Imperial College London

ProfessorPaulRamchandani

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Brain Sciences

Visiting Professor
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 3313 4161p.ramchandani

 
 
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Assistant

 

Ms Nicole Hickey +44 (0)20 3313 4161

 
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Location

 

Commonwealth BuildingHammersmith Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

156 results found

Graber KM, Byrne EM, Goodacre EJ, Kirby N, Kulkarni K, O'Farrelly C, Ramchandani PGet al., 2020, A rapid review of the impact of quarantine and restricted environments on children's play and the role of play in children's health, CHILD CARE HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT, ISSN: 0305-1862

Journal article

Sanfilippo KRM, McConnell B, Cornelius V, Darboe B, Huma HB, Gaye M, Ceesay H, Ramchandani P, Cross I, Glover V, Stewart Let al., 2020, Community psychosocial music intervention (CHIME) to reduce antenatal common mental disorder symptoms in The Gambia: a feasibility trial., BMJ Open, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 2044-6055

OBJECTIVES: Examine the feasibility of a Community Health Intervention through Musical Engagement (CHIME) in The Gambia to reduce common mental disorder (CMD) symptoms in pregnant women. DESIGN: Feasibility trial testing a randomised stepped-wedge cluster design. SETTING: Four local antenatal clinics. PARTICIPANTS: Women who were 14-24 weeks pregnant and spoke Mandinka or Wolof were recruited into the intervention (n=50) or control group (n=74). INTERVENTION: Music-based psychosocial support sessions designed and delivered by all-female fertility societies. Sessions lasted 1 hour and were held weekly for 6 weeks. Delivered to groups of women with no preselection. Sessions were designed to lift mood, build social connection and provide health messaging through participatory music making. The control group received standard antenatal care. OUTCOMES: Demographic, feasibility, acceptability outcomes and the appropriateness of the study design were assessed. Translated measurement tools (Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20); Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)) were used to assess CMD symptoms at baseline, post-intervention and 4-week follow-up. RESULTS: All clinics and 82% of women approached consented to take part. A 33% attrition rate across all time points was observed. 72% in the intervention group attended at least three sessions. Audio and video analysis confirmed fidelity of the intervention and a thematic analysis of participant interviews demonstrated acceptability and positive evaluation. Results showed a potential beneficial effect with a reduction of 2.13 points (95% CI (0.89 to 3.38), p<0.01, n=99) on the SRQ-20 and 1.98 points (95% CI (1.06 to 2.90), p<0.01, n=99) on the EPDS at the post-intervention time point for the intervention group compared with standard care. CONCLUSION: Results demonstrate that CHIME is acceptable and feasible in The Gambia. To our knowledge, CHIME is the first example of a music-based psy

Journal article

O'Farrelly C, Watt H, Babalis D, Bakermans-Kranenburg M, Barker B, Byford S, Ganguli P, Grimas E, Iles J, Mattock H, McGinley J, Phillips C, Ryan R, Scott S, Smith J, Stein A, Stevens E, van IJzendoorn M, Warwick J, Ramchandani Pet al., 2020, A brief home-based parenting intervention (VIPP-SD) to reduce behaviour problems in young children: A pragmatic randomised clinical trial., JAMA Pediatrics, ISSN: 1072-4710

Journal article

Mattock H, Ryan R, O'Farrelly C, Babelis D, Ramchandani Pet al., 2020, Does a video clip enhance recruitment into a parenting trial? Learnings from a study within a trial, Trials, Vol: 21, ISSN: 1745-6215

BackgroundReaching recruitment targets in randomised controlled trials is a challenge. Media tools are increasingly used to engage participants, yet there is a paucity of research into the use of video to optimise recruitment. We therefore tested whether adding a participant information video clip to a standard participant information sheet improved recruitment into a parenting trial.MethodsOne hundred seven participants were randomised to receive either a participant information sheet (n = 51) or an informational video clip (n = 56) as part of an email contact following a screening phase. All participants went on to receive the information sheet as part of the existing consent procedure.ResultsThe video condition did not increase the odds of recruitment into the trial, such that those in the video condition were significantly less likely to participate in the main trial (OR = 0.253, CI = 0.104–0.618, p = 0.003).ConclusionThe introduction of a video clip into the recruitment stages of a parenting trial did not lead to an improvement in recruitment; however, the small sample size precludes definitive inferences. We offer reflections on challenges encountered in implementing the SWAT and suggestions for other researchers seeking to embed recruitment SWATs into similar trials.Trial registrationCurrent controlled trials ISRCTN 58327365. Registered on 19 March 2015.SWAT registrationSWAT 106; Effects of a video clip on recruitment into a randomised trial. Registered on 20 December 2016.

