Imperial College London

ProfessorPaulMitcheson

Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Professor in Electrical Energy Conversion
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 6284paul.mitcheson

 
 
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Assistant

 

Miss Guler Eroglu +44 (0)20 7594 6170

 
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Location

 

1112Electrical EngineeringSouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
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154 results found

Arteaga Saenz J, Aldhaher S, Kkelis G, Kwan C, Yates D, Mitcheson Pet al., 2019, Dynamic capabilities of multi-MHz inductive power transfer systems demonstrated with batteryless drones, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol: 34, Pages: 5093-5104, ISSN: 0885-8993

This paper presents the design of a multi-MHz inductive power transfer (IPT) system showcasing lightweight and energy-efficient solutions for non-radiative wireless power transfer. A proof of concept is developed by powering a drone without a battery that can hover freely in proximity to an IPT transmitter. The most challenging aspect, addressed here for the first time, is the complete system level design to provide uninterrupted power-flow efficiently while allowing for variable power demand and highly variable coupling factor. The proposed solution includes the design of lightweight air-core coils that can achieve sufficient coupling without degrading the aerodynamics of the drone, and designing newly-developed resonant power converters at both ends of the system. At the transmittingend, a load-independent Class EF inverter, which can drive a transmitting-coil with constant current amplitude and achieves zero-voltage switching (ZVS) for the entire range of operation, was developed; and at the receiving-end, a hybrid Class E rectifier, which allows tuning for large changes in coupling and power demand, was used. For the demo, the range of motion of the drone was limited by a 7.5 cm nylon string tether, connected between the centre of the transmitting-coil and the bottom of the drone. The design of the IPT system, including all the power conversion stages and the IPT link, is explained in detail. The results on performance and specific practical considerations required for the physical implementation are provided. An average end-to-end efficiency of 60% was achieved for a coupling range of 23% to 5.8%. Relevant simulations concerning human exposure to electromagnetic fields are also included to assure that the demo is safe according to the relevant guidelines. This paper is accompanied by a video featuring the proposed IPT system.

Journal article

Aldhaher S, Yates D, Mitcheson P, 2018, Load-independent class E/EF inverters and rectifiers for MHz-switching applications, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol: 33, Pages: 8270-8287, ISSN: 0885-8993

This paper presents a unified framework for themodelling, analysis and design of load-independent Class E andClass EF inverters and rectifiers. These circuits are able tomaintain zero-voltage switching (ZVS) and hence high efficiencyfor a wide load range without requiring tuning or use of afeedback loop, and simultaneously achieve a constant amplitudeAC voltage or current in inversion, and a constant DC outputvoltage or current in rectification. As switching frequencies aregradually stepping into the megahertz (MHz) region with the useof wide-bandgap (WBG) devices such as GaN and SiC, switchingloss, implementing fast control loops and current sensing becomea challenge which load-independent operation is able to address,thus allowing exploitation of the high frequency capability ofWBG devices. The traditional Class E and EF topologies arefirst presented and the conditions for load-independent oper-ation are derived mathematically, then a thorough analyticalcharacterisation of the circuit performance is carried out interms of voltage and current stresses and power-output capability.From this, design contours and tables are presented to enablethe rapid implementation of these converters given particularpower and load requirements. Three different design examplesare used to showcase the capability of these converters in typicalMHz power conversion applications using the design equationsand methods presented in this paper. The design examples arechosen towards enabling efficient and high power density MHzconverters for wireless power transfer (WPT) applications andDC/DC conversion. Specifically a150W 13.56MHzClass EFinverter for WPT, a150W 10MHzminiature Class E boostconverter, and a lightweight wirelessly powered drone using a20W 13.56MHzClass E synchronous rectifier have beendesigned and are presented here.

