1011 results found
Gambhir A, Stevenson S, Vineis P, et al., 2021, A hybrid approach to identifying and assessing interactions between climate action (SDG13) policies and a range of SDGs in a UK context, Discover Sustainability
Cordova R, Kliemann N, Huybrechts I, et al., 2021, Consumption of ultra-processed foods associated with weight gain and obesity in adults: A multi-national cohort study, Clinical Nutrition, Vol: 40, Pages: 5079-5088, ISSN: 0261-5614
BackgroundThere is a worldwide shift towards increased consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) with concurrent rising prevalence of obesity. We examined the relationship between the consumption of UPF and weight gain and risk of obesity.MethodsThis prospective cohort included 348 748 men and women aged 25–70 years. Participants were recruited between 1992 and 2000 from 9 European countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Two body weight measures were available, at baseline and after a median follow-up time of 5 years. Foods and drinks were assessed at baseline by dietary questionnaires and classified according to their degree of processing using NOVA classification. Multilevel mixed linear regression was used to estimate the association between UPF consumption and body weight change (kg/5 years). To estimate the relative risk of becoming overweight or obese after 5 years we used Poisson regression stratified according to baseline body mass index (BMI).ResultsAfter multivariable adjustment, higher UPF consumption (per 1 SD increment) was positively associated with weight gain (0·12 kg/5 years, 95% CI 0·09 to 0·15). Comparing highest vs. lowest quintile of UPF consumption was associated with a 15% greater risk (95% CI 1·11, 1·19) of becoming overweight or obese in normal weight participants, and with a 16% greater risk (95% CI 1·09, 1·23) of becoming obese in participants who were overweight at baseline.ConclusionsThese results are supportive of public health campaigns to substitute UPF for less processed alternatives for obesity prevention and weight management.
Vineis P, Beagley J, Bisceglia L, et al., 2021, Strategy for primary prevention of non-communicable diseases (NCD) and mitigation of climate change in Italy., J Epidemiol Community Health, Vol: 75, Pages: 917-924
This paper derives from a document commissioned in 2019 by the Italian Minister of Health, and outlines a general strategy for primary prevention of non-communicable diseases in Italy, with a special focus on cobenefits of climate change mitigation. Given that action against climate change is primarily taken via energy choices, limiting the use of fossil fuels and promoting renewable sources, an effective strategy is one in which interventions are designed to prevent diseases and jointly mitigate climate change, the so-called cobenefits. For policies capable of producing relevant co-benefits we focus on three categories of interventions, urban planning, diet and transport that are of special importance. For example, policies promoting active transport (cycling, walking) have the triple effect of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, preventing diseases related to atmospheric pollution, and increasing physical activity, thus preventing obesity and diabetes.In particular, we propose that for 2025 the following goals are achieved: reduce the prevalence of smokers by 30%, with particular emphasis on young people; reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity by 20%; reduce the proportion of calories obtained from ultraprocessed foods by 20%; reduce the consumption of alcohol by 10%; reduce the consumption of salt by 30%; reduce the consumption of sugary drinks by 20%; reduce the average consumption of meat by 20%; increase the weekly hours of exercise by 10%. The aim is to complement individual health promotion with structural policies (such as urban planning, taxation and incentives) which render the former more effective and result in a reduction in inequality. We strongly encourage the inclusion of primary prevention in all policies, in light of the described cobenefits. Italy's role as the cohost of the 2020 (now 2021) UN climate negotiations (COP26) presents the opportunity for international leadership in addressing health as an integral component of the response to cl
Laine J, Huybrechts I, Gunter M, et al., 2021, Co-benefits from sustainable dietary shifts for population and environmental health: an assessment from a large European cohort study, The Lancet Planetary Health, ISSN: 2542-5196
