52 results found
Baquedano M, de Jesus SE, Rapetto F, et al., 2023, Outcome monitoring and risk stratification after cardiac procedure in neonates, infants, children and young adults born with congenital heart disease: protocol for a multicentre prospective cohort study (Children OMACp)., BMJ Open, Vol: 13
INTRODUCTION: Congenital heart disease (CHD) represents the most common birth defect, affecting from 0.4% to 1.2% of children born in developed countries. The survival of these patients has increased significantly, but CHD remains one of the major causes of neonatal and childhood death. The aetiology of CHD is complex, with some evidence of both genetic and environmental causes. However, there is still lack of knowledge regarding modifiable risk factors and molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying the development of CHD. This study aims to develop a prospective cohort of patients undergoing cardiac procedures that will bring together routinely collected clinical data and biological samples from patients and their biological mothers, in order to investigate risk factors and predictors of postoperative-outcomes, as well as better understanding the effect of the surgical intervention on the early and long-term outcomes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Children OMACp (OMACp, outcome monitoring after cardiac procedure in congenital heart disease) is a multicentre, prospective cohort study recruiting children with CHD undergoing a cardiac procedure. The study aims to recruit 3000 participants over 5 years (2019-2024) across multiple UK sites. Routine clinical data will be collected, as well as participant questionnaires collecting sociodemographic, NHS resource use and quality of life data. Biological samples (blood, urine and surgical waste tissue from patients, and blood and urine samples from biological mothers) will be collected where consent has been obtained. Follow-up outcome and questionnaire data will be collected for 5 years. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by the London-Brent Research Ethics Committee on 30 July 2019 (19/SW/0113). Participants (or their parent/guardian if under 16 years of age) must provide informed consent prior to being recruited into the study. Mothers who wish to take part must also provide informed consent prior to being recruite
Avolio E, Srivastava PK, Ji J, et al., 2023, Murine studies and expressional analyses of human cardiac pericytes reveal novel trajectories of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein-induced microvascular damage, Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2095-9907
Sopic M, Robinson EL, Emanueli C, et al., 2023, Integration of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in heart failure., Basic Res Cardiol, Vol: 118
The number of "omics" approaches is continuously growing. Among others, epigenetics has appeared as an attractive area of investigation by the cardiovascular research community, notably considering its association with disease development. Complex diseases such as cardiovascular diseases have to be tackled using methods integrating different omics levels, so called "multi-omics" approaches. These approaches combine and co-analyze different levels of disease regulation. In this review, we present and discuss the role of epigenetic mechanisms in regulating gene expression and provide an integrated view of how these mechanisms are interlinked and regulate the development of cardiac disease, with a particular attention to heart failure. We focus on DNA, histone, and RNA modifications, and discuss the current methods and tools used for data integration and analysis. Enhancing the knowledge of these regulatory mechanisms may lead to novel therapeutic approaches and biomarkers for precision healthcare and improved clinical outcomes.
Ben-Aicha S, Caporali A, Srivastava P, et al., 2023, Role of MicroRNAs in Vascular Remodeling and Repair, MicroRNA in Regenerative Medicine, Second Edition, Pages: 453-488, ISBN: 9780128207222
Vascular remodeling can occur after a traumatic cardiovascular event or in the presence of comorbidities as well as aging. This remodeling is a complex network of stimulus including temporal gene expression coordinated by microRNAs (miRNAs). In the setting of cardiovascular regeneration, miRNAs could play a role in the generation of new functional cardiomyocytes and therapeutic angiogenesis whose implication remains as a key goal in cell therapy for vascular and cardiovascular diseases. In this later regard, cell differentiation elicits a complex concerto of precise miRNA expression for controlling cell fate decisions, function, and engraftment into the host. Despite promising results, limited improvements in animal models of ischemic disease using progenitor cell types have been shown in diseases, such as chronic angina, acute MI, and heart failure. To progress to the clinic, a better understanding of the transcriptional control of lineage commitment is warranted. This chapter describes the role of miRNAs in vascular remodeling and in cell therapy strategies for treating ischemic diseases.
