Imperial College London

Mr Peter Reilly

Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Bioengineering

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p.reilly

 
 
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Department of OrthopaedicsNorfolk PlaceSt Mary's Campus

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Publications

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63 results found

van der Kruk E, Silverman AK, Koizia L, Reilly P, Fertleman M, Bull AMJet al., 2021, Age-related compensation: Neuromusculoskeletal capacity, reserve & movement objectives, JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICS, Vol: 122, ISSN: 0021-9290

Journal article

van Der Kruk E, Silverman AK, Reilly P, Bull AMJet al., 2021, Compensation due to age-related decline in sit-to-stand and sit-to-walk, JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICS, Vol: 122, ISSN: 0021-9290

Journal article

Koizia L, Dani M, Brown H, Lee M, Reilly P, Fertleman Met al., 2021, Does the weather contribute to admissions of neck of femur fractures?, Geriatric Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation, Vol: 12, Pages: 1-6, ISSN: 2151-4585

Background: The effects of weather on overall mortality are well documented. Anecdotally, icy conditions are perceived to result in more falls and admissions for neck of femur (NOF) fractures. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether relationships could be extracted or at least not ruled out by analysing a small dataset, and so give impetus to a larger project. Methods: Seven trauma units across North West London were identified and NOF fracture data extracted for five years. Visual inspection of the time series, consideration of the weather on specific days and correlation analysis were used to assess associations between fracture numbers and a variety of weather parameters (temperature, rainfall, wind and ice risk). Results: Overall, 10929 individuals with hip fractures were admitted over the five-year period. The highest number of admissions in a day was 14. No clear association was found between a weather parameter and daily admissions. However, when accumulated to a weekly timescale, a negative relationship with maximum temperature was found. No seasonal cycle was detected.Conclusion: The lack of a daily relationship and presence of a weekly relationship points to a possible delayed response to weather or insufficient daily data to extract a signal. The inconclusive results also indicate a larger data sample is required in future studies. In addition, even in cold weather an urban environment may not create icy conditions, being ameliorated by the heat island effect and gritting.

Journal article

Balai E, Sabharwal S, Griffiths D, Reilly Pet al., 2020, A type VI acromioclavicular joint injury: subcoracoid dislocation in a patient with polytrauma., Ann R Coll Surg Engl, Vol: 102, Pages: e1-e3

The Rockwood type VI acromioclavicular joint injury describes subcoracoid dislocation of the distal end of the clavicle. This injury pattern is exceedingly rare, with only 12 cases described in the literature. Diagnosis can be challenging; it is often the result of a high-energy mechanism and patients frequently have other severe distracting injuries. We report the case of a 23-year-old man who presented to our department after falling from a fifth-floor balcony. Alongside multiple intra-abdominal and musculoskeletal injuries, the patient sustained a type VI acromioclavicular joint dislocation. This injury was not picked up on the initial clinical assessment or described in the initial radiology report, with the diagnosis only made upon subsequent repeat review of the imaging by the admitting team. Fortunately, this delay did not increase the time to the patient receiving appropriate treatment. Despite its rarity, awareness of this injury pattern and its association with polytrauma is essential to reduce the risk of the diagnosis being overlooked in the acute setting.

Journal article

Urbanczyk CA, Prinold JAI, Reilly P, Bull AMJet al., 2020, Avoiding high-risk rotator cuff loading: Muscle force during three pull-up techniques., Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, Vol: 30, Pages: 2205-2214, ISSN: 0905-7188