Background: Unhealthy diets, the rise of non-communicable diseases, and the declining health of the planet are highly intertwined, where food production and consumption are major drivers of increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, substantial land use, (LU) and adverse health outcomes such as cancer and mortality. Methods: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a multi-centre prospective cohort study (n=443,991), we estimated associations between dietary contributions to GHG emissions and LU and all-cause and cause-specific mortality and incident cancers using Cox proportional-hazard regression models. Co-benefits, encompassing the potential effects of alternative diets on all-cause mortality and cancer and potential reduction in GHG emissions and LU, were estimated using counterfactual attributable fraction (AF) intervention models, simulating potential effects from dietary shifts based on the EAT-Lancet reference diet. Findings: There was an association between levels of dietary-based GHG emissions and LU and all-cause mortality, with a Hazard Ratio and 95% Confidence Interval (CI) of 1.13 (1.10, 1.16) and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.21), respectively, comparing the fourth quartile to the first (HRQ4 vs Q1). Similar associations were observed for cause-specific mortality. There were also associations between overall cancer rates and GHG emissions (HRQ4 vs Q1: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.14) and LU (HRQ4 vs Q1: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.15); however, estimates differed by cancer type. Through counterfactual AF modelling of shifts in diets, we find that between 19 to 63% of deaths and 10 to 39% of cancers could be prevented, over a 20-year risk period, from adhering to different scores of the EAT-Lancet reference diet. Additionally, switching from a lower score of the EAT-Lancet reference diet to a higher score could reduce food-associated GHG and LU levels by 50% and 62%, respectively.Interpretation: Our results support shifts in diets that
Airoldi C, Calcagno A, Di Perri G, et al., 2021, Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 Among Workers in Northern Italy., Ann Work Expo Health
BACKGROUND: The spread of severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among active workers is poor known. The aim of our study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) among a convenience sample of workers and to identify high-risk job sectors during the first pandemic way. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among workers tested for SARS-CoV-2 between 28 March and 7 August 2020, recorded by a private healthcare center located in North-West Italy. Association among seroprevalence and demographic and occupational variables was evaluated using chi square test and the seroprevalence and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. RESULTS: We collected the results for 23568 serological tests from a sample of 22708 workers from about 1000 companies. Median age was 45 years and about 60% of subjects were male. The overall seroprevalence was 4.97% [95%CI 4.69-5.25]. No statistical difference was found among gender while seroprevalence was associated with subjects' age, geographical location, and occupational sector. Significantly higher values of positivity were observed for the logistics sector (31.3%), weaving factory (12.6%), nursing homes (9.8%), and chemical industry (6.9%) workers. However, we observed some clusters of cases in single companies independently from the sector.Then, a detailed focus on 940 food workers shown a seroprevalence of 5.21% [95%CI 3.79-6.63] and subjects who self-reported COVID-19 symptoms and who worked during lockdown had a higher probability of being infected (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Data obtained might be useful for future public health decision; more than occupation sector, it seems that failure on prevention system in single companies increase the SARS-CoV-2 transmission.
Caramello V, Boccuzzi A, Basile V, et al., 2021, Are antigenic tests useful for detecting SARS-CoV-2 infections in patients accessing to emergency departments? Results from a North-West Italy hospital, JOURNAL OF INFECTION, Vol: 83, Pages: 257-260, ISSN: 0163-4453
Li SX, Hodge AM, MacInnis RJ, et al., 2021, Inflammation-Related Marker Profiling of Dietary Patterns and All-cause Mortality in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study., J Nutr
