Imperial College London

Phil Heptonstall

Faculty of Natural SciencesCentre for Environmental Policy

Research Fellow



+44 (0)20 7594 7309philip.heptonstall




401Weeks BuildingSouth Kensington Campus





Heat pump cost reductions (2023)

Domestic heating and hot water provision accounts for around a quarter of total UK energy demand, and the sector is currently dominated by natural gas boilers. Decarbonising this sector is therefore vital if the UK is to continue its journey to net zero.

This TPA project focused on heat pumps because many analyses have concluded that they are likely to be the most cost-effective route to decarbonising heat provision. However, a key challenge is the current high cost of heat pumps and the associated heating system changes required to make best use of the different operating characteristics of heat pumps, relative to the incumbent gas boilers.

The project brings together the evidence from past cost trends and future expectations of costs for heat pumps.

Full details can be found on the project webpage:

Green Jobs (2022)

In 2014 the UKERC TPA team completed a review on low carbon jobs, examining the evidence for net job creation from policy support for energy efficiency and renewable energy:

The 2022 updated analysis considered the question of whether policy driven expansion of specific low carbon sectors actually creates jobs, particularly when the policies in question require subsidies that are paid for through bills or taxes. The report presents findings from a systematic review of literature on low carbon job creation, quality, and skills.

Full details can be found on the project webpage:

Other TPA projects

Full details of completed TPA projects can be found on the UKERC webpages: