PJM, Baillie JK, Semple MG, Tedder RS, for ISARIC4C Investigatorset al., 2022, Mapping of SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG in gingival crevicular fluid: antibody dynamics and linkage to severity of COVID-19 in hospital inpatients, Journal of Infection, Vol: 85, Pages: 152-160, ISSN: 0163-4453

Journal article

Liew F, Openshaw PJM, 2022, Inhaled corticosteroids: not just for asthma, but for COVID-19? Comment, LANCET RESPIRATORY MEDICINE, Vol: 10, Pages: 526-527, ISSN: 2213-2600

Journal article

Ascough S, Dayananda P, Kalyan M, Kuong SU, Gardener Z, Bergstrom E, Paterson S, Kar S, Avadhan V, Thwaites R, Uruchurtu ASS, Ruckwardt TJ, Chen M, Nair D, Derrien-Colemyn A, Graham BS, Begg M, Hessel E, Openshaw P, Chiu Cet al., 2022, Divergent age-related humoral correlates of protection against respiratory syncytial virus infection in older and young adults: a pilot, controlled, human infection challenge model, The Lancet Healthy Longevity, Vol: 3, Pages: E405-E416, ISSN: 2666-7568

BackgroundRespiratory viral infections are typically more severe in older adults. Older adults are more vulnerable to infection and do not respond effectively to vaccines due to a combination of immunosenescence, so-called inflamm-ageing, and accumulation of comorbidities. Although age-related changes in immune responses have been described, the causes of this enhanced respiratory disease in older adults remain poorly understood. We therefore performed volunteer challenge with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in groups of younger and older adult volunteers. The aim of this study was to establish the safety and tolerability of this model and define age-related clinical, virological, and immunological outcomes.MethodsIn this human infection challenge pilot study, adults aged 18–55 years and 60–75 years were assessed for enrolment using protocol-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Symptoms were documented by self-completed diaries and viral load determined by quantitative PCR of nasal lavage. Peripheral blood B cell frequencies were measured by enzyme-linked immunospot and antibodies against pre-fusion and post-fusion, NP, and G proteins in the blood and upper respiratory tract were measured. The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03728413.Findings381 adults aged 60–75 years (older cohort) and 19 adults aged 18–55 years (young cohort) were assessed for enrolment using protocol-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria between Nov 12, 2018, and Feb 26, 2020. 12 healthy volunteers aged 60–75 years and 21 aged 18–55 years were inoculated intranasally with RSV Memphis-37. Nine (67%) of the 12 older volunteers became infected, developing mild-to-moderate upper respiratory tract symptoms that resolved without serious adverse events or sequelae. Viral load peaked on day 6 post-inoculation and symptoms peaked between days 6 and 8. Increases in circulating IgG-positive and IgA-positive antigen-specific plasmablasts, serum

Journal article

Dong X, Penrice-Randal R, Goldswain H, Prince T, Randle N, Donovan-Banfield I, Salguero FJ, Tree J, Vamos E, Nelson C, Clark J, Ryan Y, Stewart JP, Semple MG, Baillie JK, Openshaw PJM, Turtle L, Matthews DA, Carroll MW, Darby AC, Hiscox JAet al., 2022, Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 known and novel subgenomic mRNAs in cell culture, animal model, and clinical samples using LeTRS, a bioinformatic tool to identify unique sequence identifiers, GIGASCIENCE, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2047-217X

Journal article

Correia GDS, Takis PG, Sands CJ, Kowalka AM, Tan T, Turtle L, Ho A, Semple MG, Openshaw PJM, Baillie JK, Takáts Z, Lewis MRet al., 2022, 1H NMR Signals from urine excreted protein are a source of bias in probabilistic quotient normalization, Analytical Chemistry, Vol: 94, Pages: 6919-6923, ISSN: 0003-2700

Normalization to account for variation in urinary dilution is crucial for interpretation of urine metabolic profiles. Probabilistic quotient normalization (PQN) is used routinely in metabolomics but is sensitive to systematic variation shared across a large proportion of the spectral profile (>50%). Where 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is employed, the presence of urinary protein can elevate the spectral baseline and substantially impact the resulting profile. Using 1H NMR profile measurements of spot urine samples collected from hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the ISARIC 4C study, we determined that PQN coefficients are significantly correlated with observed protein levels (r2 = 0.423, p < 2.2 × 10–16). This correlation was significantly reduced (r2 = 0.163, p < 2.2 × 10–16) when using a computational method for suppression of macromolecular signals known as small molecule enhancement spectroscopy (SMolESY) for proteinic baseline removal prior to PQN. These results highlight proteinuria as a common yet overlooked source of bias in 1H NMR metabolic profiling studies which can be effectively mitigated using SMolESY or other macromolecular signal suppression methods before estimation of normalization coefficients.

