69 results found
Ganesananthan S, Rajkumar C, Foley M, et al., 2022, Cardiopulmonary exercise testing and efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention: A substudy of the ORBITA trial, European Heart Journal, ISSN: 0195-668X
AimsOxygen-pulse morphology and gas exchange analysis measured during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) has been associated with myocardial ischaemia. We examine the relationship between CPET parameters, myocardial ischaemia and anginal symptoms in patients with chronic coronary syndrome. We also determine the ability of these parameters to predict the placebo-controlled response to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).Methods and resultsPatients with severe single vessel coronary artery disease were randomised 1:1 to PCI or placebo in the ORBITA trial. Subjects underwent pre-randomisation treadmill CPET, dobutamine stress-echocardiography (DSE) and symptom assessment. These assessments were repeated at the end of a 6-week blinded follow-up period. 195 patients with CPET data were randomised (102 PCI, 93 placebo). Patients in whom an oxygen-pulse plateau was observed during CPET had higher (more ischaemic) DSE score (+0.82 segments; 95%CI, 0.40 to 1.25, P=0.0068) and lower FFR (-0.07; -0.12 to -0.02, P=0.011) compared to those without. At lower (more abnormal) oxygen-pulse slopes, there was a larger improvement of the placebo-controlled effect of PCI on DSE score (oxygen-pulse plateau presence [Pinteraction=0.026] and oxygen-pulse gradient [Pinteraction=0.023]) and Seattle angina physical-limitation score (oxygen-pulse plateau presence [Pinteraction=0.037]). Impaired peak VO2, VE/VCO2 slope, peak oxygen-pulse and oxygen-uptake efficacy slope was significantly associated with higher symptom burden but did not relate to severity of ischaemia or predict response to PCI.ConclusionAlthough selected CPET parameters relate to severity of angina symptoms and quality of life, only an oxygen-pulse plateau detects the severity of myocardial ischaemia and predicts the placebo-controlled efficacy of PCI in patients with single-vessel coronary artery disease.
Kelshiker M, Seligman H, Howard JAMES, et al., 2022, Coronary flow reserve and cardiovascular outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis, European Heart Journal, Vol: 43, Pages: 1582-1593, ISSN: 0195-668X
Aims: This meta-analysis aims to quantify the association of reduced coronary flow with all3 cause mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) across a broad range of patient groups and pathologies. Methods and Results: We systematically identified all studies between 1st January 2000 and1st August 2020, where coronary flow was measured and clinical outcomes were reported. The endpoints were all-cause mortality and MACE. Estimates of effect were calculated from published hazard ratios using a random-effects model. 79 studies, including 59,740 subjects were included. Abnormal coronary flow reserve (CFR) was associated with a higher incidence of all-cause mortality (HR 3.78, 95% CI 2.39-5.97) and a higher incidence of MACE (HR 3.42, 95% CI 2.92-3.99). Each 0.1-unit reduction in CFR was associated with a proportional increase in mortality (per 0.1 CFR unit HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.04-1.29) and MACE (per 0.1 CFR unit HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04-1.11)). In patients with isolated coronary microvascular dysfunction, an abnormal CFR was associated with a higher incidence of mortality (HR 5.44, 95% CI 3.78-7.83) and MACE (HR 3.56, 95% CI 2.14-5.90). Abnormal CFR was also associated with a higher incidence of MACE in patients with acute coronary syndromes (HR 3.76, 95% CI 2.35-6.00), heart failure (HR 6.38, 95% CI 1.95-20.90), heart transplant (HR 3.32, 95% CI 2.34-4.71) and diabetes mellitus (HR 7.47, 95% CI 3.37-16.55). Conclusions: Reduced coronary flow is strongly associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality and MACE across a wide range of pathological processes. This finding supports recent recommendations that coronary flow should be measured more routinely in clinical practice to target aggressive vascular risk modification for individuals at higher risk
Rajkumar CA, Ganesananthan S, Ahmad Y, et al., 2022, Mechanical thrombectomy with retrievable stents and aspiration catheters for acute ischaemic stroke: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials, EUROINTERVENTION, Vol: 17, Pages: E1425-+, ISSN: 1774-024X
Millenaar D, Dillmann M, Fehlmann T, et al., 2022, Sex Differences in Cardiovascular Research: A Scientometric Analysis, JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION, Vol: 11
Ahmad Y, Kane C, Arnold AD, et al., 2022, Randomized blinded placebo-controlled trials of renal sympathetic denervation for hypertension: a meta-analysis, Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine, Vol: 34, Pages: 112-118, ISSN: 1553-8389
