25 results found
Blakney AK, McKay PF, Hu K, et al., 2021, Polymeric and lipid nanoparticles for delivery of self-amplifying RNA vaccines, Journal of Controlled Release, Vol: 338, Pages: 201-210, ISSN: 0168-3659
Self-amplifying RNA (saRNA) is a next-generation vaccine platform, but like all nucleic acids, requires a delivery vehicle to promote cellular uptake and protect the saRNA from degradation. To date, delivery platforms for saRNA have included lipid nanoparticles (LNP), polyplexes and cationic nanoemulsions; of these LNP are the most clinically advanced with the recent FDA approval of COVID-19 based-modified mRNA vaccines. While the effect of RNA on vaccine immunogenicity is well studied, the role of biomaterials in saRNA vaccine effectiveness is under investigated. Here, we tested saRNA formulated with either pABOL, a bioreducible polymer, or LNP, and characterized the protein expression and vaccine immunogenicity of both platforms. We observed that pABOL-formulated saRNA resulted in a higher magnitude of protein expression, but that the LNP formulations were overall more immunogenic. Furthermore, we observed that both the helper phospholipid and route of administration (intramuscular versus intranasal) of LNP impacted the vaccine immunogenicity of two model antigens (influenza hemagglutinin and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein). We observed that LNP administered intramuscularly, but not pABOL or LNP administered intranasally, resulted in increased acute interleukin-6 expression after vaccination. Overall, these results indicate that delivery systems and routes of administration may fulfill different delivery niches within the field of saRNA genetic medicines.
McKay PF, Hu K, Blakney AK, et al., 2020, Self-amplifying RNA SARS-CoV-2 lipid nanoparticle vaccine candidate induces high neutralizing antibody titers in mice, Nature Communications, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 2041-1723
The spread of the SARS-CoV-2 into a global pandemic within a few months of onset motivates the development of a rapidly scalable vaccine. Here, we present a self-amplifying RNA encoding the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein encapsulated within a lipid nanoparticle (LNP) as a vaccine. We observe remarkably high and dose-dependent SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody titers in mouse sera, as well as robust neutralization of both a pseudo-virus and wild-type virus. Upon further characterization we find that the neutralization is proportional to the quantity of specific IgG and of higher magnitude than recovered COVID-19 patients. saRNA LNP immunizations induce a Th1-biased response in mice, and there is no antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) observed. Finally, we observe high cellular responses, as characterized by IFN-γ production, upon re-stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 peptides. These data provide insight into the vaccine design and evaluation of immunogenicity to enable rapid translation to the clinic.
Aldon Y, McKay PF, Allen J, et al., 2018, Rational design of DNA-expressed stabilized native-like HIV-1 envelope trimers, Cell Reports, Vol: 24, Pages: 3324-3338.e5, ISSN: 2211-1247
The HIV-1-envelope glycoprotein (Env) is the main target of antigen design for antibody-based prophylactic vaccines. The generation of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAb) likely requires the appropriate presentation of stabilized trimers preventing exposure of non-neutralizing antibody (nNAb) epitopes. We designed a series of membrane-bound Envs with increased trimer stability through the introduction of key stabilization mutations. We derived a stabilized HIV-1 trimer, ConSOSL.UFO.750, which displays a dramatic reduction in nNAb binding while maintaining high quaternary and MPER-specific bNAb binding. Its soluble counterpart, ConSOSL.UFO.664, displays similar antigenicity, and its native-like Env structure is confirmed by negative stain-EM and glycosylation profiling of the soluble ConSOSL.UFO.664 trimer. A rabbit immunization study demonstrated that the ConSOSL.UFO.664 can induce autologous tier 2 neutralization. We have successfully designed a stabilized native-like Env trimer amenable to nucleic acid or viral vector-based vaccination strategies.