Harries I, Biglino G, Ford K, et al., 2022, Prospective multiparametric CMR characterization and MicroRNA profiling of anthracycline cardiotoxicity: A pilot translational study, IJC HEART & VASCULATURE, Vol: 43
Feleke R, Jazayeri D, Abouzeid M, et al., 2022, Integrative genomics reveals pathogenic mediator of valproate-induced neurodevelopmental disability, Brain: a journal of neurology, Vol: 145, Pages: 3832-3842, ISSN: 0006-8950
Prenatal exposure to the anti-seizure medication sodium valproate (VPA) is associated with an increased risk of adverse postnatal neurodevelopmental outcomes, including lowered intellectual ability, autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In this study, we aimed to clarify the molecular mechanisms underpinning the neurodevelopmental consequences of gestational VPA exposure using integrative genomics. First, we assessed the effect of gestational VPA on fetal brain gene expression using a validated rat model of valproate teratogenicity that mimics the human scenario of chronic oral valproate treatment during pregnancy at doses which are therapeutically relevant to the treatment of epilepsy. Two different rat strains were studied - inbred Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS), a model of genetic generalized epilepsy, and inbred Non-Epileptic Control rats. Female rats were fed standard chow or VPA mixed in standard chow for 2 weeks prior to conception and then mated with same-strain males. In the VPA-exposed rats maternal oral treatment was continued throughout pregnancy. Fetuses were extracted via C-section on gestational day 21 (one day prior to birth) and fetal brains were snap frozen and genome-wide gene expression data generated. We found that gestational VPA exposure via chronic maternal oral dosing was associated with substantial drug-induced differential gene expression in the pup brains, including dysregulated splicing, and observed that this occurred in the absence of evidence for significant neuronal gain or loss. The functional consequences of VPA-induced gene expression were explored using pathway analysis and integration with genetic risk data for psychiatric disease and behavioural traits. The set of genes down-regulated by VPA in the pup brains were significantly enriched for pathways related to neurodevelopment and synaptic function, and significantly enriched for heritability to human intelligence, schizop
Ji J, Anwar M, Petretto E, et al., 2022, PPMS: a framework to profile primary microRNAs from single-cell RNA-sequencing datasets, Briefings in Bioinformatics, Vol: 23, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 1467-5463
Motivation:Single-cell/nuclei RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) technologies can simultaneously quantify gene expression in thousands of cells across the genome. However, the majority of the non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), cannot currently be profiled at the same scale. MiRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs and play an important role in gene regulation. MiRNAs originate from the processing of primary transcripts, known as primary-microRNAs (pri-miRNAs). The pri-miRNA transcripts, independent of their cognate miRNAs, can also function as long non-coding RNAs, code for micropeptides or even interact with DNA, acting like enhancers. Therefore, it is apparent that the significance of scRNA-seq pri-miRNA profiling expands beyond using pri-miRNA as proxies of mature miRNAs. However, there are no computational methods that allow profiling and quantification of pri-miRNAs at the single-cell type resolution.Results:We have developed a simple yet effective computational framework to Profile Pri-MiRNAs from Single-cell RNA-sequencing datasets (PPMS). Based on user input, PPMS can profile pri-miRNAs at cell-type resolution. PPMS can be applied to both newly produced and publicly available datasets obtained via single cell or single nuclei RNA-seq. It allows users to (i) investigate the distribution of pri-miRNAs across cell types and cell states and (ii) establish a relationship between the number of cells/reads sequenced and the detection of pri-miRNAs. Here, to demonstrate its efficacy, we have applied PPMS to publicly available scRNA-seq data generated from (a) individual chambers (ventricles and atria) of the human heart, (b) human pluripotent stem cells during their differentiation into cardiomyocytes (the heart beating cells) and (c) hiPSCs-derived cardiomyocytes infected with SARS-CoV2 virus. Availability and implementation:PPMS is free to use under a GNU license and is available to download from (GitHub link: https://github.com/SrivastavaLab-ICL/PPMS)
Faleeva M, Diakonov I, Srivastava P, et al., 2022, Compartmentation of cGMP Signaling in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived Cardiomyocytes during Prolonged Culture, CELLS, Vol: 11
Feleke R, Reynolds RH, Smith AM, et al., 2021, Cross-platform transcriptional profiling identifies common and distinct molecular pathologies in Lewy body diseases, Acta Neuropathologica, Vol: 142, Pages: 449-474, ISSN: 0001-6322
Parkinson's disease (PD), Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are three clinically, genetically and neuropathologically overlapping neurodegenerative diseases collectively known as the Lewy body diseases (LBDs). A variety of molecular mechanisms have been implicated in PD pathogenesis, but the mechanisms underlying PDD and DLB remain largely unknown, a knowledge gap that presents an impediment to the discovery of disease-modifying therapies. Transcriptomic profiling can contribute to addressing this gap, but remains limited in the LBDs. Here, we applied paired bulk-tissue and single-nucleus RNA-sequencing to anterior cingulate cortex samples derived from 28 individuals, including healthy controls, PD, PDD and DLB cases (n = 7 per group), to transcriptomically profile the LBDs. Using this approach, we (i) found transcriptional alterations in multiple cell types across the LBDs; (ii) discovered evidence for widespread dysregulation of RNA splicing, particularly in PDD and DLB; (iii) identified potential splicing factors, with links to other dementia-related neurodegenerative diseases, coordinating this dysregulation; and (iv) identified transcriptomic commonalities and distinctions between the LBDs that inform understanding of the relationships between these three clinical disorders. Together, these findings have important implications for the design of RNA-targeted therapies for these diseases and highlight a potential molecular "window" of therapeutic opportunity between the initial onset of PD and subsequent development of Lewy body dementia.
