Imperial College London

Dr Poh-Choo Pang

Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Life Sciences

Visiting Researcher
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 6557p.pang05 Website

 
 
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Location

 

Room 3158 Prince's GateSouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

25 results found

Shubhakar A, Pang P-C, Fernandes DL, Dell A, Spencer DIR, Haslam SMet al., 2018, Towards automation of glycomic profiling of complex biological materials, GLYCOCONJUGATE JOURNAL, Vol: 35, Pages: 311-321, ISSN: 0282-0080

Journal article

Jankute M, Alderwick LJ, Moorey AR, Joe M, Gurcha SS, Eggeling L, Lowary TL, Dell A, Pang P-C, Yang T, Haslam S, Besra GSet al., 2018, The singular Corynebacterium glutamicum Emb arabinofuranosyltransferase polymerises the α(1 → 5) arabinan backbone in the early stages of cell wall arabinan biosynthesis., Cell Surf, Vol: 2, Pages: 38-53

The arabinan-containing polysaccharides, arabinogalactan (AG) and lipoarabinomannan (LAM), are key cell wall components of the Corynebacterineae, which include Corynebacteria, Norcadia and Mycobacteria. Both AG and LAM contain elaborate arabinan domains composed of distinct structural motifs. Mycobacterial EmbA, EmbB and EmbC, collectively known as the Emb proteins, have been identified as arabinosyltransferases (ArafTs), which are targeted by the front-line anti-tubercular drug ethambutol. Previous studies have established that EmbA and EmbB play a role in the synthesis of the characteristic terminal hexa-arabinosuranosyl motif, whilst EmbC is involved exclusively in the biosynthesis of LAM. Herein, we have investigated the role of the singular Emb protein from Corynebacterium glutamicum through the detailed biochemical and chemical analysis of a double ΔaftAΔemb mutant, where the priming Cg-AftA protein, which generates the substrate for Cg-Emb has been deleted. Analysis of its cell wall revealed a complete absence of arabinose resulting in a truncated cell wall containing only a galactan backbone accompanied with complete loss of cell wall bound mycolates. In vitro cell-free assays using C. glutamicumΔaftA, C. glutamicumΔemb, C. glutamicumΔaftAΔemb and C. glutamicumΔaftBΔaftD and two synthetic acceptors, which mimick the arabinofuranose (Araf) "primed" galactan chain, demonstrated that Cg-Emb is able to transfer an Araf residue to the C5 of the Araf positioned on the synthetic acceptor(s). These results indicate that Cg-Emb acts as an α(1 → 5) ArafT and elongates the arabinan core during the early stages of arabinan biosynthesis in C. glutamicum.

Journal article

Pham ND, Pang P-C, Krishnamurthy S, Wands AM, Grassi P, Dell A, Haslam SM, Kohler JJet al., 2017, Effects of altered sialic acid biosynthesis on N-linked glycan branching and cell surface interactions, Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol: 292, Pages: 9637-9651, ISSN: 0021-9258

GNE myopathy is a rare muscle disorder associated with aging and is related to sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM), the most common acquired muscle disease of aging. While the cause of sIBM is unknown, GNE myopathy is associated with mutations in UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase/ManNAc kinase (GNE). GNE harbors two enzymatic activities required for biosynthesis of sialic acid in mammalian cells. Mutations to both GNE domains are linked to GNE myopathy. However, correlation between mutation-associated reductions in sialic acid production and disease severity is imperfect. To investigate other potential effects of GNE mutations, we compared sialic acid production in cell lines expressing wild-type or mutant forms of GNE. Although we did not detect any differences attributable to disease-associated mutations, lectin binding and mass spectrometry analysis revealed that GNE deficiency is associated with unanticipated effects on the structure of cell-surface glycans. In addition to exhibiting low levels of sialylation, GNE-deficient cells produced distinct N-linked glycan structures with increased branching and extended poly-N-acetyllactosamine (polyLacNAc). GNE deficiency may affect levels of UDP-GlcNAc, a key metabolite in the nutrient-sensing hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, but this modest effect did not fully account for the change in N-linked glycan structure. Further, GNE deficiency and glucose supplementation acted independently and additively to increase N-linked glycan branching. Notably, N-linked glycans produced by GNE-deficient cells displayed enhanced binding to galectin-1, indicating that changes in GNE activity can alter affinity of cell-surface glycoproteins for the galectin lattice. These findings suggest an unanticipated mechanism by which GNE activity might affect signaling through cell-surface receptors.