Arakelyan A, Fitzgerald W, King DF, et al., 2017, Flow virometry analysis of envelope glycoprotein conformations on individual HIV virions, Scientific Reports, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2045-2322
HIV-1 envelope proteins (Envs) play a critical role in HIV infection. In a correct trimeric conformation, Env mediates virus–cell binding and fusion. Malfunctioning of this machinery renders virions incapable of infecting cells. Each HIV-1 virion carries 10–14 Envs, and therefore a defective Env may not necessarily render a HIV virion non-infectious, since other Env on the same virion may still be functional. Alternatively, it is possible that on a given virion either all the spikes are defective or all are functional. Here, we investigate Env conformations on individual virions using our new nanotechnology, “flow virometry”, and a panel of antibodies that discriminate between various Env conformations. We found that the majority of HIV-1 virions carry either only trimeric (“functional”) or only defective spikes. The relatively small subfraction of virions that carry both functional and nonfunctional Envs contributes little to HIV infection of human lymphoid tissue ex vivo. The observation that the majority of virions exclusively express either functional or nonfunctional forms of Env has important implications for understanding the role of neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies in the immune control of HIV infection as well as for the development of effective prophylactic strategies.
Cheeseman HM, Olejniczak NJ, Rogers PM, et al., 2016, Broadly neutralizing antibodies display potential for prevention of HIV-1 infection of mucosal tissue superior to that of nonneutralizing antibodies, Journal of Virology, Vol: 91, ISSN: 1098-5514
Definition of the key parameters mediating effective antibody blocking of HIV-1 acquisition within mucosal tissue may prove critical to effective vaccine development and the prophylactic use of monoclonal antibodies. Although direct antibody-mediated neutralization is highly effective against cell-free virus, antibodies targeting different sites of envelope vulnerability may display differential activity against mucosal infection. Nonneutralizing antibodies (nnAbs) may also impact mucosal transmission events through Fc-gamma receptor (FcγR)-mediated inhibition. In this study, a panel of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) and nnAbs, including those associated with protection in the RV144 vaccine trial, were screened for the ability to block HIV-1 acquisition and replication across a range of cellular and mucosal tissue models. Neutralization potency, as determined by the TZM-bl infection assay, did not fully predict activity in mucosal tissue. CD4-binding site (CD4bs)-specific bnAbs, in particular VRC01, were consistent in blocking HIV-1 infection across all cellular and tissue models. Membrane-proximal external region (MPER) (2F5) and outer domain glycan (2G12) bnAbs were also efficient in preventing infection of mucosal tissues, while the protective efficacy of bnAbs targeting V1-V2 glycans (PG9 and PG16) was more variable. In contrast, nnAbs alone and in combinations, while active in a range of cellular assays, were poorly protective against HIV-1 infection of mucosal tissues. These data suggest that tissue resident effector cell numbers and low FcγR expression may limit the potential of nnAbs to prevent establishment of the initial foci of infection. The solid protection provided by specific bnAbs clearly demonstrates their superior potential over that of nonneutralizing antibodies for preventing HIV-1 infection at the mucosal portals of infection.IMPORTANCE Key parameters mediating effective antibody blocking of HIV-1 acquisition within mucosal
Herrera C, Harman S, Rogers P, et al., 2016, Increased Activity of the Entry Inhibitor DS003, a BMS-378806 Analogue, through Binding to the CD4-induced Epitope in HIV-1 gp120, Conference on HIV Research for Prevention (HIV R4P), Publisher: MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC, Pages: 233-233, ISSN: 0889-2229
Cheeseman HM, Rogers P, King DFL, et al., 2016, Peripheral Immune Cells Improve the Inhibitory Activity of Non-neutralising HIV-1-specific Antibodies, Conference on HIV Research for Prevention (HIV R4P), Publisher: MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC, Pages: 147-147, ISSN: 0889-2229
Okala SG, King DF, Rogers PM, et al., 2014, Antibody Isotypes Differ in their Capacity to Bind, Capture and Aggregate HIV-1 Virions, AIDS RESEARCH AND HUMAN RETROVIRUSES, Vol: 30, Pages: A64-A64, ISSN: 0889-2229