Robinson EL, Baker AH, Brittan M, et al., 2021, Dissecting the transcriptome in cardiovascular disease, CARDIOVASCULAR RESEARCH, Vol: 118, Pages: 1004-1019, ISSN: 0008-6363
Wolking S, Moreau C, McCormack M, et al., 2021, Assessing the role of rare genetic variants in drug-resistant, non-lesional focal epilepsy, ANNALS OF CLINICAL AND TRANSLATIONAL NEUROLOGY, Vol: 8, Pages: 1376-1387, ISSN: 2328-9503
Robinson EL, Gomes CPC, Potocnjak I, et al., 2020, A Year in the Life of the EU-CardioRNA COST Action: CA17129 Catalysing Transcriptomics Research in Cardiovascular Disease, NON-CODING RNA, Vol: 6
Jupp B, Pitzoi S, Petretto E, et al., 2020, Impulsivity is a heritable trait in rodents and associated with a novel quantitative trait locus on chromosome 1, SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2045-2322
Wolking S, Moreau C, Nies AT, et al., 2020, Testing association of rare genetic variants with resistance to three common antiseizure medications, Epilepsia, Vol: 61, Pages: 657-666, ISSN: 0013-9580
OBJECTIVE: Drug resistance is a major concern in the treatment of individuals with epilepsy. No genetic markers for resistance to individual antiseizure medication (ASM) have yet been identified. We aimed to identify the role of rare genetic variants in drug resistance for three common ASMs: levetiracetam (LEV), lamotrigine (LTG), and valproic acid (VPA). METHODS: A cohort of 1622 individuals of European descent with epilepsy was deeply phenotyped and underwent whole exome sequencing (WES), comprising 575 taking LEV, 826 LTG, and 782 VPA. We performed gene- and gene set-based collapsing analyses comparing responders and nonresponders to the three drugs to determine the burden of different categories of rare genetic variants. RESULTS: We observed a marginally significant enrichment of rare missense, truncating, and splice region variants in individuals who were resistant to VPA compared to VPA responders for genes involved in VPA pharmacokinetics. We also found a borderline significant enrichment of truncating and splice region variants in the synaptic vesicle glycoprotein (SV2) gene family in nonresponders compared to responders to LEV. We did not see any significant enrichment using a gene-based approach. SIGNIFICANCE: In our pharmacogenetic study, we identified a slightly increased burden of damaging variants in gene groups related to drug kinetics or targeting in individuals presenting with drug resistance to VPA or LEV. Such variants could thus determine a genetic contribution to drug resistance.