Journal article

Lété C, Markine-Goriaynoff N, Machiels B, Pang P, Xiao X, Canis K, Suzuki M, Fukuda M, Dell A, Haslam SM, Vanderplasschen A, Gillet Let al., 2016, Bovine Herpesvirus 4 Modulates Its β-1,6-N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase Activity through Alternative Splicing, Journal of Virology, Vol: 90, Pages: 2039-2051

Carbohydrates play major roles in host-virus interactions. It is therefore not surprising that, during coevolution with their hosts, viruses have developed sophisticated mechanisms to hijack for their profit different pathways of glycan synthesis. Thus, the Bo17 gene of Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) encodes a homologue of the cellular core 2 protein β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-mucin type (C2GnT-M), which is a key player for the synthesis of complex O-glycans. Surprisingly, we show in this study that, as opposed to what is observed for the cellular enzyme, two different mRNAs are encoded by the Bo17 gene of all available BoHV-4 strains. While the first one corresponds to the entire coding sequence of the Bo17 gene, the second results from the splicing of a 138-bp intron encoding critical residues of the enzyme. Antibodies generated against the Bo17 C terminus showed that the two forms of Bo17 are expressed in BoHV-4 infected cells, but enzymatic assays revealed that the spliced form is not active. In order to reveal the function of these two forms, we then generated recombinant strains expressing only the long or the short form of Bo17. Although we did not highlight replication differences between these strains, glycomic analyses and lectin neutralization assays confirmed that the splicing of the Bo17 gene gives the potential to BoHV-4 to fine-tune the global level of core 2 branching activity in the infected cell. Altogether, these results suggest the existence of new mechanisms to regulate the activity of glycosyltransferases from the Golgi apparatus.IMPORTANCE Viruses are masters of adaptation that hijack cellular pathways to allow their growth. Glycans play a central role in many biological processes, and several studies have highlighted mechanisms by which viruses can affect glycosylation. Glycan synthesis is a nontemplate process regulated by the availability of key glycosyltransferases. Interestingly, bovine herpesvirus 4 encodes one such enzyme

Journal article

Pang P-C, Haslam SM, Dell A, Clark GFet al., 2016, The human fetoembryonic defense system hypothesis: Twenty years on, Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Vol: 51, Pages: 71-88, ISSN: 0098-2997

Journal article

Chen Q, Pang P-C, Cohen ME, Longtine MS, Schust DJ, Haslam SM, Blois SM, Dell A, Clark GFet al., 2016, Evidence for Differential Glycosylation of Trophoblast Cell Types, Molecular & Cellular Proteomics, Vol: 15, Pages: 1857-1866

Human placental villi are surfaced by the syncytiotrophoblast (STB), with a layer of cytotrophoblasts (CTB) positioned just beneath the STB. STB in normal term pregnancies is exposed to maternal immune cells in the placental intervillous space. Extravillous cytotrophoblasts (EVT) invade the decidua and spiral arteries, where they act in conjunction with natural killer (NK) cells to convert the spiral arteries into flaccid conduits for maternal blood that support a 3–4 fold increase in the rate of maternal blood flow into the placental intervillous space. The functional roles of these distinct trophoblast subtypes during pregnancy suggested that they could be differentially glycosylated. Glycomic analysis of these trophoblasts has revealed the expression of elevated levels of biantennary N-glycans in STB and CTB, with the majority of them bearing a bisecting GlcNAc. N-glycans terminated with polylactosamine extensions were also detected at low levels. A subset of the N-glycans linked to these trophoblasts were sialylated, primarily with terminal NeuAcα2–3Gal sequences. EVT were decorated with the same N-glycans as STB and CTB, except in different proportions. The level of bisecting type N-glycans was reduced, but the level of N-glycans decorated with polylactosamine sequences were substantially elevated compared with the other types of trophoblasts. The level of triantennary and tetraantennary N-glycans was also elevated in EVT. The sialylated N-glycans derived from EVT were completely susceptible to an α2–3 specific neuraminidase (sialidase S). The possibility exists that the N-glycans associated with these different trophoblast subpopulations could act as functional groups. These potential relationships will be considered.