Klein K, Mann JFS, Rogers P, et al., 2014, Polymeric penetration enhancers promote humoral immune responses to mucosal vaccines, JOURNAL OF CONTROLLED RELEASE, Vol: 183, Pages: 43-50, ISSN: 0168-3659
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 16
Mann JFS, Mckay PF, Fiserova A, et al., 2014, Enhanced immunogenicity of an HIV-1 DNA vaccine delivered with electroporation via combined intramuscular and intradermal routes, Journal of Virology, Vol: 88, Pages: 6959-6969, ISSN: 1098-5514
It is accepted that an effective prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine is likely to have the greatest impact on viral transmission rates. As previous reports have implicated DNA-priming, protein boost regimens to be efficient activators of humoral responses, we sought to optimize this regimen to further augment vaccine immunogenicity. Here we evaluated single versus concurrent intradermal (i.d.) and intramuscular (i.m.) vaccinations as a DNA-priming strategy for their abilities to elicit humoral and cellular responses against a model HIV-1 vaccine antigen, CN54-gp140. To further augment vaccine-elicited T and B cell responses, we enhanced cellular transfection with electroporation and then boosted the DNA-primed responses with homologous protein delivered subcutaneously (s.c.), intranasally (i.n.), i.m., or transcutaneously (t.c.). In mice, the concurrent priming regimen resulted in significantly elevated gamma interferon T cell responses and high-avidity antigen-specific IgG B cell responses, a hallmark of B cell maturation. Protein boosting of the concurrent DNA strategy further enhanced IgG concentrations but had little impact on T cell reactivity. Interestingly protein boosting by the subcutaneous route increased antibody avidity to a greater extent than protein boosting by either the i.m., i.n., or t.c. route, suggesting that this route may be preferential for driving B cell maturation. Using an alternative and larger animal model, the rabbit, we found the concurrent DNA-priming strategy followed by s.c. protein boosting to again be capable of eliciting high-avidity humoral responses and to also be able to neutralize HIV-1 pseudoviruses from diverse clades (clades A, B, and C). Taken together, we show that concurrent multiple-route DNA vaccinations induce strong cellular immunity, in addition to potent and high-avidity humoral immune responses.
Stieh DJ, Phillips JL, Rogers PM, et al., 2013, Dynamic electrophoretic fingerprinting of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, Retrovirology, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1742-4690
Background: Interactions between the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) and its primary receptor CD4 areinfluenced by the physiological setting in which these events take place. In this study, we explored the surfacechemistry of HIV-1 Env constructs at a range of pH and salinities relevant to mucosal and systemic compartmentsthrough electrophoretic mobility (EM) measurements. Sexual transmission events provide a more acidicenvironment for HIV-1 compared to dissemination and spread of infection occurring in blood or lymph node. Wehypothesize functional, trimeric Env behaves differently than monomeric forms.Results: The dynamic electrophoretic fingerprint of trimeric gp140 revealed a change in EM from strongly negativeto strongly positive as pH increased from that of the lower female genital tract (pHx) to that of the blood (pHy).Similar findings were observed using a trimeric influenza Haemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein, indicating that thismay be a general attribute of trimeric viral envelope glycoproteins. These findings were supported bycomputationally modeling the surface charge of various gp120 and HA crystal structures. To identify the behaviorof the infectious agent and its target cells, EM measurements were made on purified whole HIV-1 virions andprimary T-lymphocytes. Viral particles had a largely negative surface charge, and lacked the regions of positivitynear neutral pH that were observed with trimeric Env. T cells changed their surface chemistry as a function ofactivation state, becoming more negative over a wider range of pH after activation. Soluble recombinant CD4(sCD4) was found to be positively charged under a wide range of conditions. Binding studies between sCD4 andgp140 show that the affinity of CD4-gp140 interactions depends on pH.Conclusions: Taken together, these findings allow a more complete model of the electrochemical forces involvedin HIV-1 Env functionality. These results indicate that the influence of the localized environment on the inter
King DFL, Siddiqui AA, Buffa V, et al., 2013, Mucosal Tissue Tropism and Dissemination of HIV-1 Subtype B Acute Envelope-Expressing Chimeric Virus, JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY, Vol: 87, Pages: 890-899, ISSN: 0022-538X