Journal article

Lan L, Ting NM, Aldhaher S, Kkelis G, Kwan CH, Arteaga JM, Yates DC, Mitcheson PDet al., 2018, Foreign Object Detection for Wireless Power Transfer, 2nd URSI Atlantic Radio Science Meeting (AT-RASC), Publisher: IEEE

Conference paper

Arteaga Saenz JMA, Aldhaher SA, Kkelis GK, Yates DCY, Mitcheson PDMet al., 2018, Multi-MHz IPT systems for variable coupling, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol: 33, Pages: 7744-7758, ISSN: 0885-8993

This paper proposes solutions for an IPT system to operate efficiently when large changes in coupling take place. To achieve high power-efficiency independent of coupling, we utilise inherent regulation properties of resonant converters to avoid losing soft switching for any coupling value, and present the optimal load to the IPT-link at the maximum energy-throughput coupling. A probability-based model is introduced to assess and optimise the IPT system by analysing coupling as a distribution in time, which depends on the dynamic behaviour of the wireless charging system. The proposed circuits are a Class D rectifier with a resistance compression network (RCN) in the receiving-end and a load-independent Class EF inverter in the transmitting-end. Experiments were performed at 6.78 and 13.56 MHz verifying high efficiency for dynamic coupling and variable load resistance. End-to-end efficiencies of up to 88% are achieved at a coil separation larger than one coil-radius for a system capable of supplying 150 W to the load, and the energy-efficiency was measured at 80% when performing a uniformly-distributed linear-misalignment of 0-12.5 cm, corresponding to a receiver moving at constant velocity over a transmitter without power throughput control.

Journal article

Arteaga JM, Kkelis G, Aldhaher S, Yates DC, Mitcheson PDet al., 2018, Probability-based Optimisation for a Multi-MHz IPT System with Variable Coupling, IEEE PELS Workshop on Emerging Technologies - Wireless Power Transfer (Wow), Publisher: IEEE

Conference paper

Mitcheson PD, Kkelis G, Aldhaher S, Arteaga JM, Yates DC, Boyle D, Yeatman EMet al., 2018, Power Electronics for Wireless Power Delivery in Synthetic Sensor Networks, 17th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS), Publisher: IOP PUBLISHING LTD, ISSN: 1742-6588

Conference paper

Gadoue S, Chen K-W, Mitcheson P, Yufit V, Brandon Net al., 2018, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy State of Charge Measurement for Batteries using Power Converter Modulation, 9th International Renewable Energy Congress (IREC), Publisher: IEEE, ISSN: 2378-3435

Conference paper

Aldhaher S, Mitcheson PD, 2018, Sate-Space Modelling and Design of a 10MHz 180W Class E DC/DC Converter using WBG Devices, 33nd Annual IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 2918-2921, ISSN: 1048-2334

Conference paper

Arteaga Saenz J, Lan L, Aldhaher S, Kkelis G, Yates D, Mitcheson Pet al., A Multi-MHz IPT-link Developed for Load Characterisation at Highly Variable Coupling Factor, Wireless Power Transfer Conference

Conference paper

Ouda MHI, Mitcheson P, Clerckx B, Optimal Operation of Multi-Tone Waveforms inLow RF-Power Receivers, IEEE MTT-S Wireless Power Transfer Conference

Conference paper

Mitcheson PD, Boyle D, Kkelis G, Yates D, Saenz JA, Aldhaher S, Yeatman Eet al., 2017, Energy-Autonomous Sensing Systems Using Drones, 16th IEEE SENSORS CONFERENCE, Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 648-650, ISSN: 1930-0395

Conference paper

Mitcheson PD, Boyle D, Kkelis G, Yates D, Saenz JA, Aldhaher S, Yeatman Eet al., 2017, Energy-autonomous sensing systems using drones, Pages: 1-3, ISSN: 1930-0395

© 2017 IEEE. This paper describes the system concept and initial results for end-to-end energy-autonomous sensor systems using unmanned aerial vehicles (drones) as agents for power delivery to and data gathering from sensing devices. Such systems may be particularly useful for delay tolerant monitoring scenarios, where sensing devices may be deployed in remote, harsh conditions, often with sparse connectivity, long life and high reliability requirements. This paper discusses the latest advances in wireless power delivery that makes this it possible to fly wireless power delivery systems on drones that have little payload capability.