BackgroundThe efficacy of renal denervation has been controversial, but the procedure has now undergone several placebo-controlled trials. New placebo-controlled trial data has recently emerged, with longer follow-up of one trial and the full report of another trial (which constitutes 27% of the total placebo-controlled trial data). We therefore sought to evaluate the effect of renal denervation on ambulatory and office blood pressures in patients with hypertension.MethodsWe systematically identified all blinded placebo-controlled randomized trials of catheter-based renal denervation for hypertension. The primary efficacy outcome was ambulatory systolic blood pressure change relative to placebo. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed.Results6 studies randomizing 1232 patients were eligible. 713 patients were randomized to renal denervation and 519 to placebo. Renal denervation significantly reduced ambulatory systolic blood pressure (−3.52 mmHg; 95% CI −4.94 to −2.09; p < 0.0001), ambulatory diastolic blood pressure (−1.93 mmHg; 95% CI −3.04 to −0.83, p = 0.0006), office systolic blood pressure size (−5.10 mmHg; 95% CI −7.31 to −2.90, p < 0.0001) and office diastolic pressure (effect size −3.11 mmHg; 95% CI −4.43 to −1.78, p < 0.0001). Adverse events were rare and not more common with denervation.ConclusionsThe totality of blinded, randomized placebo-controlled data shows that renal denervation is safe and provides genuine reduction in blood pressure for at least 6 months post-procedure. If this effect continues in the long term, renal denervation might provide a life-long 10% relative risk reduction in major adverse cardiac events and 7.5% relative risk reduction in all-cause mortality.
Gallone G, Baldetti L, Angelini F, et al., 2022, The Placebo Effect on Symptoms, Quality of Life, and Functional Outcomes in Patients With Angina Pectoris: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trials, CANADIAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY, Vol: 38, Pages: 113-122, ISSN: 0828-282X
Al-Lamee RK, Foley M, Rajkumar C, et al., 2021, Recruitment for placebo-controlled trials of interventional procedures: a patient-centred approach, EUROINTERVENTION, Vol: 17, Pages: E963-E965, ISSN: 1774-024X
Hartley A, Khamis R, Al-Lamee R, et al., 2021, The placebo-controlled effect of percutaneous coronary intervention on exercise induced changes in anti- malondialdehyde-LDL antibody levels in stable coronary artery disease: a substudy of the ORBITA Trial, Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2297-055X
Aim: Malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) forms a significantcomponent of oxidized LDL. The effects of exercise on levels of MDA-LDL and antiMDA-LDL antibodies are not well understood. Furthermore, it is not known whetherthese can be modified in patients with coronary artery disease by percutaneouscoronary intervention (PCI).Methods: The Objective Randomised Blinded Investigation with optimal medicalTherapy of Angioplasty in stable angina (ORBITA) trial was the first blinded, multicentre randomised trial of PCI versus placebo procedure for angina relief. Serumsamples were available at four time-points: pre-randomisation pre- (P1) and post- (P2)exercise and post-randomisation (six-weeks following the PCI or placebo procedure),pre- (P3) and post- (P4) exercise. ELISAs were performed using laboratory-developedassays for MDA-LDL (adjusted for Apolipoprotein B) and anti-MDA-LDL antibodies.Results: 196 of the 200 patients (age 66.1 [SD 8.99] years, 28% female) with severesingle vessel coronary artery disease suitable for PCI enrolled in the ORBITA trial hadblood available for analysis. With exercise at pre-randomisation (P2 - P1) there wasno significant change in adjusted MDA-LDL (-0.001, 95% CI -0.004 to 0.001; p=0.287);however, IgG and IgM anti-MDA-LDL significantly declined (-0.022, 95% CI -0.029 to-0.014, p<0.0001; -0.016, 95% CI -0.024 to -0.008, p=0.0002, respectively). PCI didnot have a significant impact on either the pre-exercise values (P3 controlling for P1)of MDA-LDL (p=0.102), IgG (p=0.444) or IgM anti-MDA-LDL(p=0.909). Nor did PCIimpact the exercise induced changes in these markers (P4 controlling for P1, P2, andP3) for MDA-LDL (p=0.605), IgG (p=0.725) or IgM anti-MDA-LDL (p=0.171). Prerandomisation ischaemia on stress echo did not impact these interactions.Conclusions: Exercise results in an acute reduction in anti-oxLDL antibodies inpatients with severe single vessel coronary disease, possibly indicating an inductionin homoeostatic
Foley M, Al-Lamee RK, 2021, Coronary sinus reducer therapy for refractory angina: is it ready for prime time?, EuroIntervention, Vol: 17, Pages: 530-531