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 22
Verma R, Lan Y, Rogers P, et al., 2006, Targeted delivery of interleukin 12 via an antibody specific for tumor and tumoral angiogenesis, Publisher: AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH, ISSN: 0008-5472
Stimson L, Rowlands MG, Newbatt YM, et al., 2005, Isothiazolones as inhibitors of PCAF and p300 histone acetyltransferase activity., Mol Cancer Ther, Vol: 4, Pages: 1521-1532, ISSN: 1535-7163
Histone acetylation plays an important role in regulating the chromatin structure and is tightly regulated by two classes of enzyme, histone acetyltransferases (HAT) and histone deacetylases (HDAC). Deregulated HAT and HDAC activity plays a role in the development of a range of cancers. Consequently, inhibitors of these enzymes have potential as anticancer agents. Several HDAC inhibitors have been described; however, few inhibitors of HATs have been disclosed. Following a FlashPlate high-throughput screen, we identified a series of isothiazolone-based HAT inhibitors. Thirty-five N-substituted analogues inhibited both p300/cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein-binding protein-associated factor (PCAF) and p300 (1 to >50 micromol/L, respectively) and the growth of a panel of human tumor cell lines (50% growth inhibition, 0.8 to >50 micromol/L). CCT077791 and CCT077792 decreased cellular acetylation in a time-dependent manner (2-48 hours of exposure) and a concentration-dependent manner (one to five times, 72 hours, 50% growth inhibition) in HCT116 and HT29 human colon tumor cell lines. CCT077791 reduced total acetylation of histones H3 and H4, levels of specific acetylated lysine marks, and acetylation of alpha-tubulin. Four and 24 hours of exposure to the compounds produced the same extent of growth inhibition as 72 hours of continuous exposure, suggesting that growth arrest was an early event. Chemical reactivity of these compounds, as measured by covalent protein binding and loss of HAT inhibition in the presence of DTT, indicated that reaction with thiol groups might be important in their mechanism of action. As one of the first series of small-molecule inhibitors of HAT activity, further analogue synthesis is being pursued to examine the potential scope for reducing chemical reactivity while maintaining HAT inhibition.
Raynaud FI, Whittaker SR, Fischer PM, et al., 2005, In vitro and in vivo pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships for the trisubstituted aminopurine cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors olomoucine, bohemine and CYC202., Clin Cancer Res, Vol: 11, Pages: 4875-4887, ISSN: 1078-0432
PURPOSE: To investigate pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships for the trisubstituted aminopurine cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors olomoucine, bohemine, and CYC202 (R-roscovitine; seliciclib) in the HCT116 human colon carcinoma model. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The in vitro activity of the agents was determined in a human tumor panel using the sulforhodamine B assay. The concentration and time dependence was established in HCT116 cells. Molecular biomarkers, including RB phosphorylation and cyclin expression, were assessed by Western blotting. Pharmacokinetic properties were characterized in mice following analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Based on these studies, a dosing regimen was developed for CYC202 that allowed therapeutic exposures in the HCT116 tumor xenograft. RESULTS: The antitumor potency of the agents in vitro was in the order olomoucine (IC50, 56 micromol/L) < bohemine (IC50, 27 micromol/L) < CYC202 (IC50, 15 micromol/L), corresponding to their activities as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. Antitumor activity increased with exposure time up to 16 hours. The agents caused inhibition of RB and RNA polymerase II phosphorylation and depletion of cyclins. They exhibited relatively rapid clearance following administration to mice. CYC202 displayed the slowest clearance from plasma and the highest tumor uptake, with oral bioavailability of 86%. Oral dosing of CYC202 gave active concentrations in the tumor, modulation of pharmacodynamic markers, and inhibition of tumor growth. CONCLUSIONS: CYC202 showed therapeutic activity on human cancer cell lines in vitro and on xenografts. Pharmacodynamic markers are altered in vitro and in vivo, consistent with the inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases. Such markers may be potentially useful in the clinical development of CYC202 and other cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.
