Imperial College London

DrRashaAl-Lamee

Faculty of MedicineNational Heart & Lung Institute

Clinical Senior Lecturer
 
 
 
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r.al-lamee13

 
 
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Block B Hammersmith HospitalHammersmith Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

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68 results found

Al-Lamee RK, Foley M, Rajkumar C, Nowbar ANet al., 2021, Recruitment for placebo-controlled trials of interventional procedures: a patient-centred approach, EUROINTERVENTION, Vol: 17, Pages: E963-E965, ISSN: 1774-024X

Journal article

Al-Lamee R, Mintz GS, 2021, What are the PROSPECTs and clinical implications of vulnerable plaque?, Eur Heart J, Vol: 42, Pages: 4680-4682

Journal article

Kelshiker M, Seligman H, Howard JAMES, Rahman H, Foley M, Nowbar A, Rajkumar C, Shun-Shin M, Ahmad Y, Sen S, Al-Lamee R, Cole G, Hoole S, Morris P, Rigo F, Mayet J, Francis D, Petraco Ret al., 2021, Coronary flow reserve and cardiovascular outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis, European Heart Journal, ISSN: 0195-668X

Aims: This meta-analysis aims to quantify the association of reduced coronary flow with all3 cause mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) across a broad range of patient groups and pathologies. Methods and Results: We systematically identified all studies between 1st January 2000 and1st August 2020, where coronary flow was measured and clinical outcomes were reported. The endpoints were all-cause mortality and MACE. Estimates of effect were calculated from published hazard ratios using a random-effects model. 79 studies, including 59,740 subjects were included. Abnormal coronary flow reserve (CFR) was associated with a higher incidence of all-cause mortality (HR 3.78, 95% CI 2.39-5.97) and a higher incidence of MACE (HR 3.42, 95% CI 2.92-3.99). Each 0.1-unit reduction in CFR was associated with a proportional increase in mortality (per 0.1 CFR unit HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.04-1.29) and MACE (per 0.1 CFR unit HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04-1.11)). In patients with isolated coronary microvascular dysfunction, an abnormal CFR was associated with a higher incidence of mortality (HR 5.44, 95% CI 3.78-7.83) and MACE (HR 3.56, 95% CI 2.14-5.90). Abnormal CFR was also associated with a higher incidence of MACE in patients with acute coronary syndromes (HR 3.76, 95% CI 2.35-6.00), heart failure (HR 6.38, 95% CI 1.95-20.90), heart transplant (HR 3.32, 95% CI 2.34-4.71) and diabetes mellitus (HR 7.47, 95% CI 3.37-16.55). Conclusions: Reduced coronary flow is strongly associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality and MACE across a wide range of pathological processes. This finding supports recent recommendations that coronary flow should be measured more routinely in clinical practice to target aggressive vascular risk modification for individuals at higher risk

Journal article

Cook CM, Howard JP, Ahmad Y, Shun-Shin MJ, Sethi A, Clesham GJ, Tang KH, Nijjer SS, Kelly PA, Davies JR, Malik IS, Kaprielian R, Mikhail G, Petraco R, Warisawa T, Al-Janabi F, Karamasis G, Mohdnazri S, Gamma R, Stathogiannis KE, de Waard GA, Al-Lamee R, Keeble TR, Mayet J, Sen S, Francis DP, Davies JEet al., 2021, Comparing invasive hemodynamic responses in adenosine hyperemia versus physical exercise stress in chronic coronary syndromes, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY, Vol: 342, Pages: 7-14, ISSN: 0167-5273

Journal article

Millenaar D, Dillmann M, Fehlmann T, Flohr A, Mehran R, Al-Lamee R, Lauder L, Ukena C, Böhm M, Keller A, Mahfoud Fet al., 2021, Sex Differences in Cardiovascular Research: A Scientometric Analysis., J Am Heart Assoc