Schidlitzki A, Bascuñana P, Srivastava PK, et al., 2020, Proof-of-concept that network pharmacology is effective to modify development of acquired temporal lobe epilepsy, Neurobiology of Disease, Vol: 134, Pages: 1-16, ISSN: 0969-9961
Epilepsy is a complex network phenomenon that, as yet, cannot be prevented or cured. We recently proposed network-based approaches to prevent epileptogenesis. For proof of concept we combined two drugs (levetiracetam and topiramate) for which in silico analysis of drug-protein interaction networks indicated a synergistic effect on a large functional network of epilepsy-relevant proteins. Using the intrahippocampal kainate mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy, the drug combination was administered during the latent period before onset of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS). When SRS were periodically recorded by video-EEG monitoring after termination of treatment, a significant decrease in incidence and frequency of SRS was determined, indicating antiepileptogenic efficacy. Such efficacy was not observed following single drug treatment. Furthermore, a combination of levetiracetam and phenobarbital, for which in silico analysis of drug-protein interaction networks did not indicate any significant drug-drug interaction, was not effective to modify development of epilepsy. Surprisingly, the promising antiepileptogenic effect of the levetiracetam/topiramate combination was obtained in the absence of any significant neuroprotective or anti-inflammatory effects as indicated by multimodal brain imaging and histopathology. High throughput RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) of the ipsilateral hippocampus of mice treated with the levetiracetam/topiramate combination showed that several genes that have been linked previously to epileptogenesis, were significantly differentially expressed, providing interesting entry points for future mechanistic studies. Overall, we have discovered a novel combination treatment with promise for prevention of epilepsy.
Palmisano I, Danzi MC, Hutson TH, et al., 2019, Epigenomic signatures underpin the axonal regenerative ability of dorsal root ganglia sensory neurons, Nature Neuroscience, Vol: 22, Pages: 1913-1924, ISSN: 1097-6256
Axonal injury results in regenerative success or failure, depending on whether the axon lies in the peripheral or the CNS, respectively. The present study addresses whether epigenetic signatures in dorsal root ganglia discriminate between regenerative and non-regenerative axonal injury. Chromatin immunoprecipitation for the histone 3 (H3) post-translational modifications H3K9ac, H3K27ac and H3K27me3; an assay for transposase-accessible chromatin; and RNA sequencing were performed in dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve or dorsal column axotomy. Distinct histone acetylation and chromatin accessibility signatures correlated with gene expression after peripheral, but not central, axonal injury. DNA-footprinting analyses revealed new transcriptional regulators associated with regenerative ability. Machine-learning algorithms inferred the direction of most of the gene expression changes. Neuronal conditional deletion of the chromatin remodeler CCCTC-binding factor impaired nerve regeneration, implicating chromatin organization in the regenerative competence. Altogether, the present study offers the first epigenomic map providing insight into the transcriptional response to injury and the differential regenerative ability of sensory neurons.
Chen H, Moreno-Moral A, Pesce F, et al., 2019, Author Correction: WWP2 regulates pathological cardiac fibrosis by modulating SMAD2 signaling, Nature Communications, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2041-1723
Laaniste L, Srivastava P, Stylianou T, et al., 2019, Integrated systems-genetic analyses reveal a network target for delaying glioma progression, Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology, Vol: 6, Pages: 1616-1638, ISSN: 2328-9503
ObjectiveTo identify a convergent, multitarget proliferation characteristic for astrocytoma transformation that could be targeted for therapy discovery.MethodsUsing an integrated functional genomics approach, we prioritized networks associated with astrocytoma progression using the following criteria: differential co‐expression between grade II and grade III IDH1‐mutated and 1p/19q euploid astrocytomas, preferential enrichment for genetic risk to cancer, association with patient survival and sample‐level genomic features. Drugs targeting the identified multitarget network characteristic for astrocytoma transformation were computationally predicted using drug transcriptional perturbation data and validated using primary human astrocytoma cells.ResultsA single network, M2, consisting of 177 genes, was associated with glioma progression on the basis of the above criteria. Functionally, M2 encoded physically interacting proteins regulating cell cycle processes and analysis of genome‐wide gene‐regulatory interactions using mutual information and DNA–protein interactions revealed the known regulators of cell cycle processes FoxM1, B‐Myb, and E2F2 as key regulators of M2. These results suggest functional disruption of M2 via gene mutation or altered expression as a convergent pathway regulating astrocytoma transformation. By considering M2 as a multitarget drug target regulating astrocytoma transformation, we identified several drugs that are predicted to restore M2 expression in anaplastic astrocytoma toward its low‐grade profile and of these, we validated the known antiproliferative drug resveratrol as down‐regulating multiple nodes of M2 including at nanomolar concentrations achievable in human cerebrospinal fluid by oral dosing.InterpretationOur results identify M2 as a multitarget network characteristic for astrocytoma progression and encourage M2‐based drug screening to identify new compounds for preventing glioma transformation.