Heavily loaded overhead training tasks, such as pull-ups are an effective strength training and rehabilitation exercise requiring high muscle forces maintained over a large range of motion. This study used experiments and computational modeling to examine loading patterns during three different pull-up variants and highlighted risks to vulnerable musculoskeletal structures. Optical motion tracking and a force platform captured kinematics and kinetics of 11 male subjects with no history of shoulder pathology, during performance of three pull-up variants-pronated front grip, pronated wide grip, and supinated reverse grip. UK National Shoulder model (UKNSM) simulated biomechanics of the shoulder girdle. Muscle forces and activation patterns were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA with post-hoc comparisons. Motor group recruitment was similar across all pull-up techniques, with upper limb depression occurring secondary to torso elevation. Stress-time profiles show significant differences in individual muscle patterns among the three pull-up variants, with the most marked differences between wide grip and reverse grip. Comparing across techniques, latissimus dorsi was relatively more active in wide pull-ups (P < .01); front pull-ups favored activation of biceps brachii and brachialis (P < .02); reverse pull-ups displayed higher proportional rotator cuff activation (P < .01). Pull-ups promote stability of the shoulder girdle and activation of scapula stabilizers and performing pull-ups over their full range of motion is important as different techniques and phases emphasize different muscles. Shoulder rehabilitation and strength & conditioning programs should encourage incorporation of all three pull-up variants with systematic progression to provide greater global strengthening of the torso and upper limb musculature.

Journal article

Villatte G, van der Kruk E, Asim B, Zumstein M, Moor B, Emery R, Bull AMJ, Reilly Pet al., 2020, A biomechanical confirmation of the relationship between critical shoulder angle (CSA) and articular joint loading, Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, Vol: 29, Pages: 1967-1973, ISSN: 1058-2746

Background: The Critical Shoulder Angle (CSA) has been shown to be correlated with shoulder disease states. The biomechanical hypothesis to explain this correlation is that the CSA changes the shear and compressive forces on the shoulder. The objective of this study is to test this hypothesis by use of a validated computational shoulder model. Specifically, this study assesses the impact on glenohumeral biomechanics of modifying the CSA. Methods: An inverse dynamics three-dimensional musculoskeletal model of the shoulder was used to quantify muscle forces and glenohumeral joint forces. The CSA was changed by altering the attachment point of the middle deltoid into a normal CSA (33°), a reduced CSA of 28°, and an increased CSA of 38°. Subject-specific kinematics of slow and fast speed abduction in the scapular plane, and slow and fast forward flexion measured by a 3D motion capture system were used to quantify joint reaction shear and compressive forces.Results: Increasing the CSA results in increased superior-inferior forces (shearing forces; integrated over the range of motion; p<0.05). Reducing CSA results in increased latero-medial (compressive) forces for both the maximum and integrated sum of the forces over the whole motion; p<0.01).Discussion/Conclusion: Changes in the CSA modify glenohumeral joint biomechanics with increasing CSA producing higher shear forces that would contribute to rotator cuff overuse, whereas reducing the CSA results in higher compressive forces which contribute to joint wear.

Journal article

Franklin S, Sabharwal S, Hettiaratchy S, Reilly Pet al., 2020, When infection isn't infection., Ann R Coll Surg Engl, Vol: 102, Pages: e183-e184

Following open reduction and internal fixation for a proximal humerus fracture a 71-year-old man re-presented with wound changes consistent with infection and elevated inflammatory markers. No significant improvement was seen with concomitant intravenous antibiotics and multiple debridement procedures. This case was further complicated by soft tissue breakdown at the site of a left thigh haematoma also requiring debridement. Surgical site infections represent the most common cause of morbidity postoperatively. This case highlights the importance of considering a number of differential diagnoses. A diagnosis of pyoderma gangrenosum prompted systemic corticosteroid therapy giving rapid clinical improvement.

Journal article

Davies A, Heaton T, Sabharwal S, Fertleman M, Dani M, Reilly Pet al., 2020, Consent for surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic, Transient Journal of Trauma, Orthopaedics and the Coronavirus

Journal article

Smith SHL, Reilly P, Bull AMJ, 2020, A musculoskeletal modelling approach to explain sit-to-stand difficulties in older people due to changes in muscle recruitment and movement strategies, Journal of Biomechanics, Vol: 98, ISSN: 0021-9290

