41 results found
Jeong S, Rana A, Kim J-H, et al., 2023, New ternary blend strategy based on a vertically self-assembled passivation layer enabling efficient and photostable inverted organic solar cells, Advanced Science, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 2198-3844
Herein, a new ternary strategy to fabricate efficient and photostable inverted organic photovoltaics (OPVs) is introduced by combining a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) blend and a fullerene self-assembled monolayer (C60 -SAM). Time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry - analysis reveals that the ternary blend is vertically phase separated with the C60 -SAM at the bottom and the BHJ on top. The average power conversion efficiency - of OPVs based on the ternary system is improved from 14.9% to 15.6% by C60 -SAM addition, mostly due to increased current density (Jsc ) and fill factor -. It is found that the C60 -SAM encourages the BHJ to make more face-on molecular orientation because grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering - data show an increased face-on/edge-on orientation ratio in the ternary blend. Light-intensity dependent Jsc data and charge carrier lifetime analysis indicate suppressed bimolecular recombination and a longer charge carrier lifetime in the ternary system, resulting in the enhancement of OPV performance. Moreover, it is demonstrated that device photostability in the ternary blend is enhanced due to the vertically self-assembled C60 -SAM that successfully passivates the ZnO surface and protects BHJ layer from the UV-induced photocatalytic reactions of the ZnO. These results suggest a new perspective to improve both performance and photostability of OPVs using a facial ternary method.
Maimaris M, Pettipher AJ, Azzouzi M, et al., 2022, Sub-10-fs observation of bound exciton formation in organic optoelectronic devices, Nature Communications, Vol: 13, ISSN: 2041-1723
Fundamental mechanisms underlying exciton formation in organic semiconductors are complex and elusive as it occurs on ultrashort sub-100-fs timescales. Some fundamental aspects of this process, such as the evolution of exciton binding energy, have not been resolved in time experimentally. Here, we apply a combination of sub-10-fs Pump-Push-Photocurrent, Pump-Push-Photoluminescence, and Pump-Probe spectroscopies to polyfluorene devices to track the ultrafast formation of excitons. While Pump-Probe is sensitive to the total concentration of excited states, Pump-Push-Photocurrent and Pump-Push-Photoluminescence are sensitive to bound states only, providing access to exciton binding dynamics. We find that excitons created by near-absorption-edge photons are intrinsically bound states, or become such within 10 fs after excitation. Meanwhile, excitons with a modest >0.3 eV excess energy can dissociate spontaneously within 50 fs before acquiring bound character. These conclusions are supported by excited-state molecular dynamics simulations and a global kinetic model which quantitatively reproduce experimental data.
Maimaris M, Pettipher AJ, Azzouzi M, et al., 2022, Sub-10fs Photocurrent and Photoluminescence Action Spectroscopies of Organic Optoelectronic Devices Reveals Ultrafast Formation of Bound Excitonic States
We apply ultrafast pump-push-photocurrent and pump-push-photoluminescence spectroscopies to polyfluorene organic diode to track in time the bound exciton formation. ‘Cold’-excitons become bound within 10-fs while ‘hot’-excitons can dissociate spontaneously within 50-fs before acquiring bound character.
Lin C-T, Xu W, Macdonald T, et al., 2021, Correlating active layer structure and composition with device performance and lifetime in amino acid modified perovskite solar cells, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, Vol: 13, Pages: 43505-43515, ISSN: 1944-8244
Additive engineering is emerging as a powerful strategy to further enhance the performance of perovskite solarcells (PSCs), with the incorporation of bulky cations and amino acid (AA) derivatives being shown as a promisingstrategy for enhanced device stability. However, the incorporation of such additives typically results inphotocurrent losses owing to their saturated carbon backbones hindering charge transport and collection. Herewe investigate the use of amino acids with varying carbon chain lengths as zwitterionic additives that enhancePSC device stability, in air and nitrogen, under illumination. We discover thatstability is insensitive to chain lengthhowever, as anticipated photocurrent drops as chain length increases. Using glycine as an additive results in animprovement in open circuit voltage from 1.10 to 1.14 V and a resulting power conversion efficiency of 20.2%(20.1% stabilized). Using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry we confirm that the AAs reside at thesurfaces and interfaces of our perovskite films and propose the mechanisms by which stability is enhanced. Wehighlight this with glycine as an additive, whereby an 8-fold increase in device lifetime in ambient air at 1-sunillumination is recorded. Short circuit photoluminescence quenching of complete devices are reported and revealthat the loss in photocurrent density observed with longer carbon chain AAs results from inefficient chargeextraction from the perovskite absorber layer. These combined results demonstrate new fundamentalunderstandings in the photophysical processes of additive engineering using amino acids and provide asignificant step forward in improving the stability of high-performance PSCs.