Chen H, Moreno-Moral A, Pesce F, et al., 2019, WWP2 regulates pathological cardiac fibrosis by modulating SMAD2 signaling, Nature Communications, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-19, ISSN: 2041-1723
Cardiac fibrosis is a final common pathology in inherited and acquired heart diseases that causes cardiac electrical and pump failure. Here, we use systems genetics to identify a pro-fibrotic gene network in the diseased heart and show that this network is regulated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase WWP2, specifically by the WWP2-N terminal isoform. Importantly, the WWP2-regulated pro-fibrotic gene network is conserved across different cardiac diseases characterized by fibrosis: human and murine dilated cardiomyopathy and repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Transgenic mice lacking the N-terminal region of the WWP2 protein show improved cardiac function and reduced myocardial fibrosis in response to pressure overload or myocardial infarction. In primary cardiac fibroblasts, WWP2 positively regulates the expression of pro-fibrotic markers and extracellular matrix genes. TGFβ1 stimulation promotes nuclear translocation of the WWP2 isoforms containing the N-terminal region and their interaction with SMAD2. WWP2 mediates the TGFβ1-induced nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and transcriptional activity of SMAD2.
Berghuis B, Stapleton C, Sonsma ACM, et al., 2019, A genome-wide association study of sodium levels and drug metabolism in an epilepsy cohort treated with carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine, Epilepsia Open, Vol: 4, Pages: 102-109, ISSN: 2470-9239
Epilepsia Open published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of International League Against Epilepsy. Objective: To ascertain the clinical and genetic factors contributing to carbamazepine- and oxcarbazepine-induced hyponatremia (COIH), and to carbamazepine (CBZ) metabolism, in a retrospectively collected, cross-sectional cohort of people with epilepsy. Methods: We collected data on serum sodium levels and antiepileptic drug levels in people with epilepsy attending a tertiary epilepsy center while on treatment with CBZ or OXC. We defined hyponatremia as Na+ ≤134 mEq/L. We estimated the CBZ metabolic ratio defined as the log transformation of the ratio of metabolite CBZ-diol to unchanged drug precursor substrate as measured in serum. Results: Clinical and genetic data relating to carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine trials were collected in 1141 patients. We did not observe any genome-wide significant associations with sodium level in a linear trend or hyponatremia as a dichotomous trait. Age, sex, number of comedications, phenytoin use, phenobarbital use, and sodium valproate use were significant predictors of CBZ metabolic ratio. No genome-wide significant associations with CBZ metabolic ratio were found. Significance: Although we did not detect a genetic predictor of hyponatremia or CBZ metabolism in our cohort, our findings suggest that the determinants of CBZ metabolism are multifactorial.
Pandey P, Srivastava PK, Pandey SP, 2019, Prediction of Plant miRNA Targets., Methods Mol Biol, Vol: 1932, Pages: 99-107
microRNAs (miRNAs) are the central component of an important layer of regulation of gene expression at posttranscriptional level. In plants, miRNAs target the transcripts in a highly complementary sequence-dependent manner. Extensive research is being made to study genome-wide miRNA-mediated regulation of gene expression, which has resulted in the development of many tools for in silico prediction of miRNA targets. Although several tools have been developed for predicting miRNA targets in model plants, genome-wide analysis of miRNA targets is still a challenge for non-model species that lack dedicated tools. Here, we describe an in silico procedure for studying miRNA-mediated interactions in plants, which is based on the fact that canonical miRNA-target sites are highly complementary, the miRNAs negatively regulate the expression of their target genes, and miRNAs may form regulatory networks as one miRNA may target more than one transcript and vice versa to modulate and fine-tune expression of the genome.
Srivastava P, van Eyll J, Godard P, et al., 2018, A systems-level framework for drug discovery identifies Csf1R as an anti-epileptic drug target, Nature Communications, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2041-1723
The identification of drug targets is highly challenging, particularly for diseases of the brain. To address this problem, we developed and experimentally validated a general computational framework for drug target discovery that combines gene regulatory information with causal reasoning (“Causal Reasoning Analytical Framework for Target discovery”—CRAFT). Using a systems genetics approach and starting from gene expression data from the target tissue, CRAFT provides a predictive framework for identifying cell membrane receptors with a direction-specified influence over disease-related gene expression profiles. As proof of concept, we applied CRAFT to epilepsy and predicted the tyrosine kinase receptor Csf1R as a potential therapeutic target. The predicted effect of Csf1R blockade in attenuating epilepsy seizures was validated in three pre-clinical models of epilepsy. These results highlight CRAFT as a systems-level framework for target discovery and suggest Csf1R blockade as a novel therapeutic strategy in epilepsy. CRAFT is applicable to disease settings other than epilepsy.