Background We sought to investigate sex-specific differences in authorship of cardiovascular research over the past decade. Methods and Results All 387 463 cardiovascular publications between 2010 and 2019 were retrieved from Web of Science. Articles increased from 19 960 to 29 604 articles per year (P>0.001). The number of articles written by female first authors increased by 76.3% (6434-11 343 articles) and by 35.0% for male first authors (13 526-18 261) (P<0.001). The first author was more likely to be a female author in articles with female last authors. The median impact factor (IF) for articles by female first authors was lower (2.46 [interquartile range, 7 1.11-4.03] versus 2.51 [interquartile range, 1.17-4.10]; P<0.001). Female authorship articles reached the highest IF in North America (average IF, 3.7), with the lowest in Africa (average IF, 1.8). Conclusions Publications in cardiovascular research have increased over the past decade, particularly by female authors. Female researchers are cited less often compared with their male peers. The IF remains lower for articles by female researchers.

Journal article

Hartley A, Khamis R, Al-Lamee R, Shun-Shin M, Haskard D, Francis Det al., 2021, The placebo-controlled effect of percutaneous coronary intervention on exercise induced changes in anti- malondialdehyde-LDL antibody levels in stable coronary artery disease: a substudy of the ORBITA Trial, Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2297-055X

Aim: Malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) forms a significantcomponent of oxidized LDL. The effects of exercise on levels of MDA-LDL and antiMDA-LDL antibodies are not well understood. Furthermore, it is not known whetherthese can be modified in patients with coronary artery disease by percutaneouscoronary intervention (PCI).Methods: The Objective Randomised Blinded Investigation with optimal medicalTherapy of Angioplasty in stable angina (ORBITA) trial was the first blinded, multicentre randomised trial of PCI versus placebo procedure for angina relief. Serumsamples were available at four time-points: pre-randomisation pre- (P1) and post- (P2)exercise and post-randomisation (six-weeks following the PCI or placebo procedure),pre- (P3) and post- (P4) exercise. ELISAs were performed using laboratory-developedassays for MDA-LDL (adjusted for Apolipoprotein B) and anti-MDA-LDL antibodies.Results: 196 of the 200 patients (age 66.1 [SD 8.99] years, 28% female) with severesingle vessel coronary artery disease suitable for PCI enrolled in the ORBITA trial hadblood available for analysis. With exercise at pre-randomisation (P2 - P1) there wasno significant change in adjusted MDA-LDL (-0.001, 95% CI -0.004 to 0.001; p=0.287);however, IgG and IgM anti-MDA-LDL significantly declined (-0.022, 95% CI -0.029 to-0.014, p<0.0001; -0.016, 95% CI -0.024 to -0.008, p=0.0002, respectively). PCI didnot have a significant impact on either the pre-exercise values (P3 controlling for P1)of MDA-LDL (p=0.102), IgG (p=0.444) or IgM anti-MDA-LDL(p=0.909). Nor did PCIimpact the exercise induced changes in these markers (P4 controlling for P1, P2, andP3) for MDA-LDL (p=0.605), IgG (p=0.725) or IgM anti-MDA-LDL (p=0.171). Prerandomisation ischaemia on stress echo did not impact these interactions.Conclusions: Exercise results in an acute reduction in anti-oxLDL antibodies inpatients with severe single vessel coronary disease, possibly indicating an inductionin homoeostatic

Journal article

Foley M, Al-Lamee RK, 2021, Coronary sinus reducer therapy for refractory angina: is it ready for prime time?, EuroIntervention, Vol: 17, Pages: 530-531

Journal article

Rajkumar CA, Ganesananthan S, Ahmad Y, Seligman H, Thornton GD, Foley M, Nowbar AN, Howard JP, Francis DP, Keeble TR, Grunwald IQ, Al-Lamee RK, Malik IS, Shun-Shin MJet al., 2021, Mechanical thrombectomy with retrievable stents and aspiration catheters for acute ischaemic stroke: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials., EuroIntervention