Journal article

Stewart A, Sinclair E, Ng JC-F, O'Hare JS, Page A, Serangeli I, Margreitter C, Orsenigo F, Longman K, Frampas C, Costa C, Lewis H-M, Kasar N, Wu B, Kipling D, Openshaw PJM, Chiu C, Baillie JK, Scott JT, Semple MG, Bailey MJ, Fraternali F, Dunn-Walters DKet al., 2022, Pandemic, epidemic, endemic: B cell repertoire analysis reveals unique anti-viral responses to SARS-CoV-2, Ebola and respiratory syncytial virus, Frontiers in Immunology, Vol: 13, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 1664-3224

Immunoglobulin gene heterogeneity reflects the diversity and focus of the humoral immune response towards different infections, enabling inference of B cell development processes. Detailed compositional and lineage analysis of long read IGH repertoire sequencing, combining examples of pandemic, epidemic and endemic viral infections with control and vaccination samples, demonstrates general responses including increased use of IGHV4-39 in both Zaire Ebolavirus (EBOV) and COVID-19 patient cohorts. We also show unique characteristics absent in Respiratory Syncytial Virus or yellow fever vaccine samples: EBOV survivors show unprecedented high levels of class switching events while COVID-19 repertoires from acute disease appear underdeveloped. Despite the high levels of clonal expansion in COVID-19 IgG1 repertoires there is a striking lack of evidence of germinal centre mutation and selection. Given the differences in COVID-19 morbidity and mortality with age, it is also pertinent that we find significant differences in repertoire characteristics between young and old patients. Our data supports the hypothesis that a primary viral challenge can result in a strong but immature humoral response where failures in selection of the repertoire risk off-target effects.

Journal article

Prince T, Dong X, Penrice-Randal R, Randle N, Hartley C, Goldswain H, Jones B, Semple MG, Baillie JK, Openshaw PJM, Turtle L, Hughes GL, Anderson ER, Patterson E, Druce J, Screaton G, Carroll MW, Stewart JP, Hiscox JAet al., 2022, Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 in Nasopharyngeal Samples from Patients with COVID-19 Illustrates Population Variation and Diverse Phenotypes, Placing the Growth Properties of Variants of Concern in Context with Other Lineages, MSPHERE, Vol: 7

Journal article

Relph KA, Russell CD, Fairfield CJ, Turtle L, de Silva TI, Siggins MK, Drake TM, Thwaites RS, Abrams S, Moore SC, Hardwick HE, Oosthuyzen W, Harrison EM, Docherty AB, Openshaw PJM, Baillie JK, Semple MG, Ho A, International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infections Consortium Coronavirus Clinical Characterisation Consortium ISARIC4C Investigatorset al., 2022, Procalcitonin is not a reliable biomarker of bacterial coinfection in people with coronavirus disease 2019 undergoing microbiological investigation at the time of hospital admission, Open Forum Infectious Diseases, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2328-8957

Admission procalcitonin measurements and microbiology results were available for 1040 hospitalized adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (from 48 902 included in the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infections Consortium World Health Organization Clinical Characterisation Protocol UK study). Although procalcitonin was higher in bacterial coinfection, this was neither clinically significant (median [IQR], 0.33 [0.11-1.70] ng/mL vs 0.24 [0.10-0.90] ng/mL) nor diagnostically useful (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.56 [95% confidence interval, .51-.60]).