Journal article

Stansell A, 2015, Gp120 on HIV-1 Virions Lacks O-Linked Carbohydrate, PLOS ONE, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-15

As HIV-1-encoded envelope protein traverses the secretory pathway, it may be modified with N- and O-linked carbohydrate. When the gp120s of HIV-1 NL4-3, HIV-1 YU2, HIV-1 Bal, HIV-1 JRFL, and HIV-1 JRCSF were expressed as secreted proteins, the threonine at consensus position 499 was found to be O-glycosylated. For SIVmac239, the corresponding threonine was also glycosylated when gp120 was recombinantly expressed. Similarly-positioned, highly-conserved threonines in the influenza A virus H1N1 HA1 and H5N1 HA1 envelope proteins were also found to carry O-glycans when expressed as secreted proteins. In all cases, the threonines were modified predominantly with disialylated core 1 glycans, together with related core 1 and core 2 structures. Secreted HIV-1 gp140 was modified to a lesser extent with mainly monosialylated core 1 O-glycans, suggesting that the ectodomain of the gp41 transmembrane component may limit the accessibility of Thr499 to glycosyltransferases. In striking contrast to these findings, gp120 on purified virions of HIV-1 Bal and SIV CP-MAC lacked any detectable O-glycosylation of the C-terminal threonine. Our results indicate the absence of O-linked carbohydrates on Thr499 as it exists on the surface of virions and suggest caution in the interpretation of analyses of post-translational modifications that utilize recombinant forms of envelope protein.

Journal article

Nataraj A, 2015, MKAN27435 Is Required for the Biosynthesis of Higher Subclasses of Lipooligosaccharides in Mycobacterium kansasii, PLoS ONE, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1932-6203

Lipooligosaccharides are glycolipids found in the cell wall of many mycobacterial species including the opportunistic pathogen Mycobacterium kansasii. The genome of M. kansasii ATCC12478 contains a cluster with genes orthologous to Mycobacterium marinum LOS biosynthesis genes. To initiate a genetic dissection of this cluster and demonstrate its role in LOS biosynthesis in M. kansasii, we chose MKAN27435, a gene encoding a putative glycosyltransferase. Using Specialized Transduction, a phage-based gene knockout tool previously used to generate null mutants in other mycobacteria, we generated a MKAN27435 null mutant. The mutant strain was found to be defective in the biosynthesis of higher LOS subspecies, viz LOS-IV, LOS-V, LOS-VI and LOS-VII. Additionally, a range of low abundance species were detected in the mutant strain and mass spectroscopic analysis indicated that these were shunt products generated from LOS-III by the addition of up to six molecules of a pentose.

Journal article

Chen Q, Müller JS, Pang P-C, Laval SH, Haslam SM, Lochmüller H, Dell Aet al., 2015, Global N-linked Glycosylation is Not Significantly Impaired in Myoblasts in Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes Caused by Defective Glutamine-Fructose-6-Phosphate Transaminase 1 (GFPT1), Biomolecules, Vol: 5, Pages: 2758-2781, ISSN: 2218-273X

Glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1 (GFPT1) is the first enzyme of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. It transfers an amino group from glutamine to fructose-6-phosphate to yield glucosamine-6-phosphate, thus providing the precursor for uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) synthesis. UDP-GlcNAc is an essential substrate for all mammalian glycosylation biosynthetic pathways and N-glycan branching is especially sensitive to alterations in the concentration of this sugar nucleotide. It has been reported that GFPT1 mutations lead to a distinct sub-class of congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) termed “limb-girdle CMS with tubular aggregates”. CMS are hereditary neuromuscular transmission disorders in which neuromuscular junctions are impaired. To investigate whether alterations in protein glycosylation at the neuromuscular junction might be involved in this impairment, we have employed mass spectrometric strategies to study the N-glycomes of myoblasts and myotubes derived from two healthy controls, three GFPT1 patients, and four patients with other muscular diseases, namely CMS caused by mutations in DOK7, myopathy caused by mutations in MTND5, limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A), and Pompe disease. A comparison of the relative abundances of bi-, tri-, and tetra-antennary N-glycans in each of the cell preparations revealed that all samples exhibited broadly similar levels of branching. Moreover, although some differences were observed in the relative abundances of some of the N-glycan constituents, these variations were modest and were not confined to the GFPT1 samples. Therefore, GFPT1 mutations in CMS patients do not appear to compromise global N-glycosylation in muscle cells.

Journal article

Macauley MS, Arlian BM, Rillahan CD, Pang P, Bortell N, Marcondes MCG, Haslam SM, Dell A, Paulson JCet al., 2014, Systemic blockade of sialylation in mice with a global inhibitor of sialyltransferases, Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol: 289, Pages: 35149-35158, ISSN: 0021-9258