Chau N-M, Rogers P, Aherne W, et al., 2005, Identification of novel small molecule inhibitors of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 that differentially block hypoxia-inducible factor-1 activity and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha induction in response to hypoxic stress and growth factors., Cancer Res, Vol: 65, Pages: 4918-4928, ISSN: 0008-5472
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcriptional complex that is activated in response to hypoxia and growth factors. HIF-1 plays a central role in tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis. Overexpression of the HIF-1alpha subunit has been observed in many human cancers and is associated with a poor prognostic outcome with conventional treatments. Targeting HIF-1 using novel small molecule inhibitors is, therefore, an attractive strategy for therapeutic development. We have generated U2OS human osteosarcoma cells stably expressing a luciferase reporter construct under the control of a hypoxia response element (U2OS-HRE-luc). The U2OS-HRE-luc cells were robustly and reproducibly sensitive to hypoxic stress in a HIF-1-dependent manner. We developed an automated U2OS-HRE-luc cell-based assay that was used in a high-throughput screen to identify compounds that inhibited HIF-1 activity induced by treatment with the hypoxia mimetic, deferoxamine mesylate. We performed a pilot screen of the National Cancer Institute Diversity Set of 2,000 compounds. We identified eight hit compounds, six of these were also identified by Rapisarda et al. in an independent hypoxia screen. However, there were two novel hit compounds, NSC-134754 and NSC-643735, that did not significantly inhibit constitutive luciferase activity in U2OS cells (U2OS-luc). We showed that both NSC-134754 and NSC-643735 significantly inhibited HIF-1 activity and HIF-1alpha protein induced by deferoxamine mesylate. Interestingly, NSC-134754 but not NCS-643735 inhibited HIF-1 activity and HIF-1alpha protein induced by hypoxia and significantly inhibited Glut-1 expression. Finally, we showed that both NCS-134754 and NCS-643735 inhibited HIF-1alpha protein induced by insulin-like growth factor-1. Our cell-based assay approach has successfully identified novel compounds that differentially target hypoxia and/or growth factor-mediated induction of HIF-1alpha.
Pearson VC, Ferguson J, Rogers PM, et al., 2003, Synthesis and antimelanoma activity of tertiary amide analogues of N-acetyl-4-S-cysteaminylphenol, ONCOLOGY RESEARCH, Vol: 13, Pages: 503-512, ISSN: 0965-0407
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 7
Sharp SY, O'Neill CF, Rogers P, et al., 2002, Retention of activity by the new generation platinum agent AMD0473 in four human tumour cell lines possessing acquired resistance to oxaliplatin, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CANCER, Vol: 38, Pages: 2309-2315, ISSN: 0959-8049
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 51
Rogers P, Boxall FE, Allott CP, et al., 2002, Sequence-dependent synergism between the new generation platinum agent ZD0473 and paclitaxel in cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant human ovarian carcinoma cell lines., Eur J Cancer, Vol: 38, Pages: 1653-1660, ISSN: 0959-8049
ZD0473 is a new generation hindered platinum agent currently undergoing worldwide Phase II clinical studies. The in vitro cytotoxicity of ZD0473 either alone or in combination with the anticancer drugs paclitaxel, gemcitabine, vinorelbine, topotecan and doxorubicin was determined using four human ovarian carcinoma cell lines and by the sulphorhodamine B assay (SRB). The lines included one model of acquired cisplatin resistance and one isogenic pair differing only in their p53 status. Notably, the simultaneous exposure to ZD0473 and paclitaxel for 96 h resulted in synergy (as defined by a median effect analysis) in all four cell lines (i.e. independent of cisplatin resistance and p53 status). In addition, synergy was observed in 3/4 lines and 2/4 lines following concomitant exposure to topotecan or gemcitabine, respectively. Sequencing studies with ZD0473 and paclitaxel revealed that, for three of the four cell lines, the combination of ZD0473 administered for 24 h prior to paclitaxel for 24 h conferred a greater growth inhibitory effect than the reverse sequential combination. This scheduling effect was particularly marked for the acquired cisplatin-resistant A2780CisR cell line; synergy being observed with ZD0473/paclitaxel, but antagonism with paclitaxel/ZD0473. This effect did not appear to be correlated with changes in drug-induced cell cycle checkpoints. These data suggest that ZD0473 may be usefully combined with various cytotoxics in the clinic, including paclitaxel, topotecan and gemcitabine.