Journal article

Norris T, Razieh C, Yates T, Zaccardi F, Gillies CL, Chudasama YV, Rowlands A, Davies MJ, McCann GP, Banerjee A, Docherty AB, Openshaw PJM, Baillie JK, Semple MG, Lawson CA, Khunti Ket al., 2022, Admission blood glucose level and its association with cardiovascular and renal complications in patients hospitalized with COVID-19, Diabetes Care, Vol: 45, Pages: 1132-1140, ISSN: 0149-5992

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between admission blood glucose levels and risk of in-hospital cardiovascular and renal complications. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this multicenter prospective study of 36,269 adults hospitalized with COVID-19 between 6 February 2020 and 16 March 2021 (N = 143,266), logistic regression models were used to explore associations between admission glucose level (mmol/L and mg/dL) and odds of in-hospital complications, including heart failure, arrhythmia, cardiac ischemia, cardiac arrest, coagulation complications, stroke, and renal injury. Nonlinearity was investigated using restricted cubic splines. Interaction models explored whether associations between glucose levels and complications were modified by clinically relevant factors. RESULTS: Cardiovascular and renal complications occurred in 10,421 (28.7%) patients; median admission glucose level was 6.7 mmol/L (interquartile range 5.8-8.7) (120.6 mg/dL [104.4-156.6]). While accounting for confounders, for all complications except cardiac ischemia and stroke, there was a nonlinear association between glucose and cardiovascular and renal complications. For example, odds of heart failure, arrhythmia, coagulation complications, and renal injury decreased to a nadir at 6.4 mmol/L (115 mg/dL), 4.9 mmol/L (88.2 mg/dL), 4.7 mmol/L (84.6 mg/dL), and 5.8 mmol/L (104.4 mg/dL), respectively, and increased thereafter until 26.0 mmol/L (468 mg/dL), 50.0 mmol/L (900 mg/dL), 8.5 mmol/L (153 mg/dL), and 32.4 mmol/L (583.2 mg/dL). Compared with 5 mmol/L (90 mg/dL), odds ratios at these glucose levels were 1.28 (95% CI 0.96, 1.69) for heart failure, 2.23 (1.03, 4.81) for arrhythmia, 1.59 (1.36, 1.86) for coagulation complications, and 2.42 (2.01, 2.92) for renal injury. For most complications, a modifying effect of age was observed, with higher odds of complications at higher glucose levels for patients age <69 years. Preexisting diabetes status had a similar modifying effect on odds of c

Journal article

Millar JE, Neyton L, Seth S, Dunning J, Merson L, Murthy S, Russell CD, Keating S, Swets M, Sudre CH, Spector TD, Ourselin S, Steves CJ, Wolf J, Docherty AB, Harrison EM, Openshaw PJM, Semple MG, Baillie JK, ISARIC-4Cet al., 2022, Distinct clinical symptom patterns in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 in an analysis of 59,011 patients in the ISARIC-4C study, Scientific Reports, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2045-2322

COVID-19 is clinically characterised by fever, cough, and dyspnoea. Symptoms affecting other organ systems have been reported. However, it is the clinical associations of different patterns of symptoms which influence diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making. In this study, we applied clustering techniques to a large prospective cohort of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 to identify clinically meaningful sub-phenotypes. We obtained structured clinical data on 59,011 patients in the UK (the ISARIC Coronavirus Clinical Characterisation Consortium, 4C) and used a principled, unsupervised clustering approach to partition the first 25,477 cases according to symptoms reported at recruitment. We validated our findings in a second group of 33,534 cases recruited to ISARIC-4C, and in 4,445 cases recruited to a separate study of community cases. Unsupervised clustering identified distinct sub-phenotypes. First, a core symptom set of fever, cough, and dyspnoea, which co-occurred with additional symptoms in three further patterns: fatigue and confusion, diarrhoea and vomiting, or productive cough. Presentations with a single reported symptom of dyspnoea or confusion were also identified, alongside a sub-phenotype of patients reporting few or no symptoms. Patients presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms were more commonly female, had a longer duration of symptoms before presentation, and had lower 30-day mortality. Patients presenting with confusion, with or without core symptoms, were older and had a higher unadjusted mortality. Symptom sub-phenotypes were highly consistent in replication analysis within the ISARIC-4C study. Similar patterns were externally verified in patients from a study of self-reported symptoms of mild disease. The large scale of the ISARIC-4C study enabled robust, granular discovery and replication. Clinical interpretation is necessary to determine which of these observations have practical utility. We propose that four sub-phenotypes are usefully

Journal article

Swann O, Pollock L, Holden KA, Munro APS, Bennett A, Williams TC, Turtle L, Fairfield CJ, Drake TM, Faust SN, Sinha IP, Roland D, Whittaker E, Ladhani SN, Nguyen-Van-Tam JS, Girvan M, Donohue C, Donegan C, Spencer RG, Hardwick HE, Openshaw PJM, Baillie JK, Harrison EM, Docherty AB, Semple MGet al., 2022, Comparison of UK paediatric SARS-CoV-2 admissions across the first and second pandemic waves, PEDIATRIC RESEARCH, ISSN: 0031-3998