By 2050 the proportion of over 65s is predicted to be 20% of the population. The consequences of an age-related reduction in muscle mass have not been fully investigated and, therefore, the aim of the present study was to quantify the muscle and joint contact forces using musculoskeletal modelling, during a sit-to-stand activity, to better explain difficulties in performing everyday activities for older people. A sit-to-stand activity with and without the use of arm rests was observed in ninety-five male participants, placed into groups of young (aged 18-35 years), middle-aged (aged 40-60 years) or older adults (aged 65 years and over). Older participants demonstrated significantly lower knee extensor and joint forces than the young when not using arm rests, compensating through elevated hip extensor and ankle plantarflexor muscle activity. The older group were also found to have higher shoulder joint contact forces whilst using arm rests. This tendency to reorganise muscle recruitment to include neighbouring groups or other parts of the body could make everyday activities more susceptible to age-related functional decline. Reductions in leg strength, via age- or atrophy- related means, creates increased reliance on the upper body and may result in further lower limb atrophy through disuse. The eventual decline of upper body function reduces strength reserves, leading to increased vulnerability, dependence on others and risk of institutionalisation.

Journal article

Smith SHL, Reilly P, Bull AMJ, 2019, Serratus anterior weakness is a key determinant of arm-assisted standing difficulties, Medical Engineering and Physics, Vol: 74, Pages: 41-48, ISSN: 1350-4533

The ageing population has led to recent increases in musculoskeletal conditions, with muscle weakness a major contributor to functional decline. Understanding the early phases of muscle weakness will help devise treatments to extend musculoskeletal health. Little is understood of the effects of muscle weakness on everyday activities such as sit-to-stand, a determinant of mobility that, in the early stages of weakness, requires upper limb compensation. This experimental and computational modelling study investigated the effects of muscle weakness on upper-extremity muscle forces of 27 healthy adults when using arm rests. Weakness of 29 upper limb muscles was simulated by individually removing each from a musculoskeletal model. Serratus anterior weakness was highlighted as detrimental, with the model unable to fully solve the loadsharing redundancy in its absence, and forces at the elbow and glenohumeral joint and in other muscles were found to be profoundly increased. Its large number of fast-twitch muscle fibres, predisposed to atrophy with age, highlight the centrality of the serratus anterior as a key determinant of mobility in this critical task and a potential source of early immobility through its preferential loss of strength and thus point to the requirement for early clinical interventions to mitigate loss.

Journal article

Hurst SA, Gregory TM, Reilly P, 2019, Os acromiale: a review of its incidence, pathophysiology, and clinical management, EFORT Open Reviews, Vol: 4, Pages: 525-532, ISSN: 2058-5241

Journal article

Majed A, Thangarajah T, Southgate DFL, Reilly P, Bull A, Emery Ret al., 2019, The biomechanics of proximal humeral fractures: Injury mechanism and cortical morphology, Shoulder & Elbow, Vol: 11, Pages: 247-255, ISSN: 1758-5732

BackgroundThe aim of this study was to examine the effect of arm position on proximal humerus fracture configuration and to determine whether cortical thinning would predispose to fracture propagation and more complex patterns of injury.MethodsA drop test rig was designed to simulate falls onto an outstretched arm (‘parachute reflex’). Thirty-one cadaveric specimens underwent computer tomography scanning and cortical thicknesses mapping. Humeri were fractured according to one of the two injury mechanisms and filmed using a high-speed camera. Anatomical descriptions of the injuries were made. Areas of thinning were measured and correlated with zones of fracture propagation.ResultsDirect impact simulation resulted in undisplaced humeral head split fractures in 53% of cases, with the remainder involving disruption to the articular margin and valgus impaction. Alternatively, the ‘parachute reflex’ predominantly produced shield-type injuries (38%) and displaced greater tuberosity fractures (19%). A strong correlation was demonstrated between cortical thinning and the occurrence of fracture (odds ratio = 7.766, 95% confidence interval from 4.760 to 12.669, p<0.0001).ConclusionThis study has shown that arm position during a fall influences fracture configuration of the proximal humerus. Correlating fracture pattern and mechanism of injury will allow more appropriate fracture reduction techniques to be devised.