BACKGROUND: Retrievable stents and aspiration catheters have been developed to provide more effective arterial recanalisation in acute ischaemic stroke. AIMS: The aim of this analysis was to test the effect of mechanical thrombectomy on mortality and long-term neurological outcome in patients presenting with acute large-vessel anterior circulation ischaemic stroke. METHODS: A structured search identified randomised controlled trials of thrombectomy (using a retrievable stent or aspiration catheter) versus control on a background of medical therapy which included intravenous thrombolysis if appropriate. The primary endpoint was disability at 90-day follow-up as assessed by the modified Rankin scale (mRS). Secondary endpoints included all-cause mortality and symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage. A Bayesian mixed-effects model was used for analysis. RESULTS: Twelve (12) trials met the inclusion criteria, comprising a total of 1,276 patients randomised to thrombectomy and 1,282 patients to control. Randomisation to thrombectomy significantly reduced disability at 90 days (OR 0.52, 95% credible interval 0.46 to 0.61, probability(control better)&lt;0.0001). Furthermore, thrombectomy reduced the odds of functional dependence at 90 days, indicated by an mRS score &gt;2 (OR 0.44, CrI 0.37 to 0.52, pr&lt;0.0001). Thrombectomy reduced all-cause mortality at 90 days (16.1% vs 19.2%, OR 0.81, 95% CrI 0.66 to 0.99, pr=0.024). The frequency of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage was similar between thrombectomy (4.2%) and control (4.0%) (OR 1.12, 95% CrI 0.76 to 1.68, pr=0.72). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with an acute anterior circulation stroke, modern device thrombectomy significantly reduces death and subsequent disability. The magnitude of these effects suggests that universal access to this treatment strategy should be the standard of care.

Journal article

Seligman H, Zaman S, Pitcher DS, Shun-Shin MJ, Lloyd FH, Androshchuk V, Sen S, Al-Lamee R, Miller DM, Barnett HW, Haji GS, Howard LS, Nijjer S, Mayet J, Francis DP, Ces O, Linton NWF, Peters NS, Petraco Ret al., 2021, Correction: Reusable snorkel masks adapted as particulate respirators, PLoS One, Vol: 16, Pages: 1-1, ISSN: 1932-6203

Journal article

Nowbar AN, Francis DP, Al-Lamee RK, 2021, Quality of Life Assessment in Trials of Revascularization for Chronic Stable Angina: Insights from ORBITA and the Implications of Blinding, CARDIOVASCULAR DRUGS AND THERAPY, ISSN: 0920-3206

Journal article

Rajkumar C, Shun-Shin M, Seligman H, Ahmad Y, Warisawa T, Cook C, Howard J, Ganesananthan S, Amarin L, Khan C, Ahmed A, Nowbar A, Foley M, Assomull R, Keenan N, Sehmi J, Keeble T, davies J, Tang K, Gerber R, Cole G, O'Kane P, Sharp A, Khamis R, Kanaganayagam G, Petraco R, Ruparelia N, Malik I, Nijjer S, Sen S, Francis D, Al-Lamee Ret al., 2021, Placebo-controlled efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention for focal and diffuse patterns of stable coronary artery disease, Circulation: Cardiovascular Interventions, Vol: 14, Pages: 809-818, ISSN: 1941-7640

Background Physiological assessment with pressure wire pullback can characterize coronary artery disease (CAD) with a focal or diffuse pattern. However, the clinical relevance of this distinction is unknown. We use data from ORBITA to test if the pattern of CAD predicts the placebo-controlled efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on stress echocardiography ischemia and symptom endpoints.Methods164 patients in ORBITA underwent blinded instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) pullback assessment prior to randomization. Focal disease was defined as 0.03 iFR unit drop within 15mm, rather than over a longer distance. Analyses were performed using regression modelling. ResultsIn the PCI arm (n=85), 48 were focal and 37 were diffuse. In the placebo arm (n=79), 35 were focal and 44 were diffuse. Focal stenoses were associated with significantly lower fractional flow reserve (FFR) and iFR values than diffusely diseased vessels (focal mean FFR and iFR 0.600.15 and 0.650.24, diffuse 0.780.10 and 0.880.08 respectively, p<0.0001). With adjustment for this difference, PCI for focal stenoses resulted in significantly greater reduction in stress echo ischemia than PCI for diffuse disease (p<0.05). The effect of PCI on between-arm pre-randomization-adjusted exercise time was 9.32 seconds (95% CI, -17.1 to 35.7s; p=0.487). When stratified for pattern of disease, there was no detectable difference between focal and diffuse CAD (Pinteraction=0.700). PCI improved Seattle Angina Questionnaire angina frequency score and freedom from angina more than placebo (p=0.034; p=0.0035). However, there was no evidence of interaction between the physiological pattern of CAD and these effects (Pinteraction=0.436; Pinteraction=0.908).ConclusionPCI achieved significantly greater reduction of stress echocardiography ischemia in focal compared to diffuse CAD. However, for symptom endpoints, no such difference was observed.