Rogers PM, Beale PJ, Al-Moundhri M, et al., 2002, Overexpression of BclXL in a human ovarian carcinoma cell line: paradoxic effects on chemosensitivity in vitro versus in vivo., Int J Cancer, Vol: 97, Pages: 858-863, ISSN: 0020-7136
The effect of overexpressing the antiapoptotic protein BclXL in a human ovarian carcinoma cell line has been investigated in terms of sensitivity to the 2 major drugs used to treat this disease, paclitaxel and cisplatin. Stable transfection of BclXL into CH1 cells, which are relatively sensitive to cisplatin, resulted in around 2.7-fold higher expression in comparison with empty vector controls. However, this level of overexpression did not result in significant resistance in vitro to paclitaxel or cisplatin at the 50% inhibition level, using either short-term (4-day) growth inhibition or longer term colony-forming assays. By contrast, parallel subcutaneous xenograft models of these isogenic ovarian carcinoma cells in vivo, differing only in BclXL status, showed that this low-level BclXL overexpression conferred significant resistance to both paclitaxel and cisplatin in comparison with parent, nontransfected tumours. Whereas parent non-BclXL transfected tumours were highly responsive, with the disappearance of tumours for at least 50 days post treatment, tumours overexpressing BclXL grew back after 30 and 20 days after treatment with paclitaxel and cisplatin, respectively. These differences in responsiveness to paclitaxel in vivo were not attributable to any significant changes in the delivery of drug to the tumour. These data suggest that the responsiveness of ovarian cancer to paclitaxel and cisplatin in vivo, and therefore perhaps clinically, is influenced by levels of the antiapoptotic protein BclXL. Such effects may be missed in vitro when using short-term growth inhibition or clonogenic assays.
Beale PJ, Rogers P, Boxall F, et al., 2000, BCL-2 family protein expression and platinum drug resistance in ovarian carcinoma., British Journal of Cancer, Vol: 82, Pages: 436-440, ISSN: 0007-0920
The expression of the BCL-2 family proteins, BCL-2, BAX, BCL(XL) and BAK have been determined in a panel of 12 human ovarian carcinoma cell lines encompassing a wide range in sensitivity to cisplatin. Whereas BAX, BCL(XL) and BAK levels did not correlate with sensitivity, there was a statistically significant inverse correlation (r = -0.81; P = 0.002) between growth inhibition by cisplatin and BCL-2 levels. In sublines possessing acquired resistance to various platinum-based drugs or across a panel of human ovarian carcinoma xenografts, there was no consistent pattern of BCL-2 expression. Two relatively sensitive lines (A2780 and CH1) have been stably transfected with bcl-2 and bcl(XL) respectively and two relatively resistant lines (A2780cisR and SKOV-3) stably transfected with bax. Overexpression of BCL-2 in A2780 cells led to resistance to cisplatin compared to the vector control when assayed at 48 h post-drug incubation but a significant increase in sensitivity at 96 h. Relative rates of apoptosis at 48- and 96-h post-cisplatin exposure mirrored the growth inhibition. There was no significant difference in sensitivity of the pair of lines by clonogenic assay. No significant changes in chemosensitivity to a variety of DNA-damaging or tubulin-interactive agents were observed in the remaining transfected lines. Taken together, these results suggest that, in human ovarian carcinoma cells, high BCL-2 levels (either naturally occurring or through gene transfection) confers a trend towards sensitivity not resistance to platinum drugs.