Sialic acid terminates glycans of glycoproteins and glycolipids that play numerous biological roles in health and disease. While genetic tools are available for interrogating the effects of decreased or abolished sialoside expression in mice, pharmacological inhibition of the sialyltransferase family has to date not been possible. We have recently shown that a sialic acid analog, 3F-NeuAc, added to the media of cultured cells shuts down sialylation by a mechanism involving its intracellular conversion to CMP-3F-NeuAc, a competitive inhibitor of all sialyltransferases. Here we show that administering 3F-NeuAc to mice dramatically decreases sialylated glycans in cells of all tissues tested, including: blood, spleen, liver, brain, lung, heart, kidney, and testes. A single dose results in greatly decreased sialoside expression for over 7 weeks in some tissues. While blockade of sialylation with 3F-NeuAc does not affect viability of cultured cells, its use in vivo has a deleterious 'on-target' effect on liver and kidney function. After administration of 3F-NeuAc, liver enzymes in the blood are dramatically altered, and mice develop proteinuria concomitant with dramatic loss of sialic acid in the glomeruli within 4 days, leading to irreversible kidney dysfunction and failure to thrive. These results confirm a critical role for sialosides in liver and kidney function and document the feasibility of pharmacological inhibition of sialyltransferases for in vivo modulation of sialoside expression.

Journal article

Bern M, Brito AE, Pang P, Rekhi A, Dell A, Haslam SMet al., 2013, Polylactosaminoglycan Glycomics: Enhancing the Detection of High-molecular-weight N-glycans in Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-flight Profiles by Matched Filtering, Molecular & Cellular Proteomics, Vol: 12, Pages: 996-1004

For over 30 years, protocols based on the mass spectrometry (MS) of permethylated derivatives, complemented by enzymatic degradations, have underpinned glycomic experiments aimed at defining the structures of individual glycans present in the complex mixtures that are characteristic of biological samples. Both MS instrumentation and sample handling have improved markedly in recent years, enabling greater sensitivity and better signal-to-noise ratios, thereby facilitating the detection of glycans at much higher masses than could be achieved in the past. The latter is especially important for the characterization of the biologically important class of N-glycans that carry polylactosaminoglycan chains. Such advances in data acquisition heighten the need for informatics tools to assist in glycan structure assignment. Here, utilizing mouse lung tissue as a model system, we present evidence of polylactosaminoglycan-containing N-glycans with permethylated molecular weights exceeding 13 kDa. We show that antennae branching patterns and lengths can be successfully determined at these high masses via MS/MS experiments, even when MS ion counts are very low. We also describe the development and application of a matched filtering algorithm for assisting high-molecular-weight glycan detection and structure assignment.

Journal article

Clark GF, Grassi P, Pang P, Panico M, Lafrenz D, Drobnis EZ, Baldwin MR, Morris HR, Haslam SM, Schedin-Weiss S, Sun W, Dell Aet al., 2012, Tumor Biomarker Glycoproteins in the Seminal Plasma of Healthy Human Males Are Endogenous Ligands for DC-SIGN, Molecular & Cellular Proteomics, Vol: 11

DC-SIGN is an immune C-type lectin that is expressed on both immature and mature dendritic cells associated with peripheral and lymphoid tissues in humans. It is a pattern recognition receptor that binds to several pathogens including HIV-1, Ebola virus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Candida albicans, Helicobacter pylori, and Schistosoma mansoni. Evidence is now mounting that DC-SIGN also recognizes endogenous glycoproteins, and that such interactions play a major role in maintaining immune homeostasis in humans and mice. Autoantigens (neoantigens) are produced for the first time in the human testes and other organs of the male urogenital tract under androgenic stimulus during puberty. Such antigens trigger autoimmune orchitis if the immune response is not tightly regulated within this system. Endogenous ligands for DC-SIGN could play a role in modulating such responses. Human seminal plasma glycoproteins express a high level of terminal Lewisx and Lewisy carbohydrate antigens. These epitopes react specifically with the lectin domains of DC-SIGN. However, because the expression of these sequences is necessary but not sufficient for interaction with DC-SIGN, this study was undertaken to determine if any seminal plasma glycoproteins are also endogenous ligands for DC-SIGN. Glycoproteins bearing terminal Lewisx and Lewisy sequences were initially isolated by lectin affinity chromatography. Protein sequencing established that three tumor biomarker glycoproteins (clusterin, galectin-3 binding glycoprotein, prostatic acid phosphatase) and protein C inhibitor were purified by using this affinity method. The binding of DC-SIGN to these seminal plasma glycoproteins was demonstrated in both Western blot and immunoprecipitation studies. These findings have confirmed that human seminal plasma contains endogenous glycoprotein ligands for DC-SIGN that could play a role in maintaining immune homeostasis both in the male urogenital tract and the vagina after coitus.