Journal article

Swets MC, Russell CD, Harrison EM, Docherty AB, Lone N, Girvan M, Hardwick HE, Investigators I, Visser LG, Openshaw PJM, Groeneveld GH, Semple MG, Baillie JKet al., 2022, SARS-CoV-2 co-infection with influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, or adenoviruses, LANCET, Vol: 399, Pages: 1463-1464, ISSN: 0140-6736

Journal article

Ascough S, Dayananda P, Kalyan M, Ung SK, Gardener Z, Bergstrom E, Paterson S, Kar S, Avadha V, Thwaites R, Sanchez Sevilla Uruchurtu A, Ruckwardt T, Chen M, Nair D, Derrien-Colemyn A, Graham B, Begg M, Hessel E, Openshaw P, Chiu Cet al., 2022, Divergent age-related humoral correlates of protection against RSV infection: a controlled human infection challenge model in older and young adults, The Lancet Healthy Longevity, ISSN: 2666-7568

Background:Respiratory viral infections are typically more severe in older adults. Although age-related changes in immune responses have been described, the causes of this enhanced respiratory disease in older adults remain poorly understood. We therefore performed volunteer challenge with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in groups of younger and older adult volunteers. The aim of this study was to establish the safety and tolerability of this model and define age-related clinical, virological andimmunological outcomes.Methods:Twelve healthy volunteers aged 60-75 and twenty-one aged 18-55 were inoculated intranasally with RSV Memphis-37. Symptoms were documented by self-completed diaries and viral load determined by qPCR of nasal lavage. Peripheral blood B cell frequencies were measured by enzyme-linked immunospot and antibodies against pre-and post-fusion F, NP, and G proteins in the blood and upper respiratory tract were measured.Findings:Nine of the 12 older volunteers became infected, developing mild-to-moderate upper respiratory tract symptoms that resolved without Serious Adverse Events or sequelae. Viral load peaked on Day 6 post-inoculation and symptoms between Days 6-8. Increases in circulating IgG+ and IgA+ antigen-specific plasmablasts, serum neutralising antibodies and pre-F specific IgG that were similar younger and older adults. However, in contrast to young participants, sIgA titres in older volunteers failed to increase during infection and, unlike serum IgG, did not correlate with protection.Interpretation:Our study shows the feasibility of volunteer challenge in older adult volunteers, revealing age-related differences in outcomes and in immune responses. We identify correlates of protection in older adults, revealing previously unrecognised factors that may partially explain ageing-related susceptibility to viral infections.Funding:Medical Research Council and GlaxoSmithKline EMINENT Consortium.

Journal article

Närhi F, Moonesinghe SR, Shenkin SD, Drake TM, Mulholland RH, Donegan C, Dunning J, Fairfield CJ, Girvan M, Hardwick HE, Ho A, Leeming G, Nguyen-Van-Tam JS, Pius R, Russell CD, Shaw CA, Spencer RG, Turtle L, Openshaw PJM, Baillie JK, Harrison EM, Semple MG, Docherty AB, ISARIC4C investigatorset al., 2022, Implementation of corticosteroids in treatment of COVID-19 in the ISARIC WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol UK: prospective, cohort study., The Lancet Digital Health, Vol: 4, Pages: e220-e234, ISSN: 2589-7500