May P, Girard S, Harrer M, et al., 2018, Rare coding variants in genes encoding GABA(A) receptors in genetic generalised epilepsies: an exome-based case-control study, Lancet Neurology, Vol: 17, Pages: 699-708, ISSN: 1474-4422
BackgroundGenetic generalised epilepsy is the most common type of inherited epilepsy. Despite a high concordance rate of 80% in monozygotic twins, the genetic background is still poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the burden of rare genetic variants in genetic generalised epilepsy.MethodsFor this exome-based case-control study, we used three different genetic generalised epilepsy case cohorts and three independent control cohorts, all of European descent. Cases included in the study were clinically evaluated for genetic generalised epilepsy. Whole-exome sequencing was done for the discovery case cohort, a validation case cohort, and two independent control cohorts. The replication case cohort underwent targeted next-generation sequencing of the 19 known genes encoding subunits of GABAA receptors and was compared to the respective GABAA receptor variants of a third independent control cohort. Functional investigations were done with automated two-microelectrode voltage clamping in Xenopus laevis oocytes.FindingsStatistical comparison of 152 familial index cases with genetic generalised epilepsy in the discovery cohort to 549 ethnically matched controls suggested an enrichment of rare missense (Nonsyn) variants in the ensemble of 19 genes encoding GABAA receptors in cases (odds ratio [OR] 2·40 [95% CI 1·41–4·10]; pNonsyn=0·0014, adjusted pNonsyn=0·019). Enrichment for these genes was validated in a whole-exome sequencing cohort of 357 sporadic and familial genetic generalised epilepsy cases and 1485 independent controls (OR 1·46 [95% CI 1·05–2·03]; pNonsyn=0·0081, adjusted pNonsyn=0·016). Comparison of genes encoding GABAA receptors in the independent replication cohort of 583 familial and sporadic genetic generalised epilepsy index cases, based on candidate-gene panel sequencing, with a third independent control cohort of 635 controls confirmed the overall enrichment of rare mis
Adamowicz M, Morgan CC, Haubner BJ, et al., 2018, Functionally conserved noncoding regulators of cardiomyocyte proliferation and regeneration in mouse and human, Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1942-325X
Background: The adult mammalian heart has little regenerative capacity after myocardial infarction (MI), whereas neonatal mouse heart regenerates without scarring or dysfunction. However, the underlying pathways are poorly defined. We sought to derive insights into the pathways regulating neonatal development of the mouse heart and cardiac regeneration post-MI.Methods and Results: Total RNA-seq of mouse heart through the first 10 days of postnatal life (referred to as P3, P5, P10) revealed a previously unobserved transition in microRNA (miRNA) expression between P3 and P5 associated specifically with altered expression of protein-coding genes on the focal adhesion pathway and cessation of cardiomyocyte cell division. We found profound changes in the coding and noncoding transcriptome after neonatal MI, with evidence of essentially complete healing by P10. Over two-thirds of each of the messenger RNAs, long noncoding RNAs, and miRNAs that were differentially expressed in the post-MI heart were differentially expressed during normal postnatal development, suggesting a common regulatory pathway for normal cardiac development and post-MI cardiac regeneration. We selected exemplars of miRNAs implicated in our data set as regulators of cardiomyocyte proliferation. Several of these showed evidence of a functional influence on mouse cardiomyocyte cell division. In addition, a subset of these miRNAs, miR-144-3p, miR-195a-5p, miR-451a, and miR-6240 showed evidence of functional conservation in human cardiomyocytes.Conclusions: The sets of messenger RNAs, miRNAs, and long noncoding RNAs that we report here merit further investigation as gatekeepers of cell division in the postnatal heart and as targets for extension of the period of cardiac regeneration beyond the neonatal period.