Journal article

Pang P, Chiu PCN, Lee C, Chang L, Panico M, Morris HR, Haslam SM, Khoo K, Clark GF, Yeung WSB, Dell Aet al., 2011, Human Sperm Binding Is Mediated by the Sialyl-Lewisx Oligosaccharide on the Zona Pellucida, Science, Vol: 333, Pages: 1761-1764

Human fertilization begins when spermatozoa bind to the extracellular matrix coating of the oocyte, known as the zona pellucida (ZP). One spermatozoan then penetrates this matrix and fuses with the egg cell, generating a zygote. Although carbohydrate sequences on the ZP have been implicated in sperm binding, the nature of the ligand was unknown. Here, ultrasensitive mass spectrometric analyses revealed that the sialyl-Lewisx sequence [NeuAcα2-3Galβ1-4(Fucα1-3)GlcNAc], a well-known selectin ligand, is the most abundant terminal sequence on the N- and O-glycans of human ZP. Sperm-ZP binding was largely inhibited by glycoconjugates terminated with sialyl-Lewisx sequences or by antibodies directed against this sequence. Thus, the sialyl-Lewisx sequence represents the major carbohydrate ligand for human sperm-egg binding.

Journal article

Lee C, Chiu PCN, Pang P, Chu IK, Lee K, Koistinen R, Koistinen H, Seppälä M, Morris HR, Tissot B, Panico M, Dell A, Yeung WSBet al., 2011, Glycosylation Failure Extends to Glycoproteins in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Evidence From Reduced α2-6 Sialylation and Impaired Immunomodulatory Activities of Pregnancy-Related Glycodelin-A, Diabetes, Vol: 60, Pages: 909-917

OBJECTIVE Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common metabolic disorder of pregnancy. Patients with GDM are at risk for high fetal mortality and gestational complications associated with reduced immune tolerance and abnormal carbohydrate metabolism. Glycodelin-A (GdA) is an abundant decidual glycoprotein with glycosylation-dependent immunomodulatory activities. We hypothesized that aberrant carbohydrate metabolism in GDM was associated with changes in glycosylation of GdA, leading to defective immunomodulatory activities.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS GdA in the amniotic fluid from women with normal (NGdA) and GDM (DGdA) pregnancies was purified by affinity chromatography. Structural analysis of protein glycosylation was preformed by lectin-binding assay and mass spectrometry. Cytotoxicity, cell death, cytokine secretion, and GdA binding of the GdA-treated lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells were determined. The sialidase activity in the placental tissue from normal and GDM patients was measured.RESULTS GDM affected the glycosylation but not the protein core of GdA. Specifically, DGdA had a lower abundance of α2-6–sialylated and high-mannose glycans and a higher abundance of glycans with Sda (NeuAcα2-3[GalNAcβ1-4]Gal) epitopes compared with NGdA. DGdA had reduced immuosuppressive activities in terms of cytotoxicity on lymphocytes, inhibitory activities on interleukin (IL)-2 secretion by lymphocytes, stimulatory activities on IL-6 secretion by NK cells, and binding to these cells. Desialylation abolished the immunomodulation and binding of NGdA. Placental sialidase activity was increased in GDM patients, which may account for the reduced sialic acid content of DGdA.CONCLUSIONS Taken together, this study provides the first direct evidence for altered enzymatic glycosylation and impaired bioactivity of GdA in GDM patients.

Journal article

Charlier E, Conde C, Zhang J, Deneubourg L, Di Valentin E, Rahmouni S, Chariot A, Agostinis P, Pang PC, Haslam SM, Dell A, Penninger J, Erneux C, Piette J, Gloire Get al., 2010, SHIP-1 inhibits CD95/APO-1/Fas-induced apoptosis in primary T lymphocytes and T leukemic cells by promoting CD95 glycosylation independently of its phosphatase activity, Leukemia, Vol: 24, Pages: 821-832, ISSN: 0887-6924

Journal article

Yoon S-J, Park S-Y, Pang P-C, Gallagher J, Gottesman JE, Dell A, Kim J-H, Hakomori S-Iet al., 2010, N-glycosylation status of beta-haptoglobin in sera of patients with prostate cancer vs. benign prostate diseases, International Journal of Oncology, Vol: 36, Pages: 193-203, ISSN: 1019-6439