Dong Y, Cha H, Bristow H, et al., 2021, Correlating charge-transfer state lifetimes with material ener-getics in polymer:non-fullerene acceptor organic solar cells, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol: 143, Pages: 7599-7603, ISSN: 0002-7863
Minimizing the energy offset between the lowest exciton and charge-transfer (CT) states is a widely employed strategy to suppress the energy loss (Eg/q – VOC) in polymer:non-fullerene acceptor (NFA) organic solar cells (OSCs). In this work, transient absorption spectroscopy is employed to determine CT state lifetimes in a series of low energy loss polymer:NFA blends. The CT state lifetime is observed to show an inverse energy gap law dependence and decreases as the energy loss is reduced. This behavior is assigned to increased mixing/hybridization between these CT states and shorter-lived singlet excitons of the lower gap component as the energy offset ΔECT-S1 is reduced. This study highlights how achieving longer exciton and CT state lifetimes has the potential for further enhancement of OSC efficiencies.
Maimaris M, Pettipher AJ, Walke DJ, et al., 2020, Tracking localised exciton formation in organic semiconductor material, Physical Chemistry of Semiconductor Materials and Interfaces IX, Publisher: SPIE
Wu J, Luke J, Lee HKH, et al., 2019, Tail state limited photocurrent collection of thick photoactive layers in organic solar cells, Nature Communications, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2041-1723
Weanalyseorganic solar cells with four differentphotoactive blends exhibiting differing dependencies ofshort-circuit current upon photoactive layer thickness.These blends and devices are analysedbytransient optoelectronic techniques ofcarrier kinetics and densities, airphotoemission spectroscopyof material energetics, Kelvin probe measurements of work function, Mott-Schottky analyses of apparent doping density and by device modelling. We concludethat,for the device series studied, the photocurrent losswith thick active layersis primarilyassociatedwith the accumulation of photo-generated charge carriers in intra-bandgap tail states.This charge accumulation screens the device internal electricalfield, preventing efficient charge collection. Purification of one studied donor polymer is observed to reduce tail statedistribution anddensity and increase the maximal photoactive thickness forefficient operation. Ourwork suggests that selectingorganic photoactive layerswith a narrow distribution of tail states isa keyrequirement for the fabrication of efficient, high photocurrent, thick organic solar cells.
Dimitrov SD, Azzouzi M, Wu J, et al., 2019, Spectroscopic investigation of the effect of microstructure and energetic offset on the nature of interfacial charge transfer states in polymer: fullerene blends, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol: 141, Pages: 4634-4643, ISSN: 0002-7863
Despite performance improvements of organic photovoltaics, the mechanism of photoinduced electron-hole separation at organic donor-acceptor interfaces remains poorly understood. Inconclusive experimental and theoretical results have produced contradictory models for electron-hole separation in which the role of interfacial charge-transfer (CT) states is unclear, with one model identifying them as limiting separation and another as readily dissociating. Here, polymer-fullerene blends with contrasting photocurrent properties and enthalpic offsets driving separation were studied. By modifying composition, film structures were varied from consisting of molecularly mixed polymer-fullerene domains to consisting of both molecularly mixed and fullerene domains. Transient absorption spectroscopy revealed that CT state dissociation generating separated electron-hole pairs is only efficient in the high energy offset blend with fullerene domains. In all other blends (with low offset or predominantly molecularly mixed domains), nanosecond geminate electron-hole recombination is observed revealing the importance of spatially localized electron-hole pairs (bound CT states) in the electron-hole dynamics. A two-dimensional lattice exciton model was used to simulate the excited state spectrum of a model system as a function of microstructure and energy offset. The results could reproduce the main features of experimental electroluminescence spectra indicating that electron-hole pairs become less bound and more spatially separated upon increasing energy offset and fullerene domain density. Differences between electroluminescence and photoluminescence spectra could be explained by CT photoluminescence being dominated by more-bound states, reflecting geminate recombination processes, while CT electroluminescence preferentially probes less-bound CT states that escape geminate recombination. These results suggest that apparently contradictory studies on electron-hole separation can be exp
Dong Y, Cha H, Zhang J, et al., 2019, The binding energy and dynamics of charge-transfer states in organic photovoltaics with low driving force for charge separation, Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol: 150, ISSN: 0021-9606
Recent progress in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) has been enabled by optimization of the energetic driving force for charge separation, and thus maximization of open-circuit voltage, using non-fullerene acceptor (NFA) materials. In spite of this, the carrier dynamics and relative energies of the key states controlling the photophysics of these systems are still under debate. Herein, we report an in-depth ultrafast spectroscopic study of a representative OPV system based on a polymer donor PffBT4T-2OD and a small-molecule NFA EH-IDTBR. Global analysis of the transient absorption data reveals efficient energy transfer between donor and acceptor molecules. The extracted kinetics suggest that slow (∼15 ps) generation of charge carriers is followed by significant geminate recombination. This contrasts with the "reference" PffBT4T-2OD:PC71BM system where bimolecular recombination dominates. Using temperature-dependent pump-push-photocurrent spectroscopy, we estimate the activation energy for the dissociation of bound charge-transfer states in PffBT4T-2OD:EH-IDTBR to be 100 ± 6 meV. We also observe an additional activation energy of 14 ± 7 meV, which we assign to the de-trapping of mobile carriers. This work provides a comprehensive picture of photophysics in a system representing new generation of OPV blends with a small driving force for charge separation.