Srivastava PK, Roncon P, Lukasiuk K, et al., 2017, Meta-Analysis of MicroRNAs Dysregulated in the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus of Animal Models of Epilepsy., eNeuro, Vol: 4, ISSN: 2373-2822
The identification of mechanisms transforming normal to seizure-generating tissue after brain injury is key to developing new antiepileptogenic treatments. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) may act as regulators and potential treatment targets for epileptogenesis. Here, we undertook a meta-analysis of changes in miRNA expression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) following an epileptogenic insult in three epilepsy models. We identified 26 miRNAs significantly differentially expressed during epileptogenesis, and five differentially expressed in chronic epilepsy. Of these, 13 were not identified in any of the individual studies. To assess the role of these miRNAs, we predicted their mRNA targets and then filtered the list to include only target genes expressed in DG and negatively correlated with miRNA expression. Functional enrichment analysis of mRNA targets of miRNAs dysregulated during epileptogenesis suggested a role for molecular processes related to inflammation and synaptic function. Our results identify new miRNAs associated with epileptogenesis from existing data, highlighting the utility of meta-analysis in maximizing value from preclinical data.
van Vliet EA, Puhakka N, Mills JD, et al., 2017, Standardization procedure for plasma biomarker analysis in rat models of epileptogenesis: Focus on circulating microRNAs., Epilepsia, Vol: 58, Pages: 2013-2024, ISSN: 0013-9580
The World Health Organization estimates that globally 2.4 million people are diagnosed with epilepsy each year. In nearly 30% of these cases, epilepsy cannot be properly controlled by antiepileptic drugs. More importantly, treatments to prevent or modify epileptogenesis do not exist. Therefore, novel therapies are urgently needed. In this respect, it is important to identify which patients will develop epilepsy and which individually tailored treatment is needed. However, currently, we have no tools to identify the patients at risk, and diagnosis of epileptogenesis remains as a major unmet medical need, which relates to lack of diagnostic biomarkers for epileptogenesis. As the epileptogenic process in humans is typically slow, the use of animal models is justified to speed up biomarker discovery. We aim to summarize recommendations for molecular biomarker research and propose a standardized procedure for biomarker discovery in rat models of epileptogenesis. The potential of many phylogenetically conserved circulating noncoding small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs), as biomarkers has been explored in various brain diseases, including epilepsy. Recent studies show the feasibility of detecting miRNAs in blood in both experimental models and human epilepsy. However, the analysis of circulating miRNAs in rodent models is challenging, which relates both to the lack of standardized sampling protocols and to analysis of miRNAs. We will discuss the issues critical for preclinical plasma biomarker discovery, such as documentation, blood and brain tissue sampling and collection, plasma separation and storage, RNA extraction, quality control, and RNA detection. We propose a protocol for standardization of procedures for discovery of circulating miRNA biomarkers in rat models of epileptogenesis. Ultimately, we hope that the preclinical standardization will facilitate clinical biomarker discovery for epileptogenesis in man.
Papathanassiu AE, Ko JH, Imprialou M, et al., 2017, BCAT1 controls metabolic reprogramming in activated human macrophages and is associated with inflammatory diseases, Nature Communications, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2041-1723
Branched-chain aminotransferases (BCAT) are enzymes that initiate the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), such as leucine, thereby providing macromolecule precursors; however, the function of BCATs in macrophages is unknown. Here we show that BCAT1 is the predominant BCAT isoform in human primary macrophages. We identify ERG240 as a leucine analogue that blocks BCAT1 activity. Selective inhibition of BCAT1 activity results in decreased oxygen consumption and glycolysis. This decrease is associated with reduced IRG1 levels and itaconate synthesis, suggesting involvement of BCAA catabolism through the IRG1/itaconate axis within the tricarboxylic acid cycle in activated macrophages. ERG240 suppresses production of IRG1 and itaconate in mice and contributes to a less proinflammatory transcriptome signature. Oral administration of ERG240 reduces the severity of collagen-induced arthritis in mice and crescentic glomerulonephritis in rats, in part by decreasing macrophage infiltration. These results establish a regulatory role for BCAT1 in macrophage function with therapeutic implications for inflammatory conditions.