Kelland LR, Sharp SY, Rogers PM, et al., 1999, DT-Diaphorase expression and tumor cell sensitivity to 17-allylamino, 17-demethoxygeldanamycin, an inhibitor of heat shock protein 90., J Natl Cancer Inst, Vol: 91, Pages: 1940-1949, ISSN: 0027-8874
BACKGROUND: To our knowledge, 17-allylamino,17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17AAG) is the first inhibitor of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) to enter a phase I clinical trial in cancer. Inhibition of Hsp90, a chaperone protein (a protein that helps other proteins avoid misfolding pathways that produce inactive or aggregated states), leads to depletion of important oncogenic proteins, including Raf-1 and mutant p53 (also known as TP53). Given its ansamycin benzoquinone structure, we questioned whether the antitumor activity of 17AAG was affected by expression of the NQO1 gene, which encodes the quinone-metabolizing enzyme DT-diaphorase. METHODS: The antitumor activity of 17AAG and other Hsp90 inhibitors was determined by use of a sulforhodamine B-based cell growth inhibition assay in culture and by the arrest of xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. DT-diaphorase activity was determined by use of a spectrophotometric assay, and protein expression was determined by means of western immunoblotting. RESULTS: In two independent in vitro human tumor cell panels, we observed a positive relationship between DT-diaphorase expression level and growth inhibition by 17AAG. Stable, high-level expression of the active NQO1 gene transfected into the DT-diaphorase-deficient (by NQO1 mutation) BE human colon carcinoma cell line resulted in a 32-fold increase in 17AAG growth-inhibition activity. Increased sensitivity to 17AAG in the transfected cell line was also confirmed in xenografts. The extent of depletion of Raf-1 and mutant p53 protein confirmed that the Hsp90 inhibition mechanism was maintained in cells with high and low levels of DT-diaphorase. 17AAG was shown to be a substrate for purified human DT-diaphorase. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the antitumor activity and possibly the toxicologic properties of 17AAG in humans may be influenced by the expression of DT-diaphorase. Careful monitoring for NQO1 polymorphism and the level of tumor DT-diaphorase activity is therefore re
Holford J, Rogers P, Kelland LR, 1998, ras mutation and platinum resistance in human ovarian carcinomas in vitro., Int J Cancer, Vol: 77, Pages: 94-100, ISSN: 0020-7136
A panel of 16 human ovarian carcinoma cell lines comprising cisplatin naive as well as those with acquired cisplatin resistance was studied to determine if there was a relationship between ras status and cisplatin sensitivity. From the ras expression studies alongside data produced by direct DNA sequencing, there was very little to suggest that ras overexpression or mutation plays a role in the cisplatin sensitivity of the panel of human ovarian carcinoma cell lines tested. A weak correlation (r2 = 0.53) was found between total Ras protein levels and resistance to cisplatin. No relationship was found between Kirsten-Ras protein levels and cisplatin sensitivity (r2 = 0.0). Only one ras mutation (codon 13, Kirsten exon 1, glycine --> aspartate in the HX62 cell line) was observed in the cisplatin naive cell lines from the panel which comprised both cisplatin sensitive and resistant models. Of interest, however, was that the HX62 cell line was the most resistant to cisplatin. No ras mutations were found in those cell lines which had repeatedly been exposed, and acquired resistance, to cisplatin. The A2780 and CH1 human ovarian carcinoma cell lines were transfected with activated, mutant Harvey-ras and, as a result, were shown to display elevated MAP kinase phosphorylation in low serum concentration growth medium. No changes in cisplatin sensitivity were found following transfection with activated Harvey-ras in these 2 human ovarian carcinoma tumor cell models which, importantly, differed greatly in their expression of Bcl-2. Therefore, when conducted under similar conditions to previously published studies, very little evidence was found to support Harvey-ras activation as a factor which can either sensitize or confer resistance to cisplatin in human ovarian carcinoma cell lines.