BACKGROUND: Nutritional epidemiology research using self-reported dietary intake is prone to measurement error. Objective methods are being explored to overcome this limitation. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine 1) the association between plasma markers related to inflammation and derive marker scores for dietary patterns [Mediterranean dietary score (MDS), energy-adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index (E-DIITM), Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI)] and 2) the associations of these marker scores with mortality. METHODS: Weighted marker scores were derived from the cross-sectional association between 30 plasma markers and each dietary score (assessed using food-frequency questionnaires) using linear regression for 770 participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (aged 50-82 y). Prospective associations between marker scores and mortality (n = 249 deaths) were assessed using Cox regression (median follow-up: 14.4 y). RESULTS: The MDS, E-DII, and AHEI were associated (P < 0.05) with 9, 14, and 11 plasma markers, respectively. Healthier diets (higher MDS and AHEI, and lower anti-inflammatory, E-DII) were associated with lower concentrations of kynurenines, neopterin, IFN-γ, cytokines, and C-reactive protein. Five of 6 markers common to the 3 dietary scores were components of the kynurenine pathway. The 3 dietary-based marker scores were highly correlated (Spearman ρ: -0.74, -0.82, and 0.93). Inverse associations (for 1-SD increment) were observed with all-cause mortality for the MDS marker score (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.72-0.98) and the AHEI marker score (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.66-0.89), whereas a positive association was observed with the E-DII marker score (HR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.01-1.39). The same magnitude of effect was not observed for the respective dietary patterns. CONCLUSIONS: Markers involved in inflammation-related processes are associated with dietary quality, including a substantial overlap between markers associated w
Porta M, Gasull M, Pumarega J, et al., 2021, Plasma concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and pancreatic cancer risk, International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN: 0300-5771
BackgroundFindings and limitations of previous studies on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and pancreatic cancer risk support conducting further research in prospective cohorts.MethodsWe conducted a prospective case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Participants were 513 pancreatic cancer cases and 1020 matched controls. Concentrations of 22 POPs were measured in plasma collected at baseline.ResultsSome associations were observed at higher concentrations of p, p’-DDT, trans-nonachlor, β-hexachlorocyclohexane and the sum of six organochlorine pesticides and of 16 POPs. The odds ratio (OR) for the upper quartile of trans-nonachlor was 1.55 (95% confidence interval 1.06-2.26; P for trend = 0.025). Associations were stronger in the groups predefined as most valid (participants having fasted >6 h, with microscopic diagnostic confirmation, normal weight, and never smokers), and as most relevant (follow-up ≥10 years). Among participants having fasted >6 h, the ORs were relevant for 10 of 11 exposures. Higher ORs were also observed among cases with microscopic confirmation than in cases with a clinical diagnosis, and among normal-weight participants than in the rest of participants. Among participants with a follow-up ≥10 years, estimates were higher than in participants with a shorter follow-up (for trans-nonachlor: OR = 2.14, 1.01 to 4.53, P for trend = 0.035). Overall, trans-nonachlor, three PCBs and the two sums of POPs were the exposures most clearly associated with pancreatic cancer risk.ConclusionsIndividually or in combination, most of the 22 POPs analysed did not or only moderately increased the risk of pancreatic cancer.
Handakas E, Keski-Rahkonen P, Chatzi L, et al., 2021, Cord blood metabolic signatures predictive of childhood overweight and rapid growth, International Journal of Obesity, ISSN: 0307-0565
INTRODUCTION:Metabolomics may identify biological pathways predisposing children to risk of overweight and obesity. In this study, we have investigated the cord blood metabolic signatures of rapid growth in infancy and overweight in early childhood in four European birth cohorts.METHODS:Untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomic profiles were measured in cord blood from 399 newborns from four European cohorts (ENVIRONAGE, Rhea, INMA and Piccolipiu). Rapid growth in the first year of life and overweight in childhood were defined with reference to WHO growth charts. Metabolome-wide association scans for rapid growth and overweight on over 4500 metabolic features were performed using multiple adjusted logistic mixed effect models and controlling the false discovery rate (FDR) at 5%. Additionally, we performed a look-up analysis of 43 pre-annotated metabolites, previously associated with birthweight or rapid growth. RESULTS:In the MWAS analysis, we identified three and eight metabolites associated with rapid growth and overweight respectively, after FDR correction. Higher levels of cholestenone, a cholesterol derivative produced by microbial catabolism, was predictive of rapid growth (p=1.6x10-3). Lower levels of the branched chain amino acid (BCAA) valine (p=8.6x10-6) was predictive of overweight in childhood. The area under the receiver operator curve for multivariate prediction models including these metabolites and traditional risk factors was 0.77 for rapid growth and 0.82 for overweight, compared to 0.69 and 0.69 respectively for models using traditional risk factors alone. Among the 43 pre-annotated metabolites, seven and five metabolites were nominally associated (P<0.05) with rapid growth and overweight respectively. The BCAA leucine, remained associated (1.6x 0-3) with overweight after FDR correction.CONCLUSION:The metabolites identified here may assist in the identification of children at risk of developing obesity and improve understa
van Roekel EH, Bours MJL, van Delden L, et al., 2021, Longitudinal associations of physical activity with plasma metabolites among colorectal cancer survivors up to 2 years after treatment, SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2045-2322
Fontana L, Fasano A, Chong YS, et al., 2021, Transdisciplinary research and clinical priorities for better health, PLOS MEDICINE, Vol: 18, ISSN: 1549-1277
McCartney DL, Min JL, Richmond RC, et al., 2021, Genome-wide association studies identify 137 genetic loci for DNA methylation biomarkers of aging, Genome Biology, Vol: 22, ISSN: 1474-7596
Background:Biological aging estimators derived from DNA methylation data are heritable and correlate with morbidity and mortality. Consequently, identification of genetic and environmental contributors to the variation in these measures in populations has become a major goal in the field.Results:Leveraging DNA methylation and SNP data from more than 40,000 individuals, we identify 137 genome-wide significant loci, of which 113 are novel, from genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses of four epigenetic clocks and epigenetic surrogate markers for granulocyte proportions and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 levels, respectively. We find evidence for shared genetic loci associated with the Horvath clock and expression of transcripts encoding genes linked to lipid metabolism and immune function. Notably, these loci are independent of those reported to regulate DNA methylation levels at constituent clock CpGs. A polygenic score for GrimAge acceleration showed strong associations with adiposity-related traits, educational attainment, parental longevity, and C-reactive protein levels.Conclusion:This study illuminates the genetic architecture underlying epigenetic aging and its shared genetic contributions with lifestyle factors and longevity.
Dugué P-A, Hodge AM, Ulvik A, et al., 2021, Association of markers of inflammation, the kynurenine pathway and B vitamins with age and mortality, and a signature of inflammaging., J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is a key feature of aging. We aimed to i) investigate the association of 34 blood markers potentially involved in inflammatory processes with age and mortality, ii) develop a signature of 'inflammaging'. METHODS: Thirty-four blood markers relating to inflammation, B vitamin status and the kynurenine pathway were measured in 976 participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study at baseline (median age=59 years) and follow-up (median age=70 years). Associations with age and mortality were assessed using linear and Cox regression, respectively. A parsimonious signature of inflammaging was developed and its association with mortality was compared with two marker scores calculated across all markers associated with age and mortality, respectively. RESULTS: The majority of markers (30/34) were associated with age, with stronger associations observed for neopterin, cystatin C, IL-6, TNF-α, several markers of the kynurenine pathway and derived indices KTR (kynurenine/tryptophan ratio), PAr index (ratio of 4-pyridoxic acid and the sum of pyridoxal 5´-phosphate and pyridoxal), and HK:XA (3-hydroxykynurenine/xanthurenic acid ratio). Many markers (17/34) showed an association with mortality, in particular IL-6, neopterin, CRP, quinolinic acid, PAr index, and KTR. The inflammaging signature included ten markers and was strongly associated of mortality (HR per SD=1.40, 95%CI:1.24-1.57, P=2x10 -8), similar to scores based on all age-associated (HR=1.38, 95%CI:1.23-1.55, P=4x10 -8) and mortality-associated markers (HR=1.43, 95%CI:1.28-1.60, P=1x10 -10), respectively. Strong evidence of replication of the inflammaging signature association with mortality was found in the Hordaland Health Study. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the key role of the kynurenine pathway and vitamin B6 catabolism in aging, along with other well-established inflammation-related markers. A signature of inflammaging based on ten markers was strongly associated with