Journal article

Mattock HC, Ryan R, O'Farrelly C, Babalis D, Ramchandani PGet al., 2020, Does a video clip enhance recruitment into a parenting trial? Learnings from a study within a trial, Publisher: BMC

Conference paper

Amodia-Bidakowska A, Laverty C, Ramchandani PG, 2020, Father-child play: A systematic review of its frequency, characteristics and potential impact on children's development, DEVELOPMENTAL REVIEW, Vol: 57, ISSN: 0273-2297

Journal article

Ramchandani P, 2020, Children and covid-19, NEW SCIENTIST, Vol: 245, Pages: 21-21, ISSN: 0262-4079

Journal article

Ramchandani P, 2020, Children and covid-19., New Sci, Vol: 246, ISSN: 0262-4079

Children will face many hidden negative effects from the new coronavirus- it's not too late to avert them, says Paul Ramchandani.

Journal article

Day C, Briskman J, Crawford MJ, Foote L, Harris L, Boadu J, McCrone P, McMurran M, Michelson D, Moran P, Mosse L, Scott S, Stahl D, Ramchandani P, Weaver Tet al., 2020, An intervention for parents with severe personality difficulties whose children have mental health problems: a feasibility RCT., Health Technology Assessment, Vol: 24, Pages: 1-188, ISSN: 1366-5278

BACKGROUND: The children of parents with severe personality difficulties have greater risk of significant mental health problems. Existing care is poorly co-ordinated, with limited effectiveness. A specialised parenting intervention may improve child and parenting outcomes, reduce family morbidity and lower the service costs. OBJECTIVES: To develop a specialised parenting intervention for parents affected by severe personality difficulties who have children with mental health problems and to conduct a feasibility trial. DESIGN: A pragmatic, mixed-methods design to develop and pilot a specialised parenting intervention, Helping Families Programme-Modified, and to conduct a randomised feasibility trial with process evaluation. Initial cost-effectiveness was assessed using UK NHS/Personal Social Services and societal perspectives, generating quality-adjusted life-years. Researchers collecting quantitative data were masked to participant allocation. SETTING: Two NHS mental health trusts and concomitant children's social care services. PARTICIPANTS: Parents who met the following criteria: (1) the primary caregiver of the index child, (2) aged 18-65 years, (3) have severe personality difficulties, (4) proficient in English and (5) capable of providing informed consent. Index children who met the following criteria: (1) aged 3-11 years, (2) living with index parent and (3) have significant emotional/behavioural difficulties. Exclusion criteria were (1) having coexisting psychosis, (2) participating in another parenting intervention, (3) receiving inpatient care, (4) having insufficient language/cognitive abilities, (5) having child developmental disorder, (6) care proceedings and (7) index child not residing with index parent. INTERVENTION: The Helping Families Programme-Modified - a 16-session intervention using structured, goal-orientated strategies and collaborative therapeutic methods to improve parenting, and child and parent functioning. Usual care - standard care au

Journal article

Day C, Briskman J, Crawford MJ, Foote L, Harris L, Boadu J, McCrone P, McMurran M, Michelson D, Moran P, Mosse L, Scott S, Stahl D, Ramchandani P, Weaver Tet al., 2020, Randomised feasibility trial of the helping families programme-modified: an intensive parenting intervention for parents affected by severe personality difficulties, BMJ OPEN, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2044-6055

Journal article

Ramchandani P, 2020, Paul Ramchandani on play and how it benefits kids, NEW SCIENTIST, Vol: 245, Pages: 56-56, ISSN: 0262-4079

