600 results found
Tyrer P, Tyrer H, Guo B, 2016, The general neurotic syndrome: a re-evaluation, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, ISSN: 1423-0348
Tyrer P, Crawford M, Mulder R, et al., 2016, THE ADVANTAGES OF A SIMPLIFIED CLASSIFICATION OF PERSONALITY DISORDER IN INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASES-11 REVISION, AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY, Vol: 50, Pages: 5-5, ISSN: 0004-8674
Tyrer PJ, Wang D, Tyrer H, et al., 2016, Dimensions of dependence and their influence on the outcome of cognitive behaviour therapy for health anxiety: randomised controlled trial, Personality and Mental Health, Vol: 10, Pages: 95-105, ISSN: 1932-863X
Background: The personality trait of dependence is somewhat difference from many others in that it is often regarded as adaptive and, when maladaptive, is of less pathological significance than many other traits. There is also some evidence that it may be a positive trait in health seeking behaviour. We therefore examined its impact in a large randomised controlled trial of psychological treatment for health anxiety. Aims: To test whether dependent personality traits were positive or negative in determining the outcome of an adapted form of cognitive behaviour therapy for health anxiety (CBT-HA) over their otv ce erh the hypotheses that personality dysfunction recorded using the new ICD-11 diagnostic system had a negative influence on the outcomes of treatment with cognitive behaviour therapy for health anxiety over 2 years and that personality dysfunction would be associated with increased cost. Method: Personality dysfunction was assessed at baseline in a randomised controlled trial of 444 patients from medical clinics with pathological health anxiety treated with a modified form of cognitive behaviour therapy for health anxiety (CBT-HA) or standard treatment in the medical clinics, with assessment on four occasions over 2 years. Personality dysfunction was assessed at baseline using a procedure that led to five ICD-11 proposed groups (0 = no personality dysfunction, 1 = personality difficulty, 2 = mild personality disorder, 3 = moderate personality disorder, 4 = severe personality disorder). The statistical analysis used a mixed model with the primary outcome as change in health anxiety scores after one year. Total costs over follow-up were calculated from service use and hospital data and compared by personality group. Results: In total, 381 patients (86%) had some personality dysfunction with 184 (41%) satisfying the ICD criteria for personality disorder. Those with no personality dysfunction showed no difference in health anxiety response to CBT compared with
Kim Y-R, Tyrer P, Lee H-S, et al., 2016, Schedule for personality assessment from notes and documents (SPAN-DOC): Preliminary validation, links to the ICD-11 classification of personality disorder, and use in eating disorders, Personality and Mental Health, Vol: 10, Pages: 106-117, ISSN: 1932-8621
Background: The underlying core of personality is insufficiently assessed by any single instrument. This has led to the development of instruments adapted for written records in the assessment of personality disorder.Aims: To test the construct validity and inter-rater reliability of a new personality assessment method.Method: This study (four parts) assessed the construct validity of the Schedule for Personality Assessment from Notes and Documents (SPAN-DOC), a dimensional assessment from clinical records. We examined inter-rater reliability using case vignettes (Part 1) and convergent validity in three ways: by comparison with NEO Five-Factor Inventory in 130 Korean patients (Part 2), with agreed ICD-11 personality severity levels in two populations (Part 3) and determining its use in assessing the personality status in 90 British patients with eating disorders (Part 4).Results: Internal consistency (alpha = .90) and inter-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥ .88) were satisfactory. Each factor in the five-factor model of personality was correlated with conceptually valid SPAN-DOC variables. The SPAN-DOC domain traits in those with eating disorders were categorized into 3 clusters: self-aggrandisement, emotionally unstable, and anxious/dependent.Conclusions: This study provides preliminary support for the usefulness of SPAN-DOC in the assessment of personality disorder.