BACKGROUND: Dexamethasone was the first intervention proven to reduce mortality in patients with COVID-19 being treated in hospital. We aimed to evaluate the adoption of corticosteroids in the treatment of COVID-19 in the UK after the RECOVERY trial publication on June 16, 2020, and to identify discrepancies in care. METHODS: We did an audit of clinical implementation of corticosteroids in a prospective, observational, cohort study in 237 UK acute care hospitals between March 16, 2020, and April 14, 2021, restricted to patients aged 18 years or older with proven or high likelihood of COVID-19, who received supplementary oxygen. The primary outcome was administration of dexamethasone, prednisolone, hydrocortisone, or methylprednisolone. This study is registered with ISRCTN, ISRCTN66726260. FINDINGS: Between June 17, 2020, and April 14, 2021, 47 795 (75·2%) of 63 525 of patients on supplementary oxygen received corticosteroids, higher among patients requiring critical care than in those who received ward care (11 185 [86·6%] of 12 909 vs 36 415 [72·4%] of 50 278). Patients 50 years or older were significantly less likely to receive corticosteroids than those younger than 50 years (adjusted odds ratio 0·79 [95% CI 0·70-0·89], p=0·0001, for 70-79 years; 0·52 [0·46-0·58], p<0·0001, for >80 years), independent of patient demographics and illness severity. 84 (54·2%) of 155 pregnant women received corticosteroids. Rates of corticosteroid administration increased from 27·5% in the week before June 16, 2020, to 75-80% in January, 2021. INTERPRETATION: Implementation of corticosteroids into clinical practice in the UK for patients with COVID-19 has been successful, but not universal. Patients older than 70 years, independent of illness severity, chronic neurological disease, and dementia, were less likely to receive corticosteroids than those who were younger, as were pregnant wom

Journal article

Killingley B, Mann AJ, Kalinova M, Boyers A, Goonawardane N, Zhou J, Lindsell K, Hare SS, Brown J, Frise R, Smith E, Hopkins C, Noulin N, Londt B, Wilkinson T, Harden S, McShane H, Baillet M, Gilbert A, Jacobs M, Charman C, Mande P, Nguyen-Van-Tam JS, Semple MG, Read RC, Ferguson NM, Openshaw PJ, Rapeport G, Barclay WS, Catchpole AP, Chiu Cet al., 2022, Safety, tolerability and viral kinetics during SARS-CoV-2 human challenge in young adults, Nature Medicine, Vol: 28, Pages: 1031-1041, ISSN: 1078-8956

Since its emergence in 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused hundreds of millions of cases and continues to circulate globally. To establish a novel SARS-CoV-2 human challenge model that enables controlled investigation of pathogenesis, correlates of protection and efficacy testing of forthcoming interventions, 36 volunteers aged 18–29 years without evidence of previous infection or vaccination were inoculated with 10 TCID50 of a wild-type virus (SARS-CoV-2/human/GBR/484861/2020) intranasally in an open-label, non-randomized study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT04865237; funder, UK Vaccine Taskforce). After inoculation, participants were housed in a high-containment quarantine unit, with 24-hour close medical monitoring and full access to higher-level clinical care. The study’s primary objective was to identify an inoculum dose that induced well-tolerated infection in more than 50% of participants, with secondary objectives to assess virus and symptom kinetics during infection. All pre-specified primary and secondary objectives were met. Two participants were excluded from the per-protocol analysis owing to seroconversion between screening and inoculation, identified post hoc. Eighteen (~53%) participants became infected, with viral load (VL) rising steeply and peaking at ~5 days after inoculation. Virus was first detected in the throat but rose to significantly higher levels in the nose, peaking at ~8.87 log10 copies per milliliter (median, 95% confidence interval (8.41, 9.53)). Viable virus was recoverable from the nose up to ~10 days after inoculation, on average. There were no serious adverse events. Mild-to-moderate symptoms were reported by 16 (89%) infected participants, beginning 2–4 days after inoculation, whereas two (11%) participants remained asymptomatic (no reportable symptoms). Anosmia or dysosmia developed more slowly in 15 (83%) participants. No quantitative cor

Journal article

Barnes MVC, Openshaw PJM, Thwaites RS, 2022, Mucosal immune responses to respiratory syncytial virus, Cells, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-24, ISSN: 2073-4409

Despite over half a century of research, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-induced bronchiolitis remains a major cause of hospitalisation in infancy, while vaccines and specific therapies still await development. Our understanding of mucosal immune responses to RSV continues to evolve, but recent studies again highlight the role of Type-2 immune responses in RSV disease and hint at the possibility that it dampens Type-1 antiviral immunity. Other immunoregulatory pathways implicated in RSV disease highlight the importance of focussing on localised mucosal responses in the respiratory mucosa, as befits a virus that is essentially confined to the ciliated respiratory epithelium. In this review, we discuss studies of mucosal immune cell infiltration and production of inflammatory mediators in RSV bronchiolitis and relate these studies to observations from peripheral blood. We also discuss the advantages and limitations of studying the nasal mucosa in a disease that is most severe in the lower airway. A fresh focus on studies of RSV pathogenesis in the airway mucosa is set to revolutionise our understanding of this common and important infection.

Journal article

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