Cook CM, Howard JP, Ahmad Y, et al., 2021, Comparing invasive hemodynamic responses in adenosine hyperemia versus physical exercise stress in chronic coronary syndromes, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY, Vol: 342, Pages: 7-14, ISSN: 0167-5273
Seligman H, Zaman S, Pitcher DS, et al., 2021, Correction: Reusable snorkel masks adapted as particulate respirators, PLoS One, Vol: 16, Pages: 1-1, ISSN: 1932-6203
Nowbar AN, Francis DP, Al-Lamee RK, 2021, Quality of Life Assessment in Trials of Revascularization for Chronic Stable Angina: Insights from ORBITA and the Implications of Blinding, CARDIOVASCULAR DRUGS AND THERAPY, ISSN: 0920-3206
Al-Lamee R, Mintz GS, 2021, What are the PROSPECTs and clinical implications of vulnerable plaque?, EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL, Vol: 42, Pages: 4680-4682, ISSN: 0195-668X
Rajkumar C, Shun-Shin M, Seligman H, et al., 2021, Placebo-controlled efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention for focal and diffuse patterns of stable coronary artery disease, Circulation: Cardiovascular Interventions, Vol: 14, Pages: 809-818, ISSN: 1941-7640
Background Physiological assessment with pressure wire pullback can characterize coronary artery disease (CAD) with a focal or diffuse pattern. However, the clinical relevance of this distinction is unknown. We use data from ORBITA to test if the pattern of CAD predicts the placebo-controlled efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on stress echocardiography ischemia and symptom endpoints.Methods164 patients in ORBITA underwent blinded instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) pullback assessment prior to randomization. Focal disease was defined as 0.03 iFR unit drop within 15mm, rather than over a longer distance. Analyses were performed using regression modelling. ResultsIn the PCI arm (n=85), 48 were focal and 37 were diffuse. In the placebo arm (n=79), 35 were focal and 44 were diffuse. Focal stenoses were associated with significantly lower fractional flow reserve (FFR) and iFR values than diffusely diseased vessels (focal mean FFR and iFR 0.600.15 and 0.650.24, diffuse 0.780.10 and 0.880.08 respectively, p<0.0001). With adjustment for this difference, PCI for focal stenoses resulted in significantly greater reduction in stress echo ischemia than PCI for diffuse disease (p<0.05). The effect of PCI on between-arm pre-randomization-adjusted exercise time was 9.32 seconds (95% CI, -17.1 to 35.7s; p=0.487). When stratified for pattern of disease, there was no detectable difference between focal and diffuse CAD (Pinteraction=0.700). PCI improved Seattle Angina Questionnaire angina frequency score and freedom from angina more than placebo (p=0.034; p=0.0035). However, there was no evidence of interaction between the physiological pattern of CAD and these effects (Pinteraction=0.436; Pinteraction=0.908).ConclusionPCI achieved significantly greater reduction of stress echocardiography ischemia in focal compared to diffuse CAD. However, for symptom endpoints, no such difference was observed.
Seligman H, Zaman S, Pitcher DS, et al., 2021, Reusable snorkel masks adapted as particulate respirators, PLoS One, Vol: 16, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 1932-6203
ntroductionDuring viral pandemics, filtering facepiece (FFP) masks together with eye protection form the essential components of personal protective equipment (PPE) for healthcare workers. There remain concerns regarding insufficient global supply and imperfect protection offered by currently available PPE strategies. A range of full-face snorkel masks were adapted to accept high grade medical respiratory filters using bespoke-designed 3D-printed connectors. We compared the protection offered by the snorkel to that of standard PPE using a placebo-controlled respirator filtering test as well as a fluorescent droplet deposition experiment. Out of the 56 subjects tested, 42 (75%) passed filtering testing with the snorkel mask compared to 31 (55%) with a FFP3 respirator mask (p = 0.003). Amongst the 43 subjects who were not excluded following a placebo control, 85% passed filtering testing with the snorkel versus to 68% with a FFP3 mask (p = 0.008). Following front and lateral spray of fluorescence liquid particles, the snorkel mask also provided superior protection against droplet deposition within the subject’s face, when compared to a standard PPE combination of FFP3 masks and eye protection (3.19x108 versus 6.81x108 fluorescence units, p<0.001). The 3D printable adaptors are available for free download online at https://www.ImperialHackspace.com/COVID-19-Snorkel-Respirator-Project/.ConclusionFull-face snorkel masks adapted as particulate respirators performed better than a standard PPE combination of FFP3 mask and eye protection against aerosol inhalation and droplet deposition. This adaptation is therefore a promising PPE solution for healthcare workers during highly contagious viral outbreaks.