Olajide K, Tyrer P, Singh SP, et al., 2016, Likelihood and predictors of detention in patients with personality disorder compared with other mental disorders: A retrospective, quantitative study of Mental Health Act assessments., Personality and Mental Health, Vol: 10, Pages: 191-204, ISSN: 1932-863X
BACKGROUND: The UK guidelines on the treatment of personality disorder recommend avoiding compulsory treatment except in extreme situations. Little is known about how often patients with personality disorder are detained or how this compares with the treatment of other mental disorders. OBJECTIVES: Our aim is to test the hypothesis that people with personality disorder are infrequently detained under the Mental Health Act (MHA) and that risk factors associated with detention are the same as those for people with other mental disorders. METHOD: We used a retrospective, quantitative study of MHA assessments. RESULTS: Of the 2 087 assessments undertaken, 204 (9.8%) patients had a diagnosis of personality disorder; 40.7% of assessments in the personality disorder group resulted in detention, as did 69.7% of patients with other mental disorders. A higher proportion of people with personality disorder received no intervention following assessment compared with those with other mental disorders (20.6% vs. 4.7%, p < 0.001). Study centre and a history of admission were risk factors for detention in both groups. Risk was a predictor of detention in those with other mental disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Detention rates in patients with personality disorder are lower than those for other disorders but are still substantial. Risk factors for detention in patients with personality disorder differ from those with other mental disorders. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Tyrer PJ, Nagar J, Evans R, et al., 2016, The Problem Behaviour Check List: a short scale to assess challengingbehaviours, BJPsych Open, Vol: 2, Pages: 45-49, ISSN: 2056-4724
Background: Challenging behaviour, especially in intellectual disability, covers a wide range that is in need of furtherevaluation.Aim: To develop a short but comprehensive instrument for all aspects of challenging behaviour. Method: In the first part of a two-stage enquiry, a 28 item scale was constructed to examine the components ofchallenging behaviour. Following a simple factor analysis this was developed further to create a new short scale, theProblem Behaviour Check List (PBCL). The scale was subsequently used in a randomised controlled trial and testedfor inter-rater reliability. Scores were also compared with a standard scale, the Modified Overt Aggression Scale(MOAS).Results: Seven identified factors - personal violence, violence against property, self-harm, sexually inappropriate,contrary, demanding and disappearing behaviour – were scored on a five point scale. A subsequent factor analysiswith the second population showed demanding, violent and contrary behaviour to account for most of the variance.Inter-rater reliability using weighted kappa showed good agreement (0.91; 95% CI 0.83-0.99). Good agreement wasalso shown with scores on the MOAS scale and a score of 1 on the PBCL showed high sensitivity (97%) and specificity(85%) for a threshold MOAS score of 4.Conclusions: The PBCL appears to be a suitable and practical scale for assessing all aspects of challenging behaviour.
Tyrer PJ, Tyrer H, Cooper S, et al., 2015, Cognitive behaviour therapy for non-cardiac pain in the chest (COPIC): a multicentre randomized controlled trial with economic evaluation, BMC Psychology, Vol: 3, ISSN: 2050-7283
BackgroundMost patients with chest pain have nothing wrong with their cardiac function. Psychological forms of treatment for this condition are more likely to be successful than others.Methods/designA two-arm parallel controlled randomized trial of standard care versus a modified form of cognitive behaviour therapy for chest pain (CBT-CP) in patients who have attended emergency hospital services. Inclusion criteria include (i) emergency attendance more than once in the previous year with chest pain when no physical pathology has been found, (ii) aged between 16 and 75, (iii) signed consent to take part in the study. Exclusion criteria are (i) under current psychiatric care, (ii) those who have had new psychotropic drugs prescribed within the last two months, (iii) are receiving or about to receive a formal psychological treatment. Those satisfying these criteria will be randomized to 4–10 sessions of CBT-CP or to continue with standard care.Participants are randomized using a remote web-based system using permuted stacked blocks stratified by study centre. Assessment is carried out at baseline by researchers subsequently masked to allocation and at 6 months and 1 year after randomization. The primary outcome is the Health Anxiety Inventory score at 6 months, and secondary outcomes are generalised anxiety and depressive symptoms, the Lucock Health Anxiety Questionnaire adapted for chest pain, visual analogue scales for chest pain and discomfort (Inskip Scale), the Schedule for Evaluating Persistent Symptoms (SEPS), health related quality of life, social functioning and medical resource usage. Intention to treat analyses will be carried out with clinical and functioning data, and a cost-utility analysis will compare differences in total costs and differences in quality of life using QALYs derived from the EQ-5D. The data will also be linked to another parallel study in New Zealand where 126 patients with the same inclusion criteria have been treated in a similar