Conference paper

Pacini A, Costanzo A, Aldhaher S, Mitcheson PDet al., 2017, Load- and Position-Independent Moving MHz WPT System Based on GaN-Distributed Current Sources, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol: 65, Pages: 5367-5376, ISSN: 0018-9480

This paper describes the modeling, analysis, and design of a complete (dc-to-dc) inductive wireless power transfer (WPT) system for industrial moving applications. The system operates at 6.78 MHz and delivers up to 150 W to a load moving along a linear path, providing a quasi-constant dc output voltage and maintaining a zero voltage switching operation, regardless of position and load, without any retuning or feedback. The inductive link consists of an array of stationary transmitting coils and a moving receiving coil whose length is optimized to achieve a constant coupling coefficient along the path. Each Tx coil is individually driven by a constant amplitude and phase sinusoidal current that is generated from a GaN-based coupled load-independent Class EF inverter. Two adjacent transmitters are activated at a given time depending on the receiver’s position; this effectively creates a virtual series connection between the two transmitting coils. The Rx coil is connected to a passive Class E rectifier that is designed to maintain a constant dc output voltage independent of its load and position. Extensive experimental results are presented to show the performance over different loading conditions and positions. A peak dc-to-dc efficiency of 80% is achieved at 100 W of dc output power and a dc output voltage variation of less than 5% is measured over a load range from 30 to 500 Ω . The work in this paper is foreseen as a design solution for a high-efficient, maintenance-free, and reliable WPT system for powering sliders and mass movers in industrial automation plants.

Journal article

Douthwaite M, Koutsos E, Yates DC, Mitcheson PD, Georgiou Pet al., 2017, A thermally powered ISFET array for on-body pH measurement, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems, Vol: 11, Pages: 1324-1334, ISSN: 1932-4545

Recent advances in electronics and electrochemical sensors have led to an emerging class of next generation wearables, detecting analytes in biofluids such as perspiration. Most of these devices utilize ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) as a detection method; however, ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs) offer a solution with improved integration and a low power consumption. This work presents a wearable, thermoelectrically powered system composed of an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), two commercial power management integrated circuits and a network of commercial thermoelectric generators (TEGs). The ASIC is fabricated in 0.35 μm CMOS and contains an ISFET array designed to read pH as a current, a processing module which averages the signal to reduce noise and encodes it into a frequency, and a transmitter. The output frequency has a measured sensitivity of 6 to 8 kHz/pH for a pH range of 7-5. It is shown that the sensing array and processing module has a power consumption 6 μW and, therefore, can be entirely powered by body heat using a TEG. Array averaging is shown to reduce noise at these low power levels to 104 μV (input referred integrated noise), reducing the minimum detectable limit of the ASIC to 0.008 pH units. The work forms the foundation and proves the feasibility of battery-less, on-body electrochemical for perspiration analysis in sports science and healthcare applications.

Journal article

Douthwaite M, Koutsos E, Yates DC, Mitcheson PD, Georgiou Pet al., 2017, A Thermally Powered ISFET Array for On-Body pH Measurement., IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits and Systems, Vol: 11, Pages: 1324-1334

Journal article

Lawson J, 2017, High frequency electromagnetic links for wireless power transfer

This thesis investigates inductive links used in wireless power transfer systems. Inductive power transfer can be used as a power delivery method for a variety of portable devices, from medical implants to electric vehicles and is gaining increased interest. The focus is on high quality factor coils and MHz operation, where accurate measurements are difficult to achieve. Fast models of all pertinent aspects of inductive power transfer systems for constant cross section coils are developed. These models are used to optimise a new coil winding pattern that aims to increase efficiency in volume constrained scenarios. Measurement systems are developed to measure coil Q factors in excess of 1,000. The prototype measurement systems are verified against models of that system, as well as finite element simulations of the coil under test. Shielding of inductive power transfer systems is then investigated. A structure typically used at GHz frequencies, the artificial magnetic conductor, is miniaturised as an alternative to conventional ferrite backed ground plane shielding. Finite element simulation shows this structure significantly improves link efficiency. The artificial magnetic conductor prototype does not result in a gain in efficiency expected, however it does display the properties expected of an artificial magnetic conductor, including increased coupling factor. Finally, an unconventional inductive power transfer system is presented where transmitter and receiver are up to 6m away from each other and of radically different size. This system provides mW level power to remote devices in a room, for example thermostats or e-ink displays. Conventional approaches to design do not consider the distortion of the magnetic field caused by metallic objects in the room. It was found that treating the system as a decoupled receiver and transmitter provides a better prediction of received power in real world environments.