Vineis P, Butler A, 2021, Commentary: Climate change and health: the importance of experiments, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, Vol: 50, Pages: 929-930, ISSN: 0300-5771
Lepage B, Colineaux H, Kelly-Irving M, et al., 2021, Comparison of smoking reduction with improvement of social conditions in early life: simulation in a British cohort, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, Vol: 50, Pages: 797-808, ISSN: 0300-5771
Robinson O, Carter AR, Aola-Korpela M, et al., 2021, Metabolic profiles of socioeconomic position: a multi-cohort analysis, International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol: 50, Pages: 768-782, ISSN: 0300-5771
BackgroundLow socioeconomic position (SEP) is a risk factor for multiple health outcomes, but its molecular imprints in the body remain unclear. MethodsWe examined SEP as a determinant of serum nuclear magnetic resonance metabolic profiles, in approximately 30,000 adults and 4,000 children across ten UK and Finnish cohort studies. ResultsIn risk factor-adjusted analysis of 233 metabolic measures, low educational attainment was associated with 37 measures including higher levels of triglycerides in small high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and lower levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), omega-3 fatty acids, apolipoprotein A1, large and very large HDL particles (including levels of their respective lipid constituents), and cholesterol measures across different density lipoproteins. Among adults whose father worked in manual occupations, associations with apolipoprotein A1, large and very large HDL particles and HDL-2 cholesterol remained after adjustment for SEP in later life. Among manual workers, levels of glutamine were higher compared to non-manual workers. All three indicators of low SEP were associated with lower DHA, omega-3 fatty acids and HDL diameter. At all ages, children of manual workers had lower levels of DHA as a proportion of total fatty acids.ConclusionsOur work indicates that social and economic factors have a measurable impact on human physiology. Lower SEP was independently associated with a generally unfavorable metabolic profile, consistent across ages and cohorts. The metabolites we found associated with SEP, including DHA, are known to predict cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline in later life and may contribute to health inequalities.
Karabegović I, Dehghan A, Elliott P, et al., 2021, Epigenome-wide association meta-analysis of DNA methylation with coffee and tea consumption, Nature Communications, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2041-1723
Coffee and tea are extensively consumed beverages worldwide which have received considerable attention regarding health. Intake of these beverages is consistently linked to, among others, reduced risk of diabetes and liver diseases; however, the mechanisms of action remain elusive. Epigenetics is suggested as a mechanism mediating the effects of dietary and lifestyle factors on disease onset. Here we report the results from epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) on coffee and tea consumption in 15,789 participants of European and African-American ancestries from 15 cohorts. EWAS meta-analysis of coffee consumption reveals 11 CpGs surpassing the epigenome-wide significance threshold (P-value <1.1×10−7), which annotated to the AHRR, F2RL3, FLJ43663, HDAC4, GFI1 and PHGDH genes. Among them, cg14476101 is significantly associated with expression of the PHGDH and risk of fatty liver disease. Knockdown of PHGDH expression in liver cells shows a correlation with expression levels of genes associated with circulating lipids, suggesting a role of PHGDH in hepatic-lipid metabolism. EWAS meta-analysis on tea consumption reveals no significant association, only two CpGs annotated to CACNA1A and PRDM16 genes show suggestive association (P-value <5.0×10−6). These findings indicate that coffee-associated changes in DNA methylation levels may explain the mechanism of action of coffee consumption in conferring risk of diseases.