Francas Forcada L, Burns E, Steier L, et al., 2018, Rational design of a neutral pH functional and stable organic photocathode., Chemical Communications, Vol: 2018, ISSN: 1359-7345
In this work we lay out design guidelines for catalytically more efficient organic photocathodes achieving stable hydrogen production in neutral pH. We propose an organic photocathode architecture employing a NiO hole selective layer, a PCDTBT:PCBM bulk heterojunction, a compact TiO2 electron selective contact and a RuO2 nanoparticle catalyst. The role of each layer is discussed in terms of durability and function. With this strategically designed organic photocathode we obtain stable photocurrent densities for over 5 h and discuss routes for further performance improvement.
Utzat H, Dimitroy SD, Wheeler S, et al., 2017, Charge-Separation in Intermixed Polymer:PC70BM Photovoltaic Blends: Correlating Structural and Photophysical Length Scales as a Function of Blend Composition, JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C, Vol: 121, Pages: 9790-9801, ISSN: 1932-7447
A key challenge in achieving control over photocurrent generation by bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells is understanding how the morphology of the active layer impacts charge separation and in particular the separation dynamics within molecularly intermixed donor–acceptor domains versus the dynamics between phase-segregated domains. This paper addresses this issue by studying blends and devices of the amorphous silicon–indacenodithiophene polymer SiIDT-DTBT and the acceptor PC70BM. By changing the blend composition, we modulate the size and density of the pure and intermixed domains on the nanometer length scale. Laser spectroscopic studies show that these changes in morphology correlate quantitatively with the changes in charge separation dynamics on the nanosecond time scale and with device photocurrent densities. At low fullerene compositions, where only a single, molecularly intermixed polymer–fullerene phase is observed, photoexcitation results in a ∼ 30% charge loss from geminate polaron pair recombination, which is further studied via light intensity experiments showing that the radius of the polaron pairs in the intermixed phase is 3–5 nm. At high fullerene compositions (≥67%), where the intermixed domains are 1–3 nm and the pure fullerene phases reach ∼4 nm, the geminate recombination is suppressed by the reduction of the intermixed phase, making the fullerene domains accessible for electron escape.
Casey A, Green JP, Shakya Tuladhar P, et al., 2017, Cyano substituted benzotriazole based polymers for use in organic solar cells, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol: 5, Pages: 6465-6470, ISSN: 2050-7496
A new synthetic route to the electron accepting di-cyano substituted benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole (BTz) monomer 2-(2-butyloctyl)-4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl)-2H-benzotriazole-5,6-dicarbonitrile (dTdCNBTz) is reported. The cyano substituents can be easily introduced to the BTz unit in one step via the nucleophilic aromatic substitution of the fluorine substituents of the fluorinated precursor 2-(2-butyloctyl)-4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl)-2H-benzotriazole-5,6-difluoro (dTdFBTz). Co-polymers were prepared with distannylated benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene (BDT) monomers containing either 2-ethylhexylthienyl (T-EH) side chains or 2-butyloctylthienyl (T-BO) side chains via Stille coupling to yield the novel medium band gap polymers P1 and P2 respectively. Whilst the organic photovoltaic (OPV) performance of P1 was limited by a lack of solubility, the improved solubility of P2 resulted in promising device efficiencies of up to 6.9% in blends with PC61BM, with high open circuit voltages of 0.95 V.