Al-Lamee RK, Rajkumar CA, Ganesananthan S, et al., 2021, Optimising physiological endpoints of percutaneous coronary intervention, EUROINTERVENTION, Vol: 16, Pages: E1470-E1483, ISSN: 1774-024X
Mikhail G, Khawaja SA, Mohan P, et al., 2021, COVID-19 and its impact on the cardiovascular system, Open Heart, Vol: 8, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 2053-3624
Objectives: The clinical impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has varied across countries with varying cardiovascular manifestations. We review the cardiac presentations, in-hospital outcomes and development of cardiovascular complications in the initial cohort of SARS-CoV-2 positive patients at Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, United Kingdom.Methods: We retrospectively analysed 498 COVID-19 positive adult admissions to our institute from 7th March to 7th April 2020. Patient data was collected for baseline demographics, co-morbidities and in-hospital outcomes, especially relating to cardiovascular intervention.Results:Mean age was 67.4±16.1 years and 62.2%(n=310) were male. 64.1%(n=319) of our cohort had underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD) with 53.4%(n=266) having hypertension. 43.2%(n=215) developed acute myocardial injury. Mortality was significantly increased in those patients with myocardial injury (47.4% vs 18.4%,p<0.001). Only 4 COVID-19 patients had invasive coronary angiography,2 underwent percutaneous coronary intervention and 1 required a permanent pacemaker implantation. 7.0%(n=35) of patients had an inpatient echocardiogram. Acute myocardial injury (OR 2.39,1.31-4.40,p=0.005) and history of hypertension (OR 1.88 ,1.01-3.55,p=0.049) approximately doubled the odds of in-hospital mortality in patients admitted with COVID-19 after other variables had been controlled for.Conclusion:Hypertension, pre-existing CVD and acute myocardial injury were associated with increased in-hospital mortality in our cohort of COVID-19 patients. However, only a low number of patients required invasive cardiac intervention.
Nowbar AN, Rajkumar C, Al-Lamee RK, et al., 2021, Controversies in revascularisation for stable coronary artery disease, CLINICAL MEDICINE, Vol: 21, Pages: 114-118, ISSN: 1470-2118
Thompson D, Al-Lamee R, Foley M, et al., 2021, Achieving optimal adherence to medical therapy by telehealth: Findings from the ORBITA medication adherence sub-study, Pharmacology Research and Perspectives, Vol: 9, Pages: e00710-e00710, ISSN: 2052-1707
INTRODUCTION: The ORBITA trial of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus a placebo procedure for patients with stable angina was conducted across six sites in the United Kingdom via home monitoring and telephone consultations. Patients underwent detailed assessment of medication adherence which allowed us to measure the efficacy of the implementation of the optimization protocol and interpretation of the main trial endpoints. METHODS: Prescribing data were collected throughout the trial. Self-reported adherence was assessed, and urine samples collected at pre-randomization and at follow-up for direct assessment of adherence using high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC MS/MS). RESULTS: Self-reported adherence was >96% for all drugs in both treatment groups at both stages. The percentage of samples in which drug was detected at pre-randomization and at follow-up in the PCI versus placebo groups respectively was: clopidogrel, 96% versus 90% and 98% versus 94%; atorvastatin, 95% versus 92% and 92% versus 91%; perindopril, 95% versus 97% and 85% versus 100%; bisoprolol, 98% versus 99% and 96% versus 97%; amlodipine, 99% versus 99% and 94% versus 96%; nicorandil, 98% versus 96% and 94% versus 92%; ivabradine, 100% versus 100% and 100% versus 100%; and ranolazine, 100% versus 100% and 100% versus 100%. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence levels were high throughout the study when quantified by self-reporting methods and similarly high proportions of drug were detected by urinary assay. The results indicate successful implementation of the optimization protocol delivered by telephone, an approach that could serve as a model for treatment of chronic conditions, particularly as consultations are increasingly conducted online.