Journal article

Ramchandani P, 2020, Q &amp; A, New Scientist, Vol: 245, ISSN: 0262-4079

© 2020 Reed Business Information Ltd, England Everyone loves games, but what if they were central to your life's work? Paul Ramchandani describes what it is like to be a professor of play

Journal article

Blaskova LJ, Le Courtois S, Baker ST, Gibson JL, Ramchandani PG, OFarrelly C, Fink Eet al., 2020, Participant engagement with play research–examples and lessons learned from the Centre for Play in Education, Development and Learning, International Journal of Play

© 2020 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Participatory approaches to play research emphasise the active engagement of key stakeholders in all aspects of the research. Ranging from children, parents and educators to policy makers, the Centre for Research on Play in Education, Development and Learning (PEDAL) at the Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge, UK, actively engages with a variety of play research stakeholders. The current paper focuses on the ways PEDAL Centre involves children and teachers in its studies. It presents the key literature on participatory research, describes methods followed in the PEDAL Centre and shares insights from applying participatory approaches to play research with children and teachers.

Journal article

Sanfilippo KRM, McConnell B, Cornelius V, Darboe B, Huma HB, Gaye M, Ramchandani P, Ceesay H, Glover V, Cross I, Stewart Let al., 2019, A study protocol for testing the feasibility of a randomised stepped wedge cluster design to investigate a Community Health Intervention through Musical Engagement (CHIME) for perinatal mental health in The Gambia., Pilot Feasibility Stud, Vol: 5, Pages: 1-8, ISSN: 2055-5784

Background: Perinatal mental health problems affect up to one in five women worldwide. Mental health problems in the perinatal period are a particular challenge in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where they can be at least twice as frequent as in higher-income countries. It is thus of high priority to develop new low-cost, low-resource, non-stigmatising and culturally appropriate approaches to reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression perinatally, for the benefit of both mother and child. Music-centred approaches may be particularly useful in The Gambia since a range of musical practices that specifically engage pregnant women and new mothers already exist. Methods: This protocol is for a study to examine the feasibility of undertaking a stepped wedge trial to test how a Community Health Intervention through Musical Engagement (CHIME) could be beneficial in alleviating perinatal mental distress in The Gambia. In this study, we plan to recruit 120 pregnant women (n = 60 intervention, n = 60 control) at four antenatal clinics over two 6-week stepped sequences. Women in the intervention will participate in weekly group-singing sessions, led by local Kanyeleng singing groups, for 6 weeks. The control group will receive standard care. We will assess symptoms of anxiety and depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). The feasibility of the design will be assessed through recruitment, retention and attrition rates of participants, clinics' adherence to the schedule and completeness of data by site. Qualitative interviews and video and audio recordings will be used to evaluate the acceptability of the intervention. Discussion: This feasibility trial will allow us to determine whether a larger trial with the same intervention and target group is feasible and acceptable in The Gambia. Trial registration: Retrospectively registered (24/01/2019) with Pan African Clinica

Journal article

Sanfilippo KRM, Cornelius V, McConnell B, Ramchandani P, Cross I, Ceesay H, Darboe B, Huma HB, Gaye M, Glover V, Stewart Let al., 2019, Testing the Feasibility of a Complex Intervention for Perinatal Mental Health in The Gambia, Publisher: BMC

Conference paper

Yiran Zhao V, Kulkarni K, Gibson J, Baker S, Ramchandani PGet al., 2019, Introducing the Play in Education, Development and Learning (PEDAL) Research Centre, International Journal of Play, Vol: 8, Pages: 308-319

© 2019, © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This paper provides an overview of the work being conducted at the Play in Education, Development and Learning (PEDAL) Research Centre, based in the Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge, UK. PEDAL has three main aims, (1) To conduct world-class research, (2) To build capacity in play research and (3) To influence policy and practice. The present paper provides an overview of the history and rationale for PEDAL, followed by some detailed examples of the foci of its work. Exemplar research is presented on the theme of ‘Measuring Play’; an endeavour that is common to many of the different research projects led by PEDAL investigators and Ph.D. students.