Collado Fregoso E, Deledalle F, Utzat H, et al., 2016, Photophysical study of DPPTT-T/PC70BM blends and solar devices as a function of fullerene loading: an insight into EQE limitations of DPP-based polymers, Advanced Functional Materials, Vol: 27, ISSN: 1616-3028
Diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based polymers have been consistently used for the fabrication of solar cell devices and transistors, due to the existence of intermolecular short contacts,resulting in high electron and hole mobilities. However, they also often show limited external quantum efficiencies (EQEs). In this contribution we analyze the limitations on EQE by a combined study of exciton dissociation efficiency, charge separation and recombination kinetics in thin films and solar devices of a DPP-based donor polymer, DPPTT-T(thieno[3,2-b]thiophene-diketopyrrolopyrrolecopolymer)blended with varying weight fractions of the fullerene acceptor PC70BM. From the correlations between photoluminescence quenching (PLQ), transient absorption studies and EQEmeasurements, we concludethat the main limitation of photon-to-charge conversion in DPPTT-T/PC70BM devices is poor exciton dissociation. This exciton quenching limit is related to the low affinity/miscibility of the materials, as confirmed by WAXDdiffraction and transmission electron microscopy data, but also to the relatively short DPPTT-T singlet exciton lifetime,possibly associated with highnon-radiative losses. A further strategy to improve EQE in this class of polymers without sacrificing the good extractionproperties in optimized blends is therefore to limit those non-radiative decay processes.
Casey A, Dimitrov SD, Shakya-Tuladhar P, et al., 2016, Effect of Systematically Tuning Conjugated Donor Polymer Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital Levels via Cyano Substitution on Organic Photovoltaic Device Performance, Chemistry of Materials, Vol: 28, Pages: 5110-5120, ISSN: 0897-4756
We report a systematic study into the effects of cyano substitution on the electron accepting ability of the common acceptor 4,7-bis(thiophen-2-yl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (DTBT). We describe the synthesis of DTBT monomers with either 0, 1, or 2 cyano groups on the BT unit and their corresponding copolymers with the electron rich donor dithienogermole (DTG). The presence of the cyano group is found to have a strong influence on the optoelectronic properties of the resulting donor–acceptor polymers, with the optical band gap red-shifting by approximately 0.15 eV per cyano substituent. We find that the polymer electron affinity is significantly increased by ∼0.25 eV upon addition of each cyano group, while the ionization potential is less strongly affected, increasing by less than 0.1 eV per cyano substituent. In organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices power conversion efficiencies (PCE) are almost doubled from around 3.5% for the unsubstituted BT polymer to over 6.5% for the monocyano substituted BT polymer. However, the PCE drops to less than 1% for the dicyano substituted BT polymer. These differences are mainly related to differences in the photocurrent, which varies by 1 order of magnitude between the best (1CN) and worst devices (2CN). The origin of this variation in the photocurrent was investigated by studying the charge generation properties of the photoactive polymer–fullerene blends using fluorescence and transient absorption spectroscopic techniques. These measurements revealed that the improved photocurrent of 1CN in comparison to 0CN was due to improved light harvesting properties while maintaining a high exciton dissociation yield. The addition of one cyano group to the BT unit optimized the position of the polymer LUMO level closer to that of the electron acceptor PC71BM, such that the polymer’s light harvesting properties were improved without sacrificing either the exciton dissociation yield or device VOC. We also identify that the dr
Deledalle F, Kirchartz T, Vezie MS, et al., 2015, Understanding the Effect of Unintentional Doping on Transport Optimization and Analysis in Efficient Organic Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells, PHYSICAL REVIEW X, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2160-3308
Dimitrov SD, Wheeler S, Niedzialek D, et al., 2015, Polaron pair mediated triplet generation in polymer/fullerene blends, Nature Communications, Vol: 6, ISSN: 2041-1723
Electron spin is a key consideration for the function of organic semiconductors in light-emitting diodes and solar cells, as well as spintronic applications relying on organic magnetoresistance. A mechanism for triplet excited state generation in such systems is by recombination of electron-hole pairs. However, the exact charge recombination mechanism, whether geminate or nongeminate and whether it involves spin-state mixing is not well understood. In this work, the dynamics of free charge separation competing with recombination to polymer triplet states is studied in two closely related polymer-fullerene blends with differing polymer fluorination and photovoltaic performance. Using time-resolved laser spectroscopic techniques and quantum chemical calculations, we show that lower charge separation in the fluorinated system is associated with the formation of bound electron-hole pairs, which undergo spin-state mixing on the nanosecond timescale and subsequent geminate recombination to triplet excitons. We find that these bound electron-hole pairs can be dissociated by electric fields.