Journal article

Koizia LJ, Wilson F, Reilly P, Fertleman MBet al., 2019, Delirium after emergency hip surgery – common and serious, but rarely consented for, World Journal of Orthopedics, Vol: 10, Pages: 228-234, ISSN: 2218-5836

A quarter of patients admitted with a proximal femoral fracture suffer from an acute episode of delirium during their hospital stay. Yet it is often unrecognised, poorly managed, and rarely discussed by doctors. Delirium is important not only to the affected individuals and their families, but also socioeconomically to the broader community. Delirium increases mortality and morbidity, leads to lasting cognitive and functional decline, and increases both length of stay and dependence on discharge. Delirium should be routinely and openly discussed by all members of the clinical team, including surgeons when gaining consent. Failing to do so may expose surgeons to claims of negligence. Here we present a concise review of the literature and discuss the epidemiology, causative factors, potential consequences and preventative strategies in the perioperative period.

Journal article

Sugand K, Malik HH, Newman S, Spicer D, Reilly P, Gupte CMet al., 2019, Does using anatomical models improve patient satisfaction in orthopaedic consenting? Single-blinded randomised controlled trial, SURGEON-JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL COLLEGES OF SURGEONS OF EDINBURGH AND IRELAND, Vol: 17, Pages: 146-155, ISSN: 1479-666X

Journal article

Sabharwal S, Archer S, Cadoux-Hudson D, Griffiths D, Gupte CM, Reilly Pet al., 2019, Exploring elderly patients' experiences of recovery following complex proximal humerus fracture: A qualitative study., J Health Psychol, Pages: 1359105319850883-1359105319850883

This study explores the experiences and perceptions of recovery in elderly patients who had sustained a proximal humerus fracture. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 patients over the age of 65. Thematic analysis identified aspects of care that impacted upon patient experience and quality of life. Seven main patient-reported themes were identified, including pain, sleep, shoulder function, emotional state, social support, relationship with their professional and experience of healthcare institution. These themes offer insight into the experiences of adults receiving care for proximal humerus fracture and highlight that existing quantitative measures of quality of life do not measure domains that are important to patients.

Journal article

Thompson SM, Prinold JAI, Hill AM, Reilly P, Emery RJH, Bull AMJet al., 2019, The influence of full-thickness supraspinatus tears on abduction moments: the importance of the central tendon, Shoulder and Elbow, Vol: 11, Pages: 19-25, ISSN: 1758-5740

Background: Detachment of the central tendon of the supraspinatus from its insertion is considered to be crucial to functional deficit. The aim of the present study was to assess the function of the supraspinatus in terms of abduction moments by introducing different tear configurations to assess the functional effect of the central tendon insertion. Methods: Ten fresh frozen shoulders from five cadavers were prepared for testing. A testing protocol was established to measure the abduction moment of the supraspinatus under physiological loading tailored to the anthropometrics of each specimen. Four conditions were tested: intact supraspinatus; complete detachment of portion of the supraspinatus tendon anterior to the main central tendon; detachment of the main central tendon; and detachment of the region of the supraspinatus posterior to the main central tendon. Results: There was a significant and large reduction in abduction moment when the central tendon was sectioned (p < 0.05). A smaller reduction in abduction moment was found when the regions anterior and posterior to the main central tendon were sectioned (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The central tendon is vital in the role of functional arm abduction through force transmission through the intact rotator cuff. Reinsertion of the central tendon in the correct anatomical location is desirable to optimize functional outcome of surgery.

Journal article

Klemt C, Nolte D, Ding Z, Rane L, Quest RA, Finnegan ME, Walker M, Reilly P, Bull Aet al., 2019, Anthropometric scaling of anatomical datasets for subject-specific musculoskeletal modelling of the shoulder, Annals of Biomedical Engineering, Vol: 47, Pages: 924-936, ISSN: 0090-6964