Journal article

Gallone G, Baldetti L, Angelini F, Saglietto A, Bellettini M, Beneduce A, Ranotti V, Chiarito M, Leone PP, Pagnesi M, De Filippo O, Landra F, Bruno F, Marengo G, Collino M, Ferrante G, Stefanini GG, Colombo A, Al-Lamee R, Francis DP, Jolicoeur ME, Henry TD, Giannini F, D'Ascenzo F, De Ferrari GMet al., 2021, The Placebo Effect on Symptoms, Quality of Life, and Functional Outcomes in Patients With Angina Pectoris: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trials., Can J Cardiol

BACKGROUND: The placebo effect is a well described phenomenon in blinded studies evaluating antianginal therapeutics, although its effect on clinical research metrics remains unknown. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the effect of placebo on end points of symptoms, life quality, and functional outcomes in randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) of symptomatic stable coronary artery disease. METHODS: We systematically reviewed MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane database for double-blind RCTs of antiangina therapeutics. Patients randomized to the placebo arm were the study population. Main outcomes were the changes in exercise performance (exercise treadmill test [ETT] parameters), quality of life (Seattle Angina Questionnaire domains), symptoms (Canadian Cardiovascular Society angina class) and drug usage (nitroglycerin tablets per week) between baseline and after placebo treatment. The primary outcome was ETT total duration time. Data were pooled with a random effect model. RESULTS: Seventy-eight RCTs (83% drug-controlled, 17% procedure-controlled) were included encompassing 4925 patients randomized to placebo. ETT total duration time was significantly improved after placebo treatment compared with baseline (mean, 29.2; 95% confidence interval, 20.6-37.8] seconds) with evidence of high heterogeneity (I2 = 98%) At subgroup analysis, crossover design was associated with a smaller placebo effect on ETT performance than parallel study design (P for interaction = 0.001). A significant placebo effect was observed for all secondary outcomes with overall high heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial placebo effect was present in angina RCTs across a variety of functional and life quality metrics. High variability in placebo effect size was present, mostly unexplained by differences in study and patient characteristics.

Journal article

Seligman H, Zaman S, Pitcher DS, Shun-Shin MJ, Hepworth Lloyd F, Androschuk V, Sen S, Al-Lamee R, Miller DM, Barnett HW, Haji GS, Howard LS, Nijjer S, Mayet J, Francis DP, Ces O, Linton NWF, Peters NS, Petraco Ret al., 2021, Reusable snorkel masks adapted as particulate respirators, PLoS One, Vol: 16, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 1932-6203

ntroductionDuring viral pandemics, filtering facepiece (FFP) masks together with eye protection form the essential components of personal protective equipment (PPE) for healthcare workers. There remain concerns regarding insufficient global supply and imperfect protection offered by currently available PPE strategies. A range of full-face snorkel masks were adapted to accept high grade medical respiratory filters using bespoke-designed 3D-printed connectors. We compared the protection offered by the snorkel to that of standard PPE using a placebo-controlled respirator filtering test as well as a fluorescent droplet deposition experiment. Out of the 56 subjects tested, 42 (75%) passed filtering testing with the snorkel mask compared to 31 (55%) with a FFP3 respirator mask (p = 0.003). Amongst the 43 subjects who were not excluded following a placebo control, 85% passed filtering testing with the snorkel versus to 68% with a FFP3 mask (p = 0.008). Following front and lateral spray of fluorescence liquid particles, the snorkel mask also provided superior protection against droplet deposition within the subject’s face, when compared to a standard PPE combination of FFP3 masks and eye protection (3.19x108 versus 6.81x108 fluorescence units, p<0.001). The 3D printable adaptors are available for free download online at https://www.ImperialHackspace.com/COVID-19-Snorkel-Respirator-Project/.ConclusionFull-face snorkel masks adapted as particulate respirators performed better than a standard PPE combination of FFP3 mask and eye protection against aerosol inhalation and droplet deposition. This adaptation is therefore a promising PPE solution for healthcare workers during highly contagious viral outbreaks.