McCrory C, Fiorito G, Hernandez B, et al., 2021, GrimAge Outperforms Other Epigenetic Clocks in the Prediction of Age-Related Clinical Phenotypes and All-Cause Mortality, JOURNALS OF GERONTOLOGY SERIES A-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES AND MEDICAL SCIENCES, Vol: 76, Pages: 741-749, ISSN: 1079-5006
Papadimitriou N, Bouras E, van den Brandt PA, et al., 2021, A prospective diet-wide association study for risk of colorectal cancer in EPIC, Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, ISSN: 1542-3565
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Evidence regarding the association of dietary exposures with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is not consistent with a few exceptions. Therefore, we conducted a diet-wide association study (DWAS) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) to evaluate the associations between several dietary exposures with CRC risk. METHODS: The association of 92 food and nutrient intakes with CRC risk was assessed in 386,792 participants, 5,069 of whom developed incident CRC. Correction for multiple comparisons was performed using the false discovery rate, and emerging associations were examined in the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). Multiplicative gene-nutrient interactions were also tested in EPIC based on known CRC-associated loci. RESULTS: In EPIC, alcohol, liquor/spirits, wine, beer/cider, soft drinks, and pork were positively associated with CRC, whereas milk, cheese, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, riboflavin, vitamin B6, beta-carotene, fruit, fibre, non-white bread, banana, and total protein intakes were inversely associated. Of these 20 associations, 13 were replicated in NLCS, for which a meta-analysis was performed, namely alcohol (summary HR per 1 SD increment in intake: 1.07; 95%CI:1.04-1.09), liquor/spirits (1.04; 1.02-1.06), wine (1.04;1.02-1.07), beer/cider (1.06;1.04-1.08), milk (0.95;0.93-0.98), cheese (0.96;0.94-0.99), calcium (0.93;0.90-0.95), phosphorus (0.92;0.90-0.95), magnesium (0.95;0.92-0.98), potassium (0.96;0.94-0.99), riboflavin (0.94;0.92-0.97), beta-carotene (0.96;0.93-0.98), and total protein (0.94;0.92-0.97). None of the gene-nutrient interactions were significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm a positive association for alcohol and an inverse association for dairy products and calcium with CRC risk, and also suggest a lower risk at higher dietary intakes of phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, riboflavin, beta-carotene and total protein.
Struelens MJ, Vineis P, 2021, COVID-19 Research: Challenges to Interpret Numbers and Propose Solutions, FRONTIERS IN PUBLIC HEALTH, Vol: 9
Buizza R, Capobianco E, Moretti PF, et al., 2021, How can we weather a virus storm? Health prediction inspired by meteorology could be the answer, JOURNAL OF TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE, Vol: 19
NCD Risk Factor Collaboration NCD-RisC, Iurilli N, 2021, Heterogeneous contributions of change in population distribution of body-mass index to change in obesity and underweight, eLife, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2050-084X
From 1985 to 2016, the prevalence of underweight decreased, and that of obesity and severe obesity increased, in most regions, with significant variation in the magnitude of these changes across regions. We investigated how much change in mean body mass index (BMI) explains changes in the prevalence of underweight, obesity, and severe obesity in different regions using data from 2896 population-based studies with 187 million participants. Changes in the prevalence of underweight and total obesity, and to a lesser extent severe obesity, are largely driven by shifts in the distribution of BMI, with smaller contributions from changes in the shape of the distribution. In East and Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, the underweight tail of the BMI distribution was left behind as the distribution shifted. There is a need for policies that address all forms of malnutrition by making healthy foods accessible and affordable, while restricting unhealthy foods through fiscal and regulatory restrictions.