Linear scaling of generic shoulder models leads to substantial errors in model predictions. Customisation of shoulder modelling through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) improves modelling outcomes, but model development is time and technology intensive. This study aims to validate 10 MRI-based shoulder models, identify the best combinations of anthropometric parameters for model scaling, and quantify the improvement in model predictions of glenohumeral loading through anthropometric scaling from this anatomical atlas. The shoulder anatomy was modelled using a validated musculoskeletal model (UKNSM). Ten subject-specific models were developed through manual digitisation of model parameters from high-resolution MRI. Kinematic data of 16 functional daily activities were collected using a 10-camera optical motion capture system. Subject-specific model predictions were validated with measured muscle activations. The MRI-based shoulder models show good agreement with measured muscle activations. A tenfold cross-validation using the validated personalised shoulder models demonstrates that linear scaling of anthropometric datasets with the most similar ratio of body height to shoulder width and from the same gender (p < 0.04) yields best modelling outcomes in glenohumeral loading. The improvement in model reliability is significant (p < 0.02) when compared to the linearly scaled-generic UKNSM. This study may facilitate the clinical application of musculoskeletal shoulder modelling to aid surgical decision-making.

Journal article

Majed A, Thangarajah T, Southgate D, Reilly P, Bull A, Emery Ret al., 2019, Cortical thickness analysis of the proximal humerus., Shoulder Elbow, Vol: 11, Pages: 87-93, ISSN: 1758-5732

Background: Structural changes within the proximal humerus influence the mechanical properties of the entire bone and predispose to low-energy fractures with complex patterns. The aim of the present study was to measure the cortical thickness in different regions of the proximal humerus. Methods: Thirty-seven proximal humeri were analyzed using novel engineering software to determine cortical thickness in 10 distinct anatomical zones. Results: The cortical thickness values ranged from 0.33 mm to 3.5 mm. Fifteen specimens demonstrated a consistent pattern of progressive cortical thinning that increased between the bicipital groove (thickest), the lesser tuberosity and the greater tuberosity (thinnest). Fifteen humeri were characterized by a progressive increase in cortical thickness between the greater tuberosity (thinnest), the bicipital groove and lesser tuberosity (thickest). The diaphysis exhibited the thickest cortical zone in 27 specimens, whereas the articular surface possessed the thinnest cortex in 18 cases. Conclusions: In conclusion, this is the first study to comprehensively assess cortical thickness of the humeral head. Our findings suggest that proximal humeral fractures occur along lines of cortical thinning and are displaced by the hard glenoid bone. The identification of specific areas of thick cortices may improve pre-operative planning and optimize fracture fixation.

Journal article

Klemt C, Toderita D, Nolte D, Di Federico E, Reilly P, Bull AMJet al., 2019, The critical size of a defect in the glenoid causing anterior instability of the shoulder after a Bankart repair, under physiological joint loading, Bone and Joint Journal, Vol: 101-B, Pages: 68-74, ISSN: 2049-4394

AIMS: Patients with recurrent anterior dislocation of the shoulder commonly have an anterior osseous defect of the glenoid. Once the defect reaches a critical size, stability may be restored by bone grafting. The critical size of this defect under non-physiological loading conditions has previously been identified as 20% of the length of the glenoid. As the stability of the shoulder is load-dependent, with higher joint forces leading to a loss of stability, the aim of this study was to determine the critical size of an osseous defect that leads to further anterior instability of the shoulder under physiological loading despite a Bankart repair. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two finite element (FE) models were used to determine the risk of dislocation of the shoulder during 30 activities of daily living (ADLs) for the intact glenoid and after creating anterior osseous defects of increasing magnitudes. A Bankart repair was simulated for each size of defect, and the shoulder was tested under loading conditions that replicate in vivo forces during these ADLs. The critical size of a defect was defined as the smallest osseous defect that leads to dislocation. RESULTS: The FE models showed a high risk of dislocation during ADLs after a Bankart repair for anterior defects corresponding to 16% of the length of the glenoid. CONCLUSION: This computational study suggests that bone grafting should be undertaken for an anterior osseous defect in the glenoid of more than 16% of its length rather than a solely soft-tissue procedure, in order to optimize stability by restoring the concavity of the glenoid.