McCreanor V, Nowbar A, Rajkumar C, et al., 2021, Cost-effectiveness analysis of percutaneous coronary intervention for single-vessel coronary artery disease: an economic evaluation of the ORBITA trial, BMJ Open, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-8, ISSN: 2044-6055
Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) compared with placebo in patients with single-vessel coronary artery disease and angina despite anti-anginal therapy.Design A cost-effectiveness analysis comparing PCI with placebo. A Markov model was used to measure incremental cost-effectiveness, in cost per quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained, over 12 months. Health utility weights were estimated using responses to the EuroQol 5-level questionnaire, from the Objective Randomised Blinded Investigation with optimal medical Therapy of Angioplasty in stable angina trial and UK preference weights. Costs of procedures and follow-up consultations were derived from Healthcare Resource Group reference costs and drug costs from the National Health Service (NHS) drug tariff. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was undertaken to test the robustness of results to parameter uncertainty. Scenario analyses were performed to test the effect on results of reduced pharmaceutical costs in patients undergoing PCI, and the effect of patients crossing over from placebo to PCI due to refractory angina within 12 months.Setting Five UK NHS hospitals.Participants 200 adult patients with stable angina and angiographically severe single-vessel coronary artery disease on anti-anginal therapy.Interventions At recruitment, patients received 6 weeks of optimisation of medical therapy for angina after which they were randomised to PCI or a placebo procedure.Outcome measures Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) expressed as cost (in £) per QALY gained for PCI compared with placebo.Results The estimated ICER is £90 218/QALY gained when using PCI compared with placebo in patients receiving medical treatment for angina due to single-vessel coronary artery disease. Results were robust under sensitivity analyses.Conclusions The ICER for PCI compared with placebo, in patients with single-vessel coronary artery disease and angina on anti-angi
Foley M, Rajkumar CA, Shun-Shin M, et al., 2021, Achieving optimal medical therapy: insights from the ORBITA trial., Journal of the American Heart Association, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-20, ISSN: 2047-9980
Background In stable coronary artery disease, medications are used for 2 purposes: cardiovascular risk reduction and symptom improvement. In clinical trials and clinical practice, medication use is often not optimal. The ORBITA (Objective Randomised Blinded Investigation With Optimal Medical Therapy of Angioplasty in Stable Angina) trial was the first placebo-controlled trial of percutaneous coronary intervention. A key component of the ORBITA trial design was the inclusion of a medical optimization phase, aimed at ensuring that all patients were treated with guideline-directed truly optimal medical therapy. In this study, we report the medical therapy that was achieved. Methods and Results After enrollment into the ORBITA trial, all 200 patients entered a 6-week period of intensive medical therapy optimization, with initiation and uptitration of risk reduction and antianginal therapy. At the prerandomization stage, the median number of antianginals established was 3 (interquartile range, 2-4). A total of 195 patients (97.5%) reached the prespecified target of ≥2 antianginals; 136 (68.0%) did not stop any antianginals because of adverse effects, and the median number of antianginals stopped for adverse effects per patient was 0 (interquartile range, 0-1). Amlodipine and bisoprolol were well tolerated (stopped for adverse effects in 4/175 [2.3%] and 9/167 [5.4%], respectively). Ranolazine and ivabradine were also well tolerated (stopped for adverse effects in 1/20 [5.0%] and 1/18 [5.6%], respectively). Isosorbide mononitrate and nicorandil were stopped for adverse effects in 36 of 172 (20.9%) and 32 of 141 (22.7%) of patients, respectively. Statins were well tolerated and taken by 191 of 200 (95.5%) patients. Conclusions In the 12-week ORBITA trial period, medical therapy was successfully optimized and well tolerated, with few drug adverse effects leading to therapy cessation. Truly optimal medical therapy can be achieved in clinical trials, and translating this i
Naderi H, Robinson S, Swaans MJ, et al., 2021, Adapting the role of handheld echocardiography during the COVID-19 pandemic: A practical guide, PERFUSION-UK, Vol: 36, Pages: 547-558, ISSN: 0267-6591
Seligman H, Sen S, Nijjer S, et al., 2020, Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic: Deviations from Guidelines and Pragmatic Considerations for Patients and Healthcare Workers, Interventional Cardiology Review, Vol: 15, Pages: e16-e16, ISSN: 1756-1477
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is forcing cardiology departments to rapidly adapt existing clinical guidelines to a new reality and this is especially the case for acute coronary syndrome pathways. In this focused review, the authors discuss how COVID-19 is affecting acute cardiology care and propose pragmatic guideline modifications for the diagnosis and management of acute coronary syndrome patients, particularly around the appropriateness of invasive strategies as well as length of hospital stay. The authors also discuss the use of personal protective equipment for healthcare workers in cardiology. Based on shared global experiences and growing peer-reviewed literature, it is possible to put in place modified acute coronary syndrome treatment pathways to offer safe pragmatic decisions to patients and staff.