Berghuis B, van der Palen J, de Haan G-J, et al., 2017, Carbamazepine- and oxcarbazepine-induced hyponatremia in people with epilepsy., Epilepsia, Vol: 58, Pages: 1227-1233
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain possible determinants of carbamazepine (CBZ)- and oxcarbazepine (OXC)-induced hyponatremia in a large cohort of people with epilepsy. METHODS: We collected data on serum sodium levels in people with epilepsy who were attending a tertiary epilepsy center while on treatment with CBZ or OXC. We defined hyponatremia as Na+ ≤134 mEq/L and severe hyponatremia as Na+ ≤128 mEq/L. RESULTS: We identified 1,782 people who had used CBZ (n = 1,424) or OXC (n = 358), of whom 50 were treated with both drugs. Data on sodium level measurements were available in 1,132 on CBZ and in 289 on OXC. Hyponatremia occurred in 26% of those taking CBZ and 46% of those taking OXC. This was severe in 7% in the CBZ group and 22% in the OXC group. Hyponatremia was symptomatic in 48% and led to admissions in 3%. Age over 40 years, high serum levels of CBZ and OXC, and concomitant use of other antiepileptic drugs were the main risk factors for hyponatremia in both treatment groups. Female patients on OXC were at a higher risk than male patients of hyponatremia. The risk of hyponatremia on CBZ was significantly associated with the risk of hyponatremia on OXC within a subgroup that used both drugs consecutively. SIGNIFICANCE: Hyponatremia is a common problem in people taking CBZ or OXC. Regular ascertainment of sodium levels in those taking either drug is recommended and results should be acted on.
Chen T, Rotival M, Behmoaras JV, et al., 2017, Identification of ceruloplasmin as a gene that affects susceptibility to glomerulonephritis through macrophage function, Genetics, Vol: 206, Pages: 1139-1151, ISSN: 1943-2631
Crescentic glomerulonephritis (Crgn) is a complex disorder where macrophage activity and infiltration are significant effector causes. In previous linkage studies using the uniquely susceptible Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat strain, we have identified multiple crescentic glomerulonephritis QTL (Crgn) and positionally cloned genes underlying Crgn1 and Crgn2, which accounted for 40% of total variance in glomerular inflammation. Here, we have generated a backcross (BC) population (n = 166) where Crgn1 and Crgn2 were genetically fixed and found significant linkage to glomerular crescents on chromosome 2 (Crgn8, LOD = 3.8). Fine mapping analysis by integration with genome-wide expression QTLs (eQTLs) from the same BC population identified ceruloplasmin (Cp) as a positional eQTL in macrophages but not in serum. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry confirmed Cp as a protein QTL in rat macrophages. WKY macrophages overexpress Cp and its downregulation by RNA interference decreases markers of glomerular proinflammatory macrophage activation. Similarly, short incubation with Cp results in a strain-dependent macrophage polarization in the rat. These results suggest that genetically determined Cp levels can alter susceptibility to Crgn through macrophage function and propose a new role for Cp in early macrophage activation.
Srivastava PK, Bagnati M, Delahaye-Duriez A, et al., 2017, Genome-wide analysis of differential RNA editing in epilepsy, Genome Research, Vol: 27, Pages: 440-450, ISSN: 1549-5469
The recoding of genetic information through RNA editing contributes to proteomic diversity, but the extent and significance of RNA editing in disease is poorly understood. In particular, few studies have investigated the relationship between RNA editing and disease at a genome-wide level. Here, we developed a framework for the genome-wide detection of RNA sites that are differentially edited in disease. Using RNA-sequencing data from 100 hippocampi from mice with epilepsy (pilocarpine–temporal lobe epilepsy model) and 100 healthy control hippocampi, we identified 256 RNA sites (overlapping with 87 genes) that were significantly differentially edited between epileptic cases and controls. The degree of differential RNA editing in epileptic mice correlated with frequency of seizures, and the set of genes differentially RNA-edited between case and control mice were enriched for functional terms highly relevant to epilepsy, including “neuron projection” and “seizures.” Genes with differential RNA editing were preferentially enriched for genes with a genetic association to epilepsy. Indeed, we found that they are significantly enriched for genes that harbor nonsynonymous de novo mutations in patients with epileptic encephalopathy and for common susceptibility variants associated with generalized epilepsy. These analyses reveal a functional convergence between genes that are differentially RNA-edited in acquired symptomatic epilepsy and those that contribute risk for genetic epilepsy. Taken together, our results suggest a potential role for RNA editing in the epileptic hippocampus in the occurrence and severity of epileptic seizures.
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