Journal article

Villatte G, Spurr S, Broden C, Martins A, Emery R, Reilly Pet al., 2018, The Eden-Hybbinette procedure is one hundred years old! A historical view of the concept and its evolutions, INTERNATIONAL ORTHOPAEDICS, Vol: 42, Pages: 2491-2495, ISSN: 0341-2695

Journal article

Villatte G, Muller A-S, Pereira B, Mulliez A, Reilly P, Emery Ret al., 2018, Use of Patient-Specific Instrumentation (PSI) for glenoid component positioning in shoulder arthroplasty. A systematic review and meta-analysis, PLOS ONE, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1932-6203

Journal article

Majed A, Thangarajah T, Krekel P, Nelissen R, Reilly P, Bull A, Emery Ret al., 2018, Simulation of bone-determined range of motion in proximal humeral fractures., Shoulder Elbow, Vol: 10, Pages: 186-191, ISSN: 1758-5732

Background: Predicting the outcome following fractures of the proximal humerus is an important consideration when effectively counselling patients and planning treatment. The purpose of the present study was to analyze different proximal humeral fracture configurations, using a computerized simulation model, aiming to predict the range of motion (ROM). Methods: The computer tomography scans of 79 proximal humeral fractures were analyzed using a customized software system that simulated the range of movement at the glenohumeral joint. Four fracture patterns were investigated: (1) head split fractures; (2) greater tuberosity fractures; (3) lesser tuberosity fractures; and (4) combined tuberosity fractures. Results: Intra-articular fractures had the smallest mean (SE) range of abduction and forward flexion [34.3° (6.6°) and 60.7° (12.4°)]. Isolated displaced greater tuberosity resulted in limited abduction but not forward flexion [75.0° (5.9°) and 118.2° (4.9°)]. Isolated lesser tuberosity fractures displayed a ROM comparable to that of healthy subjects [89.3° (3.3°) and 122.6° (3.4°) versus 102.3° (2.8°) and 96.2° (3.8°)]. The reduced head inclination angle was a relatively strong predictor of a limited range of abduction for all fracture types. Conclusions: The present study describes a novel simulation system used to quantify the bone-determined ROM in proximal humeral fractures and may be a useful adjunct in the diagnostic armamentarium for proximal humeral fractures.

Journal article

Kwasnicki RM, Cross GW, Geoghegan L, Zhang Z, Reilly P, Darzi A, Yang GZ, Emery Ret al., 2018, A lightweight sensing platform for monitoring sleep quality and posture: a simulated validation study, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL RESEARCH, Vol: 23, ISSN: 0949-2321

BackgroundThe prevalence of self-reported shoulder pain in the UK has been estimated at 16%. This has been linked with significant sleep disturbance. It is possible that this relationship is bidirectional, with both symptoms capable of causing the other. Within the field of sleep monitoring, there is a requirement for a mobile and unobtrusive device capable of monitoring sleep posture and quality. This study investigates the feasibility of a wearable sleep system (WSS) in accurately detecting sleeping posture and physical activity.MethodsSixteen healthy subjects were recruited and fitted with three wearable inertial sensors on the trunk and forearms. Ten participants were entered into a ‘Posture’ protocol; assuming a series of common sleeping postures in a simulated bedroom. Five participants completed an ‘Activity’ protocol, in which a triphasic simulated sleep was performed including awake, sleep and REM phases. A combined sleep posture and activity protocol was then conducted as a ‘Proof of Concept’ model. Data were used to train a posture detection algorithm, and added to activity to predict sleep phase. Classification accuracy of the WSS was measured during the simulations.ResultsThe WSS was found to have an overall accuracy of 99.5% in detection of four major postures, and 92.5% in the detection of eight minor postures. Prediction of sleep phase using activity measurements was accurate in 97.3% of the simulations. The ability of the system to accurately detect both posture and activity enabled the design of a conceptual layout for a user-friendly tablet application.ConclusionsThe study presents a pervasive wearable sensor platform, which can accurately detect both sleeping posture and activity in non-specialised environments. The extent and accuracy of sleep metrics available advances the current state-of-the-art technology. This has potential diagnostic implications in musculoskeletal pathology and with the addition of aler