Thesis dissertation

Pacini A, Costanzo A, Aldhaher S, Mitcheson PDet al., 2017, Design of a Position-Independent End-to-End Inductive WPT link for Industrial Dynamic Systems, IEEE-Microwave-Theory-and-Techniques-Society International Microwave Symposium (IMS) / Session on Women in Microwaves (WIM), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 1049-1052, ISSN: 0149-645X

Conference paper

Kim J, Clerckx B, Mitcheson PD, 2017, Prototyping and Experimentation of a Closed-Loop Wireless Power Transmission with Channel Acquisition and Waveform Optimization, IEEE Wireless Power Transfer Conference (WPTC), Publisher: IEEE, ISSN: 2474-0225

Conference paper

Kkelis G, Aldhaher S, Arteaga JM, Yates DC, Mitcheson PDet al., 2017, Hybrid Class-E Synchronous Rectifier for Wireless Powering of Quadcopters, IEEE Wireless Power Transfer Conference (WPTC), Publisher: IEEE, ISSN: 2474-0225

Conference paper

Aldhaher S, Mitcheson PD, Arteaga JM, Kkelis G, Yates DCet al., 2017, Light-Weight Wireless Power Transfer for Mid-Air Charging of Drones, 11th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EUCAP), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 336-340, ISSN: 2164-3342

Conference paper

Kkelis G, Yates DC, Mitcheson PD, 2017, Class-E half-wave zero dv/dt rectifiers for inductive power transfer, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol: 32, Pages: 8322-8337, ISSN: 1941-0107

This paper analyses and compares candidate zero dv/dt half-wave Class-E rectifier topologies for integration into multi-MHz inductive power transfer (IPT) systems. Furthermore, a hybrid Class-E topology comprising advantageous properties from all existing Class-E half-wave zero dv/dt rectifiers is analysed for the first time. From the analysis, it is shown that the hybrid Class-E rectifier provides an extra degree of design freedom which enables optimal IPT operation over a wider range of operating conditions. Furthermore, it is shown that by designing both the hybrid and the current driven rectifiers to operate below resonance provides a low deviation input reactance and inherent output voltage regulation with duty cycle allowing efficient IPT operation over wider dc load range than would otherwise be achieved. A set of case studies demonstrated the following performances: 1) For a constant dc load resistance, a receiving end efficiency of 95% was achieved when utilising the hybrid rectifier, with a tolerance in required input resistance of 2.4% over the tested output power range (50W to 200W). 2) For a variable dc load in the range of 100% to 10%, the hybrid and current driven rectifiers presented an input reactance deviation less than 2% of the impedance of the magnetising inductance of the inductive link respectively and receiving end efficiencies greater than 90%. 3) For a constant current in the receiving coil, both the hybrid and the current driven rectifier achieve inherent output voltage regulation in the order of 3% and 8% of the nominal value respectively, for a variable dc load range from 100% to 10%.

Journal article

Allmen L, Bailleul G, Becker T, Decotignie J-D, Kiziroglou M, Leroux C, Mitcheson P, Muller J, Piguet D, Weisser A, Wright S, Yeatman Eet al., 2017, Aircraft strain WSN powered by heat storage harvesting, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol: 64, Pages: 7284-7292, ISSN: 0278-0046

The combination of ultra-low power wireless communications and energy harvesting enables the realization of autonomous Wireless Sensor Networks.Such networks can be usefully applied in commercialaircraft where wireless sensing solutions contribute to weight reduction and increased ease of installation and maintenance. This paper presents, for the first time, a complete energy autonomous wireless strain monitoring system for aircraft. The system is based on a multi-mode wireless TDMA MAC protocol that supports automatic configuration and a time-stamping accuracy better than 1 ms. The energy supply depends solely on an innovative thermoelectric energy harvester which takes advantage of the changes in environmental temperature during take-off and landing. The system was successfully integrated and passed the functional and flight-clearance tests that qualify it for use in a flight-test installation.