Journal article

Domoney J, Fulton E, Stanley N, McIntyre A, Heslin M, Byford S, Bick D, Ramchandani P, MacMillan H, Howard LM, Trevillion Ket al., 2019, For Baby's Sake: Intervention Development and Evaluation Design of a Whole-Family Perinatal Intervention to Break the Cycle of Domestic Abuse, JOURNAL OF FAMILY VIOLENCE, Vol: 34, Pages: 539-551, ISSN: 0885-7482

Journal article

Murphy SE, Braithwaite EC, Hubbard I, Williams KV, Tindall E, Holmes EA, Ramchandani PGet al., 2019, Salivary cortisol response to infant distress in pregnant women with depressive symptoms (vol 18, pg 247, 2015), ARCHIVES OF WOMENS MENTAL HEALTH, Vol: 22, Pages: 313-313, ISSN: 1434-1816

Journal article

Gutierrez-Galve L, Stein A, Hanington L, Heron J, Lewis G, O'Farrelly C, Ramchandani PGet al., 2019, Association of Maternal and Paternal Depression in the Postnatal Period With Offspring Depression at Age 18 Years, JAMA PSYCHIATRY, Vol: 76, Pages: 290-296, ISSN: 2168-622X

Journal article

Lambregtse-van den Berg MP, Tiemeier H, Verhulst FC, Jaddoe V, Tindall E, Vlachos H, Aumayer K, Iles J, Ramchandani PGet al., 2018, Early childhood aggressive behaviour: Negative interactions with paternal antisocial behaviour and maternal postpartum depressive symptoms across two international cohorts, EUROPEAN PSYCHIATRY, Vol: 54, Pages: 77-84, ISSN: 0924-9338

Journal article

Fernandes M, Srinivasan K, Menezes G, Ramchandani PGet al., 2018, Prenatal depression, fetal neurobehavior, and infant temperament: Novel insights on early neurodevelopment from a socioeconomically disadvantaged Indian cohort, DEVELOPMENT AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY, Vol: 30, Pages: 725-742, ISSN: 0954-5794

Journal article

Asarnow J, Bloch MH, Brandeis D, Burt SA, Fearon P, Fombonne E, Green J, Gregory A, Gunnar M, Halperin JM, Hollis C, Jaffee S, Klump K, Landau S, Lesch K-P, Oldehinkel AJT, Peterson B, Ramchandani P, Sonuga-Barke E, Stringaris A, Zeanah CHet al., 2018, Special Editorial: Open science and the Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry - next steps?, JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY, Vol: 59, Pages: 826-827, ISSN: 0021-9630

Journal article

Fear N, Reed R, Rowe S, Burdett H, Pernet D, Mahar A, Iverson A, Ramchandani P, Stein A, Wessely Set al., 2018, Impact of paternal deployment to the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan and paternal post-traumatic stress disorder on the children of military fathers, British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol: 212, Pages: 347-355, ISSN: 0007-1250

BackgroundLittle is known about the social and emotional well-being of children whose fathers have been deployed to the conflicts in Iraq/Afghanistan or who have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).AimsTo examine the emotional and behavioural well-being of children whose fathers are or have been in the UK armed forces, in particular the effects of paternal deployment to the conflicts in Iraq or Afghanistan and paternal PTSD.MethodFathers who had taken part in a large tri-service cohort and had children aged 3–16 years were asked about the emotional and behavioural well-being of their child(ren) and assessed for symptoms of PTSD via online questionnaires and telephone interview.ResultsIn total, 621 (67%) fathers participated, providing data on 1044 children. Paternal deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan was not associated with childhood emotional and behavioural difficulties. Paternal probable PTSD were associated with child hyperactivity. This finding was limited to boys and those under 11 years of age.ConclusionsThis study showed that adverse childhood emotional and behavioural well-being was not associated with paternal deployment but was associated with paternal probable PTSD.