Journal article

Klemt C, Prinold J, Morgans S, Smith SHL, Nolte D, Reilly P, Bull AMJet al., 2018, Analysis of shoulder compressive and shear forces during functional activities of daily life, Clinical Biomechanics, Vol: 54, Pages: 34-41, ISSN: 0268-0033

Background:Knowledge of forces acting through the glenohumeral joint during activities of daily living is a prerequisite for improving implant design and aiding rehabilitation planning. Existing data are limited by the number of activities performed and, in some cases, the lack of representation of the glenohumeral loading direction, although high shear force components may cause joint dislocation or implant loosening. This study aims to analyse shoulder compression and shear force components during essential functional activities of daily living.Methods:This is a combined modelling and experimental study. Motion data and external forces measured from 25 participants for 26 activities of daily living serve as input into an upper limb musculoskeletal model that quantifies glenohumeral loading.Findings:The shoulder contact force exceeds 50% of the body weight in 10/26 activities of daily living with a maximum contact force of 164% of the body weight (SD 69%) for a sit to stand task. The ratio of glenohumeral shear force component to compression force component exceeds 0.5 in 8/26 functional activities, with maximum ratios for reaching across the body (1.09; SD 0.41) and pick and place an everyday object (0.88; SD 0.36).Interpretation:This study demonstrates substantial loads through the glenohumeral joint during activities of daily living. The ratios of glenohumeral shear force component to compression force component are considerable when high loads act at long lever arms and at high angles of arm elevation. These glenohumeral ratios represent a key component of loading that should be considered when designing implants, surgical procedures, or rehabilitation protocols.

Journal article

Klemt C, Nolte D, Grigoriadis G, Di Federico E, Reilly P, Bull AMJet al., 2017, The contribution of the glenoid labrum to glenohumeral stability under physiological joint loading using finite element analysis, Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, Vol: 20, Pages: 1613-1622, ISSN: 1025-5842

Journal article

Amirthanayagam TD, Amis AA, Reilly P, Emery RJHet al., 2017, Rotator cuff-sparing approaches for glenohumeral joint access: an anatomic feasibility study, Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, Vol: 26, Pages: 512-520, ISSN: 1058-2746

BackgroundThe deltopectoral approach for total shoulder arthroplasty can result in subscapularis dysfunction. In addition, glenoid wear is more prevalent posteriorly, a region difficult to access with this approach. We propose a posterior approach for access in total shoulder arthroplasty that uses the internervous interval between the infraspinatus and teres minor. This study compares this internervous posterior approach with other rotator cuff–sparing techniques, namely, the subscapularis-splitting and rotator interval approaches.MethodsThe 3 approaches were performed on 12 fresh frozen cadavers. The degree of circumferential access to the glenohumeral joint, the force exerted on the rotator cuff, the proximity of neurovascular structures, and the depth of the incisions were measured, and digital photographs of the approaches in different arm positions were analyzed.ResultsThe posterior approach permits direct linear access to 60% of the humeral and 59% of the glenoid joint circumference compared with 39% and 42% for the subscapularis-splitting approach and 37% and 28% for the rotator interval approach. The mean force of retraction on the rotator cuff was 2.76 (standard deviation [SD], 1.10) N with the posterior approach, 2.72 (SD, 1.22) N with the rotator interval, and 4.75 (SD, 2.56) N with the subscapularis-splitting approach. From the digital photographs and depth measurements, the estimated volumetric access available for instrumentation during surgery was comparable for the 3 approaches.ConclusionThe internervous posterior approach provides greater access to the shoulder joint while minimizing damage to the rotator cuff.