Journal article

Boyle D, Kiziroglou ME, Mitcheson P, Yeatman Eet al., 2016, Provision and storage of energy for pervasive computing, IEEE Pervasive Computing, Vol: 15, Pages: 28-35, ISSN: 1558-2590

Soon, pervasive computers will enormously outnumber humans. Devices requiring sufficient energy to operate maintenance-free for periods of years and beyond render today’s technologiesinsufficient. With the gap between energy requirements of embedded systems and achievable levels of harvested power reducing, viable hybrid energy and power management subsystems have emerged that combine harvesting with finite, rechargeable energy buffers. Coupled with advances in wireless power transfer and energy storage, we propose that an energy design space is emerging. There are, as yet, no tools or systematic methods for design space exploration or engineering in this context. It is important to develop such a methodology, and critical to link it with methodologies for system design and verification. We discuss the key factors such an energy design methodology should incorporate,including size, weight, energy and power densities; efficiencies of harvesters and buffers; time between charges, (dis)charge speeds, and charge cycles; and availability and predictability of harvestable energy.

Journal article

Merlin MMC, mitcheson PD, 2016, Active power losses distribution methods for the modular multilevel converter, COMPEL 2016, Publisher: IEEE, ISSN: 1093-5142

Modular Converters such as the MMC have become the new standard in VSC-HVDC applications. Their modularity has brought many industrial advantages but also increased the complexity of their operation. This paper looks at how a range of techniques may alter the balance of power losses between the IGBT modules. These techniques are based on circulating currents at the (i) fundamental frequency and (ii) second harmonic and (iii) DC voltage offset on the converter voltage waveform. Finally, conclusions on the effectiveness and potential drawbacks of these techniques are discussed.

Conference paper

Mitcheson PD, Lucyszyn S, Pinuela M, Yates DCet al., 2016, RF energy harvester, US9837865B2

Disclosed herein is an antenna apparatus for use in harvesting ambient radio frequency, RF, energy. The apparatus comprises one or more RF antenna components arranged to receive RF energy for producing electricity. The one or more RF antenna components comprise a plurality of frequency filtering components, each frequency filtering component being arranged to filter a respective frequency band of the received RF energy. Also disclosed herein is an apparatus comprising a rectifying circuit arranged to convert a variable electrical signal received at an input from an associated antenna into a direct current electrical signal for supplying to an electrical energy storage unit, the antenna for use in harvesting ambient radio frequency, RF, energy. The apparatus also comprises a power management module having an input arranged to receive the direct current and control supply of the direct current to the electrical energy storage unit. The rectifying circuit comprises a plurality of transmission lines, wherein the input of the rectifying circuit and the input of the power management module are connected via the plurality of transmission lines. The power management module is arranged at least partially within a boundary defined by the plurality of transmission lines.

Patent

Kwan CH, Pinuela M, Mitcheson P, Yates D, Lawson Jet al., 2016, Inductive power transfer system, WO2016050633 A3

There is provided a near-field inductive power transfer system (10), comprising a power transmission device (100) arranged to transmit power wirelessly at a first frequency, f0, and a power reception device (200) arranged to receive power transmitted by the power transmission device (100). The power reception device (200) is moveable relative to the power transmission device (100) and comprises a receiver circuit (210) configured to receive power for powering a variable load (230) when the power reception device (200) is in a near-field region of the power transmission device (100), the receiver circuit being a resonant circuit with a resonant frequency, fR, such that 0.2 < f0/fR < 3. The power reception device (200) also includes an impedance emulator (220) for providing the received power to the variable load (230), the impedance emulator being arranged to suppress a variation in an impedance presented to the receiver circuit (210) by the load when the load varies during use of the near-field inductive power transfer system (10).

Patent

Aldhaher S, Mitcheson PD, Yates DC, 2016, Load-independent Class EF inverters for inductive wireless power transfer, 2016 IEEE Wireless Power Transfer Conference (WPTC), Publisher: IEEE

This paper will present the modelling, analysis and design of a load-independent Class EF inverter. This inverter is able to maintain zero-voltage switching (ZVS) operation and produce a constant output current for any load value without the need for tuning or replacement of components. The load-independent feature of this inverter is beneficial when used as the primary coil driver in multi megahertz high power inductive wireless power transfer (WPT) applications where the distance between the coils and the load are variable. The work here begins with the traditional load-dependent Class EF topology for inversion and then specifies the criteria that are required to be met in order achieve load-independence. The design and development of a 240W load-independent Class EF inverter to drive the primary coil of a 6.78MHz WPT system will be discussed and experimental results will be presented to show the load-independence feature when the distance between the coils of the WPT system changes.