N-glycosylation status of purified β-haptoglobin separated from sera of patients with prostate cancer was studied in comparison to that of sera from patients with benign prostate diseases, or normal subjects. Two different approaches, as summarized below, one based on binding of lectins and antibodies to β-haptoglobin, the other on mass spectrometry of released N-linked glycans from β-haptoglobin, were performed. Some of the results were useful for distinction of prostate cancer vs. benign prostate diseases. i) Binding of Phaseolus vulgaris-L lectin (PHA-L), defining the GlcNAcβ6Manα6Man side chain present in tri- or tetra-antennary N-linked glycans, to β-haptoglobin was higher for cases of prostate cancer and high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia than for benign diseases. Binding of Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL) defining Fucα3-, α4-, or α6-GlcNAc, or monoclonal antibody directed to sialyl-Lex, to β-haptoglobin was also higher for some of the cancer cases than for benign diseases. Many other lectins and antibodies showed no binding to β-haptoglobin, or showed no significant difference between cancer vs. benign diseases. ii) Mass spectrometric analysis of N-linked glycans of β-haptoglobin released by Peptide N-glycosidase-F showed enhanced expression of monosialyl tri-antennary structures in prostate cancer cases. Thus, binding of PHA-L to affinity-purified β-haptoglobin from sera of patients could lead to development of useful tools for differential diagnosis of prostate cancer vs. benign prostate diseases.

Journal article

North SJ, Jang-Lee J, Harrison R, Canis K, Ismail MN, Trollope A, Antonopoulos A, Pang P, Grassi P, Al-Chalabi S, Etienne AT, Dell A, Haslam SMet al., 2010, Chapter Two - Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Mutant Mice, Pages: 27-77, ISSN: 0076-6879

Abstract Mass spectrometry (MS) has proven to be the preeminent tool for the rapid, high-sensitivity analysis of the primary structure of glycans derived from diverse biological sources including cells, fluids, secretions, tissues, and organs. These analyses are anchored by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis of permethylated derivatives of glycan pools released from the samples, to produce glycomic mass fingerprints. The application of complimentary techniques, such as chemical and enzymatic digestions, GC–MS linkage analysis, and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) utilizing both electrospray (ES) and MALDI-TOF/TOF, together with bioinformatic tools allows the elucidation of incrementally more detailed structural information from the sample(s) of interest. The mouse as a model organism offers many advantages in the study of human biology, health, and disease; it is a mammal, shares 99% genetic homology with humans and its genome supports targeted mutagenesis in specific genes to produce knockouts efficiently and precisely. Glycomic analyses of tissues and organs from mice genetically deficient in one or more glycosylation gene and comparison with data collected from wild-type samples enables the facile identification of changes and perturbations within the glycome. The Consortium for Functional Glycomics (CFG) has been applying such MS-based glycomic analyses to a range of murine tissues from both wild-type and glycosylation-knockout mice in order to provide a repository of structural data for the glycobiology community. In this chapter, we describe in detail the methodologies used to prepare, derivatize, purify, and analyze glycan pools from mouse organs and tissues by MS. We also present a summary of data produced from the CFG systematic structural analysis of wild-type and knockout mouse tissues, together with a detailed example of a glycomic analysis of the Mgat4a knockout mouse.

Journal article

Pang P, Tissot B, Drobnis EZ, Morris HR, Dell A, Clark GFet al., 2009, Analysis of the Human Seminal Plasma Glycome Reveals the Presence of Immunomodulatory Carbohydrate Functional Groups, Journal of Proteome Research, Vol: 8, Pages: 4906-4915, ISSN: 1535-3893

Journal article

Tissot B, North SJ, Ceroni A, Pang P, Panico M, Rosati F, Capone A, Haslam SM, Dell A, Morris HRet al., 2009, Glycoproteomics: Past, present and future, FEBS Letters, Vol: 583, Pages: 1728-1735, ISSN: 0014-5793

This invited paper reviews the study of protein glycosylation, commonly known as glycoproteomics, beginning with the origins of the subject area in the early 1970s shortly after mass spectrometry was first applied to protein sequencing. We go on to describe current analytical approaches to glycoproteomic analyses, with exemplar projects presented in the form of the complex story of human glycodelin and the characterisation of blood group H eptitopes on the O-glycans of gp273 from Unio elongatulus. Finally, we present an update on the latest progress in the field of automated and semi-automated interpretation and annotation of these data in the form of GlycoWorkBench, a powerful informatics tool that provides valuable assistance in unravelling the complexities of glycoproteomic studies.