Journal article

Hurst S, 2017, Electronic patient centred outcomes in orthopaedic surgery

This thesis primarily reports on the national pilot of an electronic patient reported outcomes (ePRO) system for orthopaedic patients. Also reported on within the pilot is a new electronic patient centred outcome measure (ePCO) with focus on activity participation, and aspiration. At the time of publishing the pilot remains the largest of its kind within the speciality, and the first of its kind with respect to ePCOs. A background with historical perspective is provided for the use of outcomes in orthopaedic surgery, including a discussion surrounding current practices, and controversies. The engineering principles behind the construction of an ePCO/PCO system are also explained, along with the current regulatory guidelines governing them in Europe and the United States. The development and piloting of three individual software platforms are explained, evaluated, and discussed. This includes in the appendix a discussion on their wider context within industry, and within an increasingly technological able society. The final platform (Software C) is piloted in a large cohort both nationally, and internationally. Results from the pilot are presented and discussed in terms of the software usability, the ability for PROs to be successfully digitalised to ePROs within the software, and patient’s opinion of the technology. Objective outcome data obtained from a instrumented treadmill is used as an adjunct to the analysis of the impact of ePROs collected during the pilot, and also helping to address the validation parameters for the ePCO. Finally, the PCO is reported on. This includes the principles providing its conception, and foundation. It is tested using parameters for outcome score validation in both an initial paper-based pilot study, and in a national pilot using a modified digitalised format of the PCO

Thesis dissertation

Blackwood C, Dixon J, Reilly P, Emery RJet al., 2017, Legal and psychological considerations for obtaining informed consent for reverse total shoulder arthroplasty., Shoulder Elbow, Vol: 9, Pages: 15-22, ISSN: 1758-5732

This paper seeks to outline recent legal developments and requirements pertinent to obtaining informed consent. We argue that this is of particular relevance to patients considering a reverse total shoulder arthroplasty, due to the high complication rate associated with this procedure. By examining the cognitive processes involved in decision-making, and other clinician-related factors such as delivery of information, gender bias and conflict of interest, we explore some of the barriers that can undermine the processes of shared decision-making and obtaining genuine informed consent. We argue that these issues highlight the importance for surgeons in understanding the cognitive processes and other influential factors involved in patients' comprehension and decision-making. We recommend, based on strong evidence, that decision aids could prove useful in overcoming such challenges and could provide one way of mitigating the ethical, professional and legal consequences of failing to obtain proper informed consent. They are not widely used in orthopaedics at present, although it would be in the interests of both the surgeon and patient for such measures to be explored.

Journal article

Sabharwal S, Patel NK, Griffiths D, Athanasiou T, Gupte CM, Reilly Pet al., 2016, Trials based on specific fracture configuration and surgical procedures likely to be more relevant for decision making in the management of fractures of the proximal humerus, Bone & Joint Research, Vol: 5, Pages: 470-480, ISSN: 2046-3758

Objectives The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing surgical and non-surgical management of fractures of the proximal humerus, and to determine whether further analyses based on complexity of fracture, or the type of surgical intervention, produced disparate findings on patient outcomes.Methods A systematic review of the literature was performed identifying all RCTs that compared surgical and non-surgical management of fractures of the proximal humerus. Meta-analysis of clinical outcomes was performed where possible. Subgroup analysis based on the type of fracture, and a sensitivity analysis based on the type of surgical intervention, were also performed.Results Seven studies including 528 patients were included. The overall meta-analysis found that there was no difference in clinical outcomes. However, subgroup and sensitivity analyses found improved patient outcomes for more complex fractures managed surgically. Four-part fractures that underwent surgery had improved long-term health utility scores (mean difference, MD 95% CI 0.04 to 0.28; p = 0.007). They were also less likely to result in osteoarthritis, osteonecrosis and non/malunion (OR 7.38, 95% CI 1.97 to 27.60; p = 0.003). Another significant subgroup finding was that secondary surgery was more common for patients that underwent internal fixation compared with conservative management within the studies with predominantly three-part fractures (OR 0.15, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.63; p = 0.009).Conclusion This meta-analysis has demonstrated that differences in the type of fracture and surgical treatment result in outcomes that are distinct from those generated from analysis of all types of fracture and surgical treatments grouped together. This has important implications for clinical decision making and should highlight the need for future trials to adopt more specific inclusion criteria.

Journal article

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