Aherne GW, Hardcastle A, Valenti M, et al., 1996, Antitumour evaluation of dolastatins 10 and 15 and their measurement in plasma by radioimmunoassay., Cancer Chemother Pharmacol, Vol: 38, Pages: 225-232, ISSN: 0344-5704
Dolastatins 10 and 15 are small peptides isolated from the marine sea hare Dolabella auricularia that have been shown to interact with tubulin. Their growth-inhibitory properties were compared using panels of human ovarian and colon-carcinoma cell lines. Both agents were very potent inhibitors of cell growth, with dolastatin 10 being an average of 9.1-fold more potent than dolastatin 15 [mean 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50 values) 2.3 x 10(-10) and 2.1 x 10(-9) M, respectively; P < 0.05] and more potent than paclitaxel or vinblastine. While neither dolastatin exhibited marked cross-resistance in cisplatin- or etoposide-resistant cell lines, contrasting effects were observed using an acquired doxorubicin-resistant (CH1doxR, 100-fold resistant, P-glycoprotein overexpressing) cell line. Resistance was significantly higher to dolastatin 15 (12.7-fold) than to dolastatin 10 (only 3.2-fold; P < 0.05) and was reversible in both cases by verapamil. In vivo, using a s.c. advanced-stage human ovarian carcinoma xenograft and equitoxic doses, greater activity was observed with dolastatin 10 (6.1-day growth delay) versus 0.4 days for dolastatin 15. A radioimmunoassay for dolastatin 10 (limit of detection in mouse plasma 5 ng/ml) was developed. The rabbit antiserum aslo cross-reacted by 65% with dolastatin 15. Comparative mouse pharmacokinetics following i.v. administration of 1 mg/kg showed that both compounds are rapidly eliminated, but with a shorter second-phase half-life (t1/2 beta) being observed for dolastatin 15 (being detectable for only up to 4 h post-administration), the t1/2 beta being 3 times longer for dolastatin 10. In addition, areas under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC values) were 1.6-fold higher for dolastatin 10 (333 versus 208 ng ml-1 h). Plasma binding of dolastatin 10 exceeded 90%. The highly sensitive RIA will be useful for pharmacokinetic studies in conjunction with the planned phase I clinical trials of these novel, extremely potent
Sharp SY, Rogers PM, Kelland LR, 1995, Transport of cisplatin and bis-acetato-ammine-dichlorocyclohexylamine Platinum(IV) (JM216) in human ovarian carcinoma cell lines: identification of a plasma membrane protein associated with cisplatin resistance., Clin Cancer Res, Vol: 1, Pages: 981-989, ISSN: 1078-0432
The mechanisms by which cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cisplatin) is transported across the plasma membrane (i.e., passive diffusion versus active transport) were investigated in the 41M and CH1 human ovarian carcinoma cell lines and their acquired cisplatin-resistant variants 41McisR6 and CH1cisR6, respectively. Intracellular cisplatin accumulation was significantly reduced (4.0 +/- 1.7-fold) in the parental 41M line at 4 degrees C when compared to incubations at 37 degrees C. However, no significant differences in platinum uptake were observed in the 41McisR6 and in the CH1 pair of lines at 4 degrees C versus 37 degrees C. Similarly, in the presence of ouabain (an inhibitor of Na+,K+-ATPase), there was a marked reduction (2.0 +/- 0.4-fold) in drug accumulation in the sensitive 41M cells only, and no changes in drug uptake were observed in the other cell lines in the absence or presence of ouabain. Platinum accumulation was significantly enhanced in all cell lines in the presence of metabolic inhibitors (NaF and NaN3). These results suggest that in the parental 41M cell line, cisplatin transport may occur via passive diffusion and active/facilitated transport, whereas in the resistant 41McisR6 variant, cisplatin enters cells by passive diffusion only. The orally active drug bis-acetato-ammine-dichloro-cyclohexylamine platinum(IV) (JM216) is a lipophilic platinum(IV) complex that has been shown to circumvent cisplatin resistance in the 41McisR6 by increasing drug uptake. Across the entire range of concentrations used (5-50 microm), intracellular accumulation of JM216 was significantly reduced in 41M and 41McisR6 cells (3.5 +/- 0.7-fold; P < 0.01), and in CH1 and CH1cisR6 cells (14.2 +/- 6.0-fold; p < 0.01) at 4 degrees C when compared to incubations at 37 degrees C. No significant difference in JM216 uptake was observed in the 41M pair of lines in the absence or presence of ouabain. Additional studies have revealed that the fold reduction observed in cis-am
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