Kim Y-R, Tyrer P, Lee H-S, et al., 2015, Preliminary field trial of a putative research algorithm for diagnosing ICD-11 personality disorders in psychiatric patients: 2. Proposed trait domains, Personality and Mental Health, Vol: 9, Pages: 298-307, ISSN: 1932-8621
Tyrer P, Tyrer H, 2015, Nidotherapy: The expansion of environmental treatment, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, Vol: 49, Pages: 934-934, ISSN: 1440-1614
Crawford MJ, Sanatinia R, Barrett B, et al., 2015, Lamotrigine versus inert placebo in the treatment of borderline personality disorder: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial and economic evaluation, TRIALS, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1745-6215
Newton-Howes G, Mulder R, Tyrer P, 2015, Diagnostic neglect: the potential impact of losing a separate axis for personality disorder, BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY, Vol: 206, Pages: 355-356, ISSN: 0007-1250
Tyrer P, Duggan C, Cooper S, et al., 2015, The lessons and legacy of the programme for dangerous and severe personality disorders, PERSONALITY AND MENTAL HEALTH, Vol: 9, Pages: 96-106, ISSN: 1932-8621
Tyrer H, Tyrer P, Lisseman-Stones Y, et al., 2015, Therapist differences in a randomised trial of the outcome of cognitive behaviour therapy for health anxiety in medical patients, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NURSING STUDIES, Vol: 52, Pages: 686-694, ISSN: 0020-7489
Tyrer P, Reed GM, Crawford MJ, 2015, Classification, assessment, prevalence, and effect of personality disorder, LANCET, Vol: 385, Pages: 717-726, ISSN: 0140-6736
Tyrer P, 2015, Personality dysfunction is the cause of recurrent non-cognitive mental disorder: A testable hypothesis, Personality and Mental Health, Vol: 9, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 1932-8621
Tyrer P, Oliver P, Tarabi SA, 2014, Prevalence of aggressive challenging behaviours in intellectual disability and its relationship to personality status: Jamaican study, JOURNAL OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY RESEARCH, Vol: 58, Pages: 1083-1089, ISSN: 0964-2633
Tyrer P, Crawford M, Sanatinia R, et al., 2014, Preliminary studies of the ICD-11 classification of personality disorder in practice, PERSONALITY AND MENTAL HEALTH, Vol: 8, Pages: 254-263, ISSN: 1932-8621
Newton-Howes G, Tyrer P, Johnson T, et al., 2014, INFLUENCE OF PERSONALITY ON THE OUTCOME OF TREATMENT IN DEPRESSION: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS, JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS, Vol: 28, Pages: 577-593, ISSN: 0885-579X
Tyrer P, Cooper S-A, Hassiotis A, 2014, Drug treatments in people with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour., BMJ, Vol: 349
Crawford MJ, Sanatinia R, Barrett B, et al., 2014, The clinical and cost-effectiveness of brief advice for excessive alcohol consumption among people attending sexual health clinics: a randomised controlled trial, Sexually Transmitted Infections, Vol: 91, Pages: 37-43, ISSN: 1472-3263
Objectives To examine the clinical and costeffectivenessof brief advice for excessive alcoholconsumption among people who attend sexual healthclinics.Methods Two-arm, parallel group, assessor blind,pragmatic, randomised controlled trial. 802 people aged19 years or over who attended one of three sexualhealth clinics and were drinking excessively wererandomised to either brief advice or control treatment.Brief advice consisted of feedback on alcohol and health,written information and an offer of an appointment withan Alcohol Health Worker. Control participants receiveda leaflet on health and lifestyle. The primary outcomewas mean weekly alcohol consumption during theprevious 90 days measured 6 months afterrandomisation. The main secondary outcome wasunprotected sex during this period.Results Among the 402 randomised to brief advice,397 (99%) received it. The adjusted mean difference inalcohol consumption at 6 months was −2.33 units perweek (95% CI −4.69 to 0.03, p=0.053) among thosein the active compared to the control arm of the trial.Unprotected sex was reported by 154 (53%) of thosewho received brief advice, and 178 (59%) controls(adjusted OR=0.89, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.25, p=0.496).There were no significant differences in costs betweenstudy groups at 6 months.Conclusions Introduction of universal screening andbrief advice for excessive alcohol use among peopleattending sexual health clinics does not result inclinically important reductions in alcohol consumption orprovide a cost-effective use of resources.