Journal article

Sethna V, Murray L, Edmondson O, Iles J, Ramchandani PGet al., 2018, Depression and playfulness in fathers and young infants: A matched design comparison study, JOURNAL OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS, Vol: 229, Pages: 364-370, ISSN: 0165-0327

Journal article

Holmes EA, Ghaderi A, Harmer CJ, Ramchandani PG, Cuijpers P, Morrison AP, Roiser JP, Bockting CLH, O'Connor RC, Shafran R, Moulds ML, Craske MGet al., 2018, The Lancet Psychiatry Commission on psychological treatments research in tomorrow's science, LANCET PSYCHIATRY, Vol: 5, Pages: 237-286, ISSN: 2215-0374

Journal article

Ramchandani P, 2017, ECAP Editorial, European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol: 26, Pages: 1407-1408, ISSN: 1018-8827

Journal article

Ramchandani P, O'Farrelly C, Babelis D, Bakermans-Kranenburg M, Byford S, Grimas E, Iles J, van IJzendoorn M, McGinley J, Phillips C, Stein A, Warwick J, Watt H, Scott Set al., 2017, Preventing enduring behavioural problems in young children through early psychological intervention (Healthy Start, Happy Start): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial, Trials, Vol: 18, ISSN: 1745-6215

Background: Behavioural problems are common in early childhood, and can result in enduring costs to the individualand society, including an increased risk of mental and physical illness, criminality, educational failure and drug andalcohol misuse. Most previous research has examined the impact of interventions targeting older children whendifficulties are more established and harder to change, and have rarely included fathers. We are conducting a trial of apsychological intervention delivered to families with very young children, engaging both parents where possible.Methods: This study is a two-arm, parallel group, researcher-blind, randomized controlled trial, to test the clinicaleffectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a parenting intervention, Video Feedback Intervention to Promote PositiveParenting and Sensitive Discipline (VIPP-SD) for parents of young children (12–36 months) at risk of behaviouraldifficulties. VIPP-SD is an evidence-based parenting intervention developed at Leiden University in the Netherlandswhich uses a video-feedback approach to support parents, particularly by enhancing parental sensitivity and sensitivediscipline in caring for children.The trial will involve 300 families, who will be randomly allocated into either an intervention group, who will receivethe video-feedback intervention (n = 150), or a control group, who will receive treatment as usual (n = 150). The trialwill evaluate whether VIPP-SD, compared to treatment as usual, leads to lower levels of behavioural problems in youngchildren who are at high risk of developing these difficulties. Assessments will be conducted at baseline, and 5 and24 months post-randomization. The primary outcome measure is a modified version of the Preschool Parental Accountof Child Symptoms (Pre-PACS), a structured clinical interview of behavioural symptoms. Secondary outcomes includecaregiver-reported behavioural difficulties, parenting behaviours, parental sensitivity, parental mood and anxiety a

Journal article

Capron L, Ramchandani P, Glover V, 2017, Maternal prenatal stress and placental gene expression of NR3C1 and HSD11B2; the effects of maternal ethnicity, Psychoneuroendocrinology, Vol: 87, Pages: 166-172, ISSN: 0306-4530

BackgroundPrenatal stress is associated with altered fetal and infant development. Previous studies have suggested that these effects may be mediated in part via altered functioning of placental enzymes and receptors involved in the HPA-axis, including the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) and HSD11B2, the enzyme which metabolises cortisol. However, previous studies have not examined the potential ethnicity effects on these associations. This study aimed to characterise the association between maternal prenatal stress and placental genes expression and subsequently, any potential effect of maternal ethnicity.MethodPregnant women(n = 83) were recruited prior to elective caesarean section and assessed for trait anxiety, depression and life events. Placentas were collected and placental gene expression of NR3C1 and HSD11B2 were analysed. We examined associations between maternal prenatal stress and placental gene expression, and the tested for a possible moderating effect of maternal ethnicity(59.0% Caucasian;41.0% non-Caucasian:12.0% South Asian;6.0% African/African-American;14.4% Other;8.4% Mixed).ResultsAnalyses demonstrated a trend in the association between both maternal trait anxiety and depression symptoms with placental gene expression of NR3C1(adj.β = .220,p = .067;adj.β = .212,p = .064 respectively). We found a significant interaction with maternal ethnicity(β = .249;p = .033). In Caucasian women only prenatal trait anxiety and depressive symptoms were associated with an increase in placental NR3C1 expression(adj.β = .389,p = .010;adj.β = .294;p = .047 respectively). Prenatal life events were associated with a down regulation of HSD11B2(adj.β = .381;p = .008), but only in Caucasians.ConclusionThese results support previous findings of an association between maternal prenatal stress and the expression of placental genes associated with the HPA-axis, but only in Caucasians. These ethnic specific findings are novel and require replica