Journal article

Lee C, Pang P, Yeung WSB, Tissot B, Panico M, Lao TTH, Chu IK, Lee K, Chung M, Lam KKW, Koistinen R, Koistinen H, Seppälä M, Morris HR, Dell A, Chiu PCNet al., 2009, Effects of Differential Glycosylation of Glycodelins on Lymphocyte Survival, Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol: 284, Pages: 15084-15096

Glycodelin is a human glycoprotein with four reported glycoforms, namely glycodelin-A (GdA), glycodelin-F (GdF), glycodelin-C (GdC), and glycodelin-S (GdS). These glycoforms have the same protein core and appear to differ in their N-glycosylation. The glycosylation of GdA is completely different from that of GdS. GdA inhibits proliferation and induces cell death of T cells. However, the glycosylation and immunomodulating activities of GdF and GdC are not known. This study aimed to use ultra-high sensitivity mass spectrometry to compare the glycomes of GdA, GdC, and GdF and to study the relationship between the immunological activity and glycosylation pattern among glycodelin glycoforms. Using MALDI-TOF strategies, the glycoforms were shown to contain an enormous diversity of bi-, tri-, and tetra-antennary complex-type glycans carrying Galβ1–4GlcNAc (lacNAc) and/or GalNAcβ1–4GlcNAc (lacdiNAc) antennae backbones with varying levels of fucose and sialic acid substitution. Interestingly, they all carried a family of Sda (NeuAcα2–3(GalNAcβ1–4)Gal)-containing glycans, which were not identified in the earlier study because of less sensitive methodologies used. Among the three glycodelins, GdA is the most heavily sialylated. Virtually all the sialic acid on GdC is located on the Sda antennae. With the exception of the Sda epitope, the GdC N-glycome appears to be the asialylated counterpart of the GdA/GdF glycomes. Sialidase activity, which may be responsible for transforming GdA/GdF to GdC, was detected in cumulus cells. Both GdA and GdF inhibited the proliferation, induced cell death, and suppressed interleukin-2 secretion of Jurkat cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In contrast, no immunosuppressive effect was observed for GdS and GdC.

Journal article

Tabei SMB, Hitchen PG, Day-Williams MJ, Merino S, Vart R, Pang P, Horsburgh GJ, Viches S, Wilhelms M, Tomás JM, Dell A, Shaw JGet al., 2009, An Aeromonas caviae Genomic Island Is Required for both O-Antigen Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis and Flagellin Glycosylation, Journal of Bacteriology, Vol: 191, Pages: 2851-2863

Aeromonas caviae Sch3N possesses a small genomic island that is involved in both flagellin glycosylation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigen biosynthesis. This island appears to have been laterally acquired as it is flanked by insertion element-like sequences and has a much lower G+C content than the average aeromonad G+C content. Most of the gene products encoded by the island are orthologues of proteins that have been shown to be involved in pseudaminic acid biosynthesis and flagellin glycosylation in both Campylobacter jejuni and Helicobacter pylori. Two of the genes, lst and lsg, are LPS specific as mutation of them results in the loss of only a band for the LPS O-antigen. Lsg encodes a putative Wzx flippase, and mutation of Lsg affects only LPS; this finding supports the notion that flagellin glycosylation occurs within the cell before the flagellins are exported and assembled and not at the surface once the sugar has been exported. The proteins encoded by flmA, flmB, neuA, flmD, and neuB are thought to make up a pseudaminic acid biosynthetic pathway, and mutation of any of these genes resulted in the loss of motility, flagellar expression, and a band for the LPS O-antigen. Furthermore, pseudaminic acid was shown to be present on both flagellin subunits that make up the polar flagellum filament, to be present in the LPS O-antigen of the A. caviae wild-type strain, and to be absent from the A. caviae flmD mutant strain.

Journal article

Klisch K, Jeanrond E, Pang P, Pich A, Schuler G, Dantzer V, Kowalewski MP, Dell Aet al., 2008, A Tetraantennary Glycan with Bisecting N-Acetylglucosamine and the Sda Antigen is the Predominant N-Glycan on Bovine Pregnancy-Associated Glycoproteins, Glycobiology, Vol: 18, Pages: 42-52

Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) are major secretory proteins of trophoblast cells in ruminants. Binucleate trophoblast giant cells (BNCs) store these proteins in secretory granules and release them into the maternal organism after fusion with maternal uterine epithelial cells. By matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) analysis and linkage analysis, we show that by far, the most abundant N-glycan of PAGs in midpregnancy is a tetraantennary core-fucosylated structure with a bisecting N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). All four antennae consist of the Sda-antigen (NeuAcα2-3[GalNAcβ1-4]Galβ1-4GlcNAc-). Immunohistochemistry with the mono- clonal antibody CT1, which recognizes the Sda-antigen, shows that BNC granules contain the Sda-antigen from gestation day (gd) 32 until a few days before parturition. Lectin histochemistry with Maackia amurensis lectin (MAL), which binds to α2-3sialylated lactosamine, shows that BNC granules are MAL-positive prior to gd 32 and also at parturition. The observed tetraantennary glycan is a highly unusual structure, since during the synthesis of N-glycans, the insertion of a bisecting GlcNAc inhibits the activity of the GlcNAc-transferases that leads to tri- and tetraantennary glycans. The study defines the substantial changes of PAG N-glycosylation in the course of pregnancy. This promotes the hypothesis that PAGs may have different carbohydrate-mediated functions at different stages of pregnancy.