Conference paper

Aldhaher S, Mitcheson PD, Yates DC, 2016, Design and Development of a Class EF<sub>2</sub> Inverter and Rectifier for Multi-megahertz Wireless Power Transfer Systems, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol: 31, Pages: 8138-8150, ISSN: 1941-0107

This paper presents the design and implementation of a Class EF2 inverter and Class EF2 rectifier for two -W wireless power transfer (WPT) systems, one operating at 6.78 MHz and the other at 27.12 MHz. It will be shown that the Class EF2 circuits can be designed to have beneficial features for WPT applications such as reduced second-harmonic component and lower total harmonic distortion, higher power-output capability, reduction in magnetic core requirements and operation at higher frequencies in rectification compared to other circuit topologies. A model will first be presented to analyze the circuits and to derive values of its components to achieve optimum switching operation. Additional analysis regarding harmonic content, magnetic core requirements and open-circuit protection will also be performed. The design and implementation process of the two Class-EF2-based WPT systems will be discussed and compared to an equivalent Class-E-based WPT system. Experimental results will be provided to confirm validity of the analysis. A dc-dc efficiency of 75% was achieved with Class-EF2-based systems.

Journal article

Miller LM, Elliott ADT, Mitcheson PD, Halvorsen E, Paprotny I, Wright PKet al., 2016, Maximum performance of piezoelectric energy harvesters when coupled to interface circuits, IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol: 16, Pages: 4803-4815, ISSN: 1558-1748

This paper presents a complete optimization of a piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting system, including a piezoelectric transducer, a power conditioning circuit with full semiconductor device models, a battery and passive components. To the authors awareness, this is the first time and all of these elements have been integrated into one optimization. The optimization is done within a framework, which models the combined mechanical and electrical elements of a complete piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting system. To realize the optimization, an optimal electrical damping is achieved using a single-supply pre-biasing circuit with a buck converter to charge the battery. The model is implemented in MATLAB and verified in SPICE. The results of the full system model are used to find the mechanical and electrical system parameters required to maximize the power output. The model, therefore, yields the upper bound of the output power and the system effectiveness of complete piezoelectric energy harvesting systems and, hence, provides both a benchmark for assessing the effectiveness of existing harvesters and a framework to design the optimized harvesters. It is also shown that the increased acceleration does not always result in increased power generation as a larger damping force is required, forcing a geometry change of the harvester to avoid exceeding the piezoelectric breakdown voltage. Similarly, increasing available volume may not result in the increased power generation because of the difficulty of resonating the beam at certain frequencies whilst utilizing the entire volume. A maximum system effectiveness of 48% is shown to be achievable at 100 Hz for a 3.38-cm3 generator.

Journal article

Kiziroglou ME, Elefsiniotis A, Kokorakis N, Wright SW, Toh TT, Mitcheson PD, Schmid U, Becker T, Yeatman EMet al., 2016, Scaling and super-cooling in heat storage harvesting devices, Microsystem Technologies, Vol: 22, Pages: 1905-1914, ISSN: 0946-7076

Aircraft sensors are typically cable powered, imposing a significant weight overhead. The exploitation of temperature variations during flight by a phase change material (PCM) based heat storage thermoelectric energy harvester, as an alternative power source in aeronautical applications, has recently been flight tested. In this work, the applicability of this technology to use cases with smaller and larger size specifications is studied by fabrication, testing and analysis of a scaled-down and a scaled-up prototype. Output energy of 4.1 J/g of PCM from a typical flight cycle is demonstrated for the scaled-down device, and 2.3 J/g of PCM for the scaled-up device. The higher energy density of the scaled down prototypes is attributed to the reduction in temperature inhomogeneity inside the PCM. The impact of super-cooling on performance is analyzed by employing a simulation model extended to include super-cooling effects. It is found that super-cooling may be beneficial for scaling down, in applications with slow temperature fluctuations.

Journal article

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