Journal article

Crawford MJ, Gold C, Odell-Miller H, Thana L, Faber S, Assmus J, Bieleninik L, Geretsegger M, Grant C, Maratos A, Sandford S, Claringbold A, McConachie H, Maskey M, Mossler KA, Ramchandani P, Hassiotis Aet al., 2017, International multicentre randomised controlled trial of improvisational music therapy for children with autism spectrum disorder: TIME-A study, HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT, Vol: 21, Pages: 1-+, ISSN: 1366-5278

Background:Preliminary studies have indicated that music therapy may benefit children with autismspectrum disorders (ASD).Objectives:To examine the effects of improvisational music therapy (IMT) on social affect andresponsiveness of children with ASD.Design:International, multicentre, three-arm, single-masked randomised controlled trial, including aNational Institute for Health Research (NIHR)-funded centre that recruited in London and the east ofEngland. Randomisation was via a remote service using permuted blocks, stratified by study site.Setting:Schools and private, voluntary and state-funded health-care services.Participants:Children aged between 4 and 7 years with a confirmed diagnosis of ASD and a parent orguardian who provided written informed consent. We excluded children with serious sensory disorder andthose who had received music therapy within the past 12 months.Interventions:All parents and children received enhanced standard care (ESC), which involved three60-minute sessions of advice and support in addition to treatment as usual. In addition, they wererandomised to either one (low-frequency) or three (high-frequency) sessions of IMT per week, or to ESCalone, over 5 months in a ratio of 1 : 1 : 2.Main outcome measures:The primary outcome was measured using the social affect score derived fromthe Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) at 5 months: higher scores indicated greater impairment.Secondary outcomes included social affect at 12 months and parent-rated social responsiveness at 5 and12 months (higher scores indicated greater impairment).Results:A total of 364 participants were randomised between 2011 and 2015. A total of 182 children wereallocated to IMT (90 to high-frequency sessions and 92 to low-frequency sessions), and 182 were allocatedto ESC alone. A total of 314 (86.3%) of the total sample were followed up at 5 months [165 (90.7%) inthe intervention group and 149 (81.9%) in the control group]. Among those randomised to IMT, 171(94.0

Journal article

Braithwaite EC, Murphy SE, Ramchandani PG, Hill Jet al., 2017, Associations between biological markers of prenatal stress and infant negative emotionality are specific to sex., Psychoneuroendocrinology, Vol: 86, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 0306-4530

PURPOSE: Fetal programming is the idea that environmental stimuli can alter the development of the fetus, which may have a long-term effect on the child. We have recently reported that maternal prenatal cortisol predicts infant negative emotionality in a sex-dependent manner: high prenatal cortisol was associated with increased negative emotionality in females, and decreased negative emotionality in males. This study aims to test for this sex-specific effect in a different cohort, and investigate whether sex differences in fetal programming may be specific to glucocorticoid mechanisms by also examining a maternal salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) by sex interaction. METHODS: 88 pregnant women (mean gestational age=27.4 weeks, SD=7.4) collected saliva samples at home over two working days to be assayed for the hormone cortisol (range=0.13-88.22nmol/l) and the enzyme alpha-amylase (range=4.57-554.8units/ml). Samples were collected at waking, 30-min post-waking and 12h post-waking. Two months after birth participants reported infant negative emotionality using the distress to limits subscale of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire. RESULTS: The interaction between maternal prenatal cortisol and infant sex to predict distress to limits approached significance (p=0.067). In line with our previous finding there was a positive association between prenatal cortisol and negative emotionality in females, and a negative association in males. The interaction between sAA and sex to predict distress was significant (p=0.025), and the direction of effect was the same as for the cortisol data; high sAA associated with increased negative emotionality in females and reduced negative emotionality in males. CONCLUSIONS: In line with our previous findings, this research adds to an emerging body of literature, which suggests that fetal programming mechanisms may be sex-dependent. This is the first study to demonstrate that maternal prenatal sAA may be an important biomarker for infant behavior

Journal article

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