Journal article

Fujimura T, Shinohara Y, Tissot B, Pang P, Kurogochi M, Saito S, Arai Y, Sadilek M, Murayama K, Dell A, Nishimura S, Hakomori Set al., 2008, Glycosylation status of haptoglobin in sera of patients with prostate cancer vs. benign prostate disease or normal subjects, Int. J. Cancer, Vol: 122, Pages: 39-49, ISSN: 1097-0215

We studied chemical level and glycosylation status of haptoglobin in sera of patients with prostate cancer, as compared to benign prostate disease and normal subjects, with the following results. (i) Haptoglobin level was enhanced significantly in sera of prostate cancer. (ii) Sialylated bi-antennary glycans were the dominant structures in haptoglobins from all 3 sources, regardless of different site of N-linked glycan. The N-linked glycans at N184 were exclusively bi-antennary, and showed no difference between prostate cancer vs. benign prostate disease. (iii) Tri-antennary, N-linked, fucosylated glycans, carrying at least 1 sialyl-Lewisx/a antenna, were predominantly located on N207 or N211 within the amino acid 203-215 sequence of the β-chain of prostate cancer, and were minimal in benign prostate disease. Fucosylated glycans were not observed in normal subjects. A minor tri-antennary N-linked glycan was observed at N241 of the β-chain in prostate cancer, which was absent in benign prostate disease. (iv) None of these N-linked structures showed the expected presence of disialylated antennae with GalNAcβ4(NeuAcα3)Galβ3(NeuAcα6)GlcNAcβGal, or its analogue, despite cross-reactivity of prostate cancer haptoglobin with monoclonal antibody RM2. (v) Minor levels of O-glycosylation were identified in prostate cancer haptoglobin for the first time. Mono- and disialyl core Type 1 O-linked structures were identified after reductive β-elimination followed by methylation and mass spectrometric analysis. No evidence was found for the presence of specific RM2 or other tumor-associated glycosyl epitopes linked to this O-glycan core. In summary, levels of haptoglobin are enhanced in sera of prostate cancer patients, and the N-glycans attached to a defined peptide region of its β-chain are characterized by enhanced branching as well as antenna fucosylation. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Journal article

Pang P, Tissot B, Drobnis EZ, Sutovsky P, Morris HR, Clark GF, Dell Aet al., 2007, Expression of Bisecting Type and Lewisx/Lewisy Terminated N-Glycans on Human Sperm, Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol: 282, Pages: 36593-36602

Human sperm lack major histocompatibility class I molecules, making them susceptible to lysis by natural killer (NK) cells. Major histocompatibility class I negative tumor cells block NK cell lysis by expressing sufficient amounts of bisecting type N-glycans on their surfaces. Therefore, sperm could employ the same strategy to evade NK cell lysis. The total N-glycans derived from sperm were sequenced using ultrasensitive mass spectrometric and conventional approaches. Three major classes of N-glycans were detected, (i) high mannose, (ii) biantennary bisecting type, and (iii) biantennary, triantennary, and tetraantennary oligosaccharides terminated with Lewisx and Lewisy sequences. Immunostaining of normal sperm showed that glycoproteins bearing Lewisy sequences are localized to the acrosome and not the plasma membrane. In contrast, defective sperm showed distinct surface labeling with anti-Lewisy antibody. The substantial expression of high mannose and complex type N-glycans terminated with Lewisx and Lewisy sequences suggests that sperm glycoproteins are highly decorated with ligands for DC-SIGN. Based on previous studies, the addition of such carbohydrate signals should inhibit antigen-specific responses directed against sperm glycoproteins in both the male and female reproductive systems. Thus, the major N-glycans of human sperm are associated with the inhibition of both innate and adaptive immune responses. These results provide more support for the eutherian fetoembryonic defense system hypothesis that links the expression of carbohydrate functional groups to the protection of gametes and the developing human in utero. This study also highlights the usefulness of glycomic profiling for revealing potential physiological functions of glycans expressed in specific cell types.

Journal article

Morris HR, Chalabi S, Panico M, Sutton-Smith M, Clark GF, Goldberg D, Dell Aet al., 2007, Glycoproteomics: Past, present and future, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MASS SPECTROMETRY, Vol: 259, Pages: 16-31, ISSN: 1387-3806

Journal article

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