van Nunen E, Hoek G, Tsai M-Y, et al., 2021, Short-term personal and outdoor exposure to ultrafine and fine particulate air pollution in association with blood pressure and lung function in healthy adults, Environmental Research, Vol: 194, ISSN: 0013-9351
Studies reporting on associations between short-term exposure to outdoor fine (PM2.5), and ultrafine particles (UFP) and blood pressure and lung function have been inconsistent. Few studies have characterized exposure by personal monitoring, which especially for UFP may have resulted in substantial exposure measurement error. We investigated the association between 24-h average personal UFP, PM2.5, and soot exposure and dose and the health parameters blood pressure and lung function. We further assessed the short-term associations between outdoor concentrations measured at a central monitoring site and near the residences and these health outcomes.We performed three 24-h personal exposure measurements for UFP, PM2.5, and soot in 132 healthy adults from Basel (Switzerland), Amsterdam and Utrecht (the Netherlands), and Turin (Italy). Monitoring of each subject was conducted in different seasons in a one-year study period. Subject's activity levels and associated ventilation rates were measured using actigraphy to calculate the inhaled dose. After each 24-h monitoring session, blood pressure and lung function were measured. Contemporaneously with personal measurements, UFP, PM2.5 and soot were measured outdoor at the subject's residential address and at a central site in the research area. Associations between short-term personal and outdoor exposure and dose to UFP, PM2.5, and soot and health outcomes were tested using linear mixed effect models.The 24-h mean personal, residential and central site outdoor UFP exposures were not associated with blood pressure or lung function. UFP mean exposures in the 2-h prior to the health test was also not associated with blood pressure and lung function. Personal, central site and residential PM2.5 exposure were positively associated with systolic blood pressure (about 1.4 mmHg increase per Interquartile range). Personal soot exposure and dose were positively associated with diastolic blood pressure (1.2 and 0.9 mmHg increase per
Rocha V, Fraga S, Moreira C, et al., 2021, Life-course socioeconomic disadvantage and lung function: a multicohort study of 70496 individuals, EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL, Vol: 57, ISSN: 0903-1936
Intervening on risk factors for noncommunicable diseases (including cancer) in industrialized countries could achieve a reduction of between 30% and 40% of premature deaths. In the meantime, the need to intervene against the threat of climate change has become obvious. CO2 emissions must be reduced by 45% by the year 2030 and to zero by 2050 according to recent agreements. We propose an approach in which interventions are designed to prevent diseases and jointly mitigate climate change, the so‐called cobenefits. The present article describes some examples of how climate change mitigation and cancer prevention could go hand in hand: tobacco control, food production, and transportation (air pollution). Many others can be identified. The advantage of the proposed approach is that both long‐term (climate) and short‐term (health) benefits can be accrued with appropriate intersectoral policies.
Dagnino S, Bodinier B, Guida F, et al., 2021, Prospective identification of elevated circulating CDCP1 in patients years before onset of lung cancer, Cancer Research, Vol: 81, ISSN: 0008-5472
Increasing evidence points to a role for inflammation in lung carcinogenesis. A small number of circulating inflammatory proteins have been identified as showing elevated levels prior to lung cancer diagnosis, indicating the potential for prospective circulating protein concentration as a marker of early carcinogenesis. In order to identify novel markers of lung cancer risk, we measured a panel of 92 circulating inflammatory proteins in 648 pre-diagnostic blood samples from two prospective cohorts in Italy and Norway (women only). To preserve the comparability of results and protect against confounding factors, the main statistical analyses were conducted in women from both studies, with replication sought in men (Italian participants). Univariate and penalized regression models revealed for the first time higher blood levels of CDCP1 protein in cases that went on to develop lung cancer compared to controls, irrespective of time to diagnosis, smoking habits, and gender. This association was validated in an additional 450 samples. Associations were stronger for future cases of adenocarcinoma where CDCP1 showed better explanatory performance. Integrative analyses combining gene expression and protein levels CDCP1 measured in the same individuals suggested a link between CDCP1 and the expression of transcripts of LRRN3 and SEM1. Enrichment analyses indicated a potential role for CDCP1 in pathways related to cell adhesion and mobility, such as the WNT/β-catenin pathway. Overall, this study identifies lung cancer-related dysregulation of CDCP1 expression years before diagnosis.
Carmeli C, Kutalik Z, Mishra PP, et al., 2021, Gene regulation contributes to explain the impact of early life socioeconomic disadvantage on adult inflammatory levels in two cohort studies, Scientific Reports, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2045-2322
Individuals experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood have a higher rate of inflammation-related diseases decades later. Little is known about the mechanisms linking early life experiences to the functioning of the immune system in adulthood. To address this, we explore the relationship across social-to-biological layers of early life social exposures on levels of adulthood inflammation and the mediating role of gene regulatory mechanisms, epigenetic and transcriptomic profiling from blood, in 2,329 individuals from two European cohort studies. Consistently across both studies, we find transcriptional activity explains a substantive proportion (78% and 26%) of the estimated effect of early life disadvantaged social exposures on levels of adulthood inflammation. Furthermore, we show that mechanisms other than cis DNA methylation may regulate those transcriptional fingerprints. These results further our understanding of social-to-biological transitions by pinpointing the role of gene regulation that cannot fully be explained by differential cis DNA methylation.
