Imperial College London


Faculty of MedicineNational Heart & Lung Institute

Visiting Professor







c/o Prof Kim FoxGuy Scadding BuildingRoyal Brompton Campus






BibTex format

author = {Chiastra, C and Iannaccone, F and Grundeken, MJ and Gijsen, FJH and Segers, P and De, Beule M and Serruys, PW and Wykrzykowska, JJ and van, der Steen AFW and Wentzel, JJ},
doi = {10.1186/s12938-016-0211-0},
journal = {Biomedical Engineering Online},
title = {Coronary fractional flow reserve measurements of a stenosed side branch: a computational study investigating the influence of the bifurcation angle},
url = {},
volume = {15},
year = {2016}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - BackgroundCoronary hemodynamics and physiology specific for bifurcation lesions was not well understood. To investigate the influence of the bifurcation angle on the intracoronary hemodynamics of side branch (SB) lesions computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed.MethodsA parametric model representing a left anterior descending—first diagonal coronary bifurcation lesion was created according to the literature. Diameters obeyed fractal branching laws. Proximal and distal main branch (DMB) stenoses were both set at 60 %. We varied the distal bifurcation angles (40°, 55°, and 70°), the flow splits to the DMB and SB (55 %:45 %, 65 %:35 %, and 75 %:25 %), and the SB stenoses (40, 60, and 80 %), resulting in 27 simulations. Fractional flow reserve, defined as the ratio between the mean distal stenosis and mean aortic pressure during maximal hyperemia, was calculated for the DMB and SB (FFRSB) for all simulations.ResultsThe largest differences in FFRSB comparing the largest and smallest bifurcation angles were 0.02 (in cases with 40 % SB stenosis, irrespective of the assumed flow split) and 0.05 (in cases with 60 % SB stenosis, flow split 55 %:45 %). When the SB stenosis was 80 %, the difference in FFRSB between the largest and smallest bifurcation angle was 0.33 (flow split 55 %:45 %). By describing the ΔPSB−QSB relationship using a quadratic curve for cases with 80 % SB stenosis, we found that the curve was steeper (i.e. higher flow resistance) when bifurcation angle increases (ΔP = 0.451Q + 0.010Q 2 and ΔP = 0.687Q + 0.017Q 2 for 40° and 70° bifurcation angle, respectively). Our analyses revealed complex hemodynamics in all cases with evident counter-rotating helical flow structures. Larger bifurcation angles resulted in more pronounced helical flow structures (i.e. higher helicity intensity), when 60 or 80 % SB stenoses were present. A good correlation (R2 = 0.80) between the SB pressure drop and helici
AU - Chiastra,C
AU - Iannaccone,F
AU - Grundeken,MJ
AU - Gijsen,FJH
AU - Segers,P
AU - De,Beule M
AU - Serruys,PW
AU - Wykrzykowska,JJ
AU - van,der Steen AFW
AU - Wentzel,JJ
DO - 10.1186/s12938-016-0211-0
PY - 2016///
SN - 1475-925X
TI - Coronary fractional flow reserve measurements of a stenosed side branch: a computational study investigating the influence of the bifurcation angle
T2 - Biomedical Engineering Online
UR -
UR -
VL - 15
ER -