Ganesananthan S, Rajkumar C, Shun-Shin M, et al., 2020, Ventilatory Gas Exchange in Stable Coronary Artery Disease, Publisher: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, ISSN: 0009-7322
Ganesananthan S, Rajkumar C, Shun-Shin M, et al., 2020, Exercise Capacity as a Predictor of the Placebo-controlled Efficacy of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Stable Coronary Artery Disease: The Ventilatory Gas Exchange-stratified Analysis of ORBITA, Publisher: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, ISSN: 0009-7322
Kunadian V, Chieffo A, Camici PG, et al., 2020, An EAPCI Expert Consensus Document on Ischaemia with Non-Obstructive Coronary Arteries in Collaboration with European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Coronary Pathophysiology & Microcirculation Endorsed by Coronary Vasomotor Disorders International Study Group, EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL, Vol: 41, Pages: 3504-+, ISSN: 0195-668X
Teoh Z, Al-Lamee RK, 2020, COURAGE, ORBITA, and ISCHEMIA: Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Stable Coronary Artery Disease., Interv Cardiol Clin, Vol: 9, Pages: 469-482
This review article summarizes key landmark trials that have shaped understanding of the role of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in stable coronary artery disease (CAD). The relationship between stenosis, ischemia, and angina is more complex than first imagined. Anginal relief remains the primary indication for PCI in stable CAD. The first placebo-controlled PCI trial showed a surprisingly small effect size, suggesting a significant placebo effect. PCI in stable CAD has not been shown to improve mortality or overall myocardial infarction rates, even in the presence of significant ischemia. Rather, risk reduction medical therapy remains the main intervention for improving outcomes.
Warisawa T, Cook CM, Rajkumar C, et al., 2020, Safety of Revascularization Deferral of Left Main Stenosis Based on Instantaneous Wave-Free Ratio Evaluation, JACC-CARDIOVASCULAR INTERVENTIONS, Vol: 13, Pages: 1655-1664, ISSN: 1936-8798
Ahmad Y, 2020, Complete revascularisation by percutaneous coronary intervention for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and multivessel coronary artery disease: an updated meta-analysis and meta-regression of randomized trials, Journal of the American Heart Association, Vol: 9, Pages: 1-83, ISSN: 2047-9980
BackgroundFor patients with ST‐segment–elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and multivessel coronary artery disease, the optimal treatment of the non‐infarct‐related artery has been controversial. This up‐to‐date meta‐analysis focusing on individual clinical end points was performed to further evaluate the benefit of complete revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention for patients with STEMI and multivessel coronary artery disease.Methods and ResultsWe systematically identified all randomized trials comparing complete revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention to culprit‐only revascularization for multivessel disease in STEMI and performed a random‐effects meta‐analysis. The primary efficacy end point was cardiovascular death analyzed on an intention‐to‐treat basis. Secondary end points included all‐cause mortality, myocardial infarction, and unplanned revascularization. Ten studies (7542 patients) were included: 3664 patients were randomized to complete revascularization and 3878 to culprit‐only revascularization. Across all patients, complete revascularization was superior to culprit‐only revascularization for reduction in the risk of cardiovascular death (relative risk [RR], 0.68; 95% CI, 0.47–0.98; P=0.037; I2=21.8%) and reduction in the risk of myocardial infarction (RR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.54–0.79; P<0.0001; I2=0.0%). Complete revascularization also significantly reduced the risk of unplanned revascularization (RR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.28–0.51; P<0.0001; I2=64.7%). The difference in all‐cause mortality with percutaneous coronary intervention was not statistically significant (RR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.69–1.04; P=0.108; I2=0.0%).ConclusionsFor patients with STEMI and multivessel disease, complete revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention significantly improves hard clinical outcomes including cardiovascular death and myocardial infarction. These data have implications for clinical practice gu
Cook CM, Howard JP, Ahmad Y, et al., 2020, How Do Fractional Flow Reserve, Whole-Cycle PdPa, and Instantaneous Wave-Free Ratio Correlate With Exercise Coronary Flow Velocity During Exercise-Induced Angina?, CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR INTERVENTIONS, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1941-7640
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