Barouki R, Kogevinas M, Audouze K, et al., 2021, The COVID-19 pandemic and global environmental change: Emerging research needs, ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 146, ISSN: 0160-4120
Rothwell JA, Murphy N, Bešević J, et al., 2020, Metabolic Signatures of Healthy Lifestyle Patterns and Colorectal Cancer Risk in a European Cohort, Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, ISSN: 1542-3565
Background & AimsColorectal cancer risk can be lowered by adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) guidelines. We derived metabolic signatures of adherence to these guidelines and tested their associations with colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer cohort.MethodsScores reflecting adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations (scale, 1–5) were calculated from participant data on weight maintenance, physical activity, diet, and alcohol among a discovery set of 5738 cancer-free European Prospective Investigation into Cancer participants with metabolomics data. Partial least-squares regression was used to derive fatty acid and endogenous metabolite signatures of the WCRF/AICR score in this group. In an independent set of 1608 colorectal cancer cases and matched controls, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated for colorectal cancer risk per unit increase in WCRF/AICR score and per the corresponding change in metabolic signatures using multivariable conditional logistic regression.ResultsHigher WCRF/AICR scores were characterized by metabolic signatures of increased odd-chain fatty acids, serine, glycine, and specific phosphatidylcholines. Signatures were inversely associated more strongly with colorectal cancer risk (fatty acids: OR, 0.51 per unit increase; 95% CI, 0.29–0.90; endogenous metabolites: OR, 0.62 per unit change; 95% CI, 0.50–0.78) than the WCRF/AICR score (OR, 0.93 per unit change; 95% CI, 0.86–1.00) overall. Signature associations were stronger in male compared with female participants.ConclusionsMetabolite profiles reflecting adherence to WCRF/AICR guidelines and additional lifestyle or biological risk factors were associated with colorectal cancer. Measuring a specific panel of metabolites representative of a healthy or unhealthy lifestyle may identify strata of the population at higher risk of colorectal cancer.
Chadeau M, Bodinier B, Vermeulen R, et al., 2020, Education, biological ageing, all-cause and cause-specific mortality and morbidity: UK Biobank Cohort Study, EClinicalMedicine, Vol: 29-30, ISSN: 2589-5370
BackgroundSocioeconomic position as measured by education may be embodied and affect the functioning of key physiological systems. Links between social disadvantage, its biological imprint, and cause-specific mortality and morbidity have not been investigated in large populations, and yet may point towards areas for public health interventions beyond targeting individual behaviours.MethodsUsing data from 366,748 UK Biobank participants with 13 biomarker measurements, we calculated a Biological Health Score (BHS, ranging from 0 to 1) capturing the level of functioning of five physiological systems. Associations between BHS and incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer, and mortality from all, CVD, cancer, and external causes were examined. We explored the role of education in these associations. Mendelian randomisation using genetic evidence was used to triangulate these findings.FindingsAn increase in BHS of 0.1 was associated with all-cause (HR = 1.14 [1.12–1.16] and 1.09 [1.07–1.12] in men and women respectively), cancer (HR = 1.11 [1.09–1.14] and 1.07 [1.04–1.10]) and CVD (HR = 1.25 [1.20–1.31] and 1.21 [1.11–1.31]) mortality, CVD incidence (HR = 1.15 [1.13–1.16] and 1.17 [1.15–1.19]). These associations survived adjustment for education, lifestyle-behaviours, body mass index (BMI), co-morbidities and medical treatments. Mendelian randomisation further supported the link between the BHS and CVD incidence (HR = 1.31 [1.21–1.42]). The BHS contributed to CVD incidence prediction (age-adjusted C-statistic = 0.58), other than through education and health behaviours.InterpretationThe BHS captures features of the embodiment of education, health behaviours, and more proximal unknown factors which all complementarily contribute to all-cause, cancer and CVD morbidity and premature death.
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