Crawford MJ, Sanatinia R, Barrett B, et al., 2014, The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of brief intervention for excessive alcohol consumption among people attending sexual health clinics: a randomised controlled trial (SHEAR), HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT, Vol: 18, Pages: 1-+, ISSN: 1366-5278
Singh SP, Burns T, Tyrer P, et al., 2014, Ethnicity as a predictor of detention under the Mental Health Act, PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE, Vol: 44, Pages: 997-1004, ISSN: 0033-2917
Singh SP, Burns P, Tyrer P, et al., 2014, 'Ethnicity as a predictor of detention under the Mental Health Act': a response to Singh et al. - a reply., Psychol Med, Vol: 44, Pages: 894-896
Kim Y-R, Blashfield R, Tyrer P, et al., 2014, Field trial of a putative research algorithm for diagnosing ICD-11 personality disorders in psychiatric patients: 1. Severity of personality disturbance, Personality and Mental Health, Vol: 8, Pages: 67-78, ISSN: 1932-8621
Tyrer P, Cooper S, Salkovskis P, et al., 2014, Clinical and cost-effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy for health anxiety in medical patients: a multicentre randomised controlled trial, LANCET, Vol: 383, Pages: 219-225, ISSN: 0140-6736
Leeson VC, Tyrer P, 2013, The advance of research governance in psychiatry: one step forward, two steps back, EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRIC SCIENCES, Vol: 22, Pages: 313-320, ISSN: 2045-7960
Tyrer P, 2013, A solution to the ossification of community psychiatry, Psychiatrist, Vol: 37, Pages: 336-339, ISSN: 1758-3209
The aim for seamless care that has long been the ultimate goal of good community psychiatry in the UK has disappeared, and there is now much needless argument over models of delivering care that ignore its main philosophy. It is argued that this ossification of care has not only made it ineffective, but has also promoted demoralisation and burn-out in the workforce, as the locus of control has shifted from clinician to managerial imperative. An initiative that can break up the opaque structures that hinder continuity of care is now available and a suggestion is made for a flexible, invigorated community care team system based on smaller catchment areas that allows a single team to combine the elements of assertive outreach, crisis resolution and early intervention with in-patient care.
Tyrer P, 2013, Nosology is usually wrong, but is a test bed for science: a commentary on Markon., J Pers Disord, Vol: 27, Pages: 590-593
Kristian Markon (2013) is generally right in his diagnostic assessment but less so in his solutions. Nosology gets in the way of science when it becomes authoritative, as it often prevents science from proceeding in the systematic way that it would do otherwise, but the solution is not to abandon formal nosologies. Rather, we should endeavor to stop them from becoming authoritative, by overcoming nosological practice when it stands in the way of science. By considering the different functions of nosology and science, it is possible to get a compromise.
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