Shoaee S, Deledalle F, Tuladhar PS, et al., 2015, A Comparison of Charge Separation Dynamics in Organic Blend Films Employing Fullerene and Perylene Diimide Electron Acceptors, JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY LETTERS, Vol: 6, Pages: 201-205, ISSN: 1948-7185
Fei Z, Ashraf RS, Han Y, et al., 2014, Diselenogermole as a novel donor monomer for low band gap polymers, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol: 3, Pages: 1986-1994, ISSN: 2050-7496
Gevorgyan SA, Corazza M, Madsen MV, et al., 2014, Interlaboratory indoor ageing of roll-to-roll and spin coated organic photovoltaic devices: Testing the ISOS tests, POLYMER DEGRADATION AND STABILITY, Vol: 109, Pages: 162-170, ISSN: 0141-3910
Law C, Miseikis L, Dimitrov S, et al., 2014, Performance and Stability of Lead Perovskite/TiO<sub>2</sub>, Polymer/PCBM, and Dye Sensitized Solar Cells at Light Intensities up to 70 Suns, ADVANCED MATERIALS, Vol: 26, Pages: 6268-6273, ISSN: 0935-9648
Deledalle F, Shakya Tuladhar P, Nelson J, et al., 2014, Understanding the Apparent Charge Density Dependence of Mobility and Lifetime in Organic Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol: 118, Pages: 8837-8842, ISSN: 1932-7447
Gevorgyan SA, Zubillaga O, Maria Vega de Seoane J, et al., 2014, Round robin performance testing of organic photovoltaic devices, RENEWABLE ENERGY, Vol: 63, Pages: 376-387, ISSN: 0960-1481
Huang Z, Fregoso EC, Dimitrov S, et al., 2014, Optimisation of diketopyrrolopyrrole:fullerene solar cell performance through control of polymer molecular weight and thermal annealing, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY A, Vol: 2, Pages: 19282-19289, ISSN: 2050-7488
Planells M, Nikolka M, Hurhangee M, et al., 2014, The effect of thiadiazole out-backbone displacement in indacenodithiophene semiconductor polymers, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY C, Vol: 2, Pages: 8789-8795, ISSN: 2050-7526
Bronstein H, Hurhangee M, Fregoso EC, et al., 2013, Isostructural, Deeper Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital Analogues of Poly(3-hexylthiophene) for High-Open Circuit Voltage Organic Solar Cells, CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS, Vol: 25, Pages: 4239-4249, ISSN: 0897-4756
Kirchartz T, Deledalle F, Tuladhar PS, et al., 2013, On the Differences between Dark and Light Ideality Factor in Polymer:Fullerene Solar Cells, JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY LETTERS, Vol: 4, Pages: 2371-2376, ISSN: 1948-7185
Shoaee S, Subramaniyan S, Xin H, et al., 2013, Charge Photogeneration for a Series of Thiazolo-Thiazole Donor Polymers Blended with the Fullerene Electron Acceptors PCBM and ICBA, ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Vol: 23, Pages: 3286-3298, ISSN: 1616-301X
Bronstein H, Collado-Fregoso E, Hadipour A, et al., 2013, Thieno [3, 2-b] thiophene-diketopyrrolopyrrole Containing Polymers for Inverted Solar Cells Devices with High Short Circuit Currents, Advanced Functional Materials
Schroeder BC, Ashraf RS, Thomas S, et al., 2012, Synthesis of novel thieno[3,2-b]thienobis(silolothiophene) based low bandgap polymers for organic photovoltaics., Chem Commun (Camb), Vol: 48, Pages: 7699-7701, ISSN: 1364-548X
Thieno[3,2-b]thienobis(silolothiophene), a new electron rich hexacyclic monomer has been synthesized and incorporated into three novel donor-acceptor low-bandgap polymers. By carefully choosing the acceptor co-monomer, the energy levels of the polymers could be modulated and high power conversion efficiencies of 5.52% were reached in OPV devices.
Schroeder BC, Bronstein HA, Ashraf RS, et al., 2012, Electronic structure tuning of new fused thieno[3,2-b]thieno bisthiophene based polymers via alkyl chain and Group IV heteroatom modulation, SPIE Optics & Photonics
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