Journal article

Al-Lamee RK, Rajkumar CA, Ganesananthan S, Jeremias Aet al., 2021, Optimising physiological endpoints of percutaneous coronary intervention, EUROINTERVENTION, Vol: 16, Pages: E1470-E1483, ISSN: 1774-024X

Journal article

Mikhail G, Khawaja SA, Mohan P, Jabbour R, Bampouri T, Bowsher G, Hassan AMM, Huq F, Baghdasaryan L, Wang B, Sethi A, Sen S, Petraco R, Ruparelia N, Nijjer S, Malik IS, Foale R, Bellamy M, Kooner J, Rana BS, Cole G, Sutaria N, Kanaganayagam G, Nihoyannopoulos P, Fox K, Plymen CM, Pabari P, Howard L, Davies R, Hajoi G, Lo Giudice F, Kanagaratnam P, Anderson J, Chukwuemeka A, Khamis R, Varnava A, Baker CSR, Francis D, Asaria P, Al-Lamee Ret al., 2021, COVID-19 and its impact on the cardiovascular system, Open Heart, Vol: 8, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 2053-3624

Objectives: The clinical impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has varied across countries with varying cardiovascular manifestations. We review the cardiac presentations, in-hospital outcomes and development of cardiovascular complications in the initial cohort of SARS-CoV-2 positive patients at Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, United Kingdom.Methods: We retrospectively analysed 498 COVID-19 positive adult admissions to our institute from 7th March to 7th April 2020. Patient data was collected for baseline demographics, co-morbidities and in-hospital outcomes, especially relating to cardiovascular intervention.Results:Mean age was 67.4±16.1 years and 62.2%(n=310) were male. 64.1%(n=319) of our cohort had underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD) with 53.4%(n=266) having hypertension. 43.2%(n=215) developed acute myocardial injury. Mortality was significantly increased in those patients with myocardial injury (47.4% vs 18.4%,p<0.001). Only 4 COVID-19 patients had invasive coronary angiography,2 underwent percutaneous coronary intervention and 1 required a permanent pacemaker implantation. 7.0%(n=35) of patients had an inpatient echocardiogram. Acute myocardial injury (OR 2.39,1.31-4.40,p=0.005) and history of hypertension (OR 1.88 ,1.01-3.55,p=0.049) approximately doubled the odds of in-hospital mortality in patients admitted with COVID-19 after other variables had been controlled for.Conclusion:Hypertension, pre-existing CVD and acute myocardial injury were associated with increased in-hospital mortality in our cohort of COVID-19 patients. However, only a low number of patients required invasive cardiac intervention.

Journal article

Nowbar AN, Rajkumar C, Al-Lamee RK, Francis DPet al., 2021, Controversies in revascularisation for stable coronary artery disease, CLINICAL MEDICINE, Vol: 21, Pages: 114-118, ISSN: 1470-2118

Journal article

Thompson D, Al-Lamee R, Foley M, Dehbi HM, Thom S, Davies JE, Francis DP, Patel P, Gupta P, ORBITA Investigatorset al., 2021, Achieving optimal adherence to medical therapy by telehealth: Findings from the ORBITA medication adherence sub-study, Pharmacology Research and Perspectives, Vol: 9, Pages: e00710-e00710, ISSN: 2052-1707

INTRODUCTION: The ORBITA trial of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus a placebo procedure for patients with stable angina was conducted across six sites in the United Kingdom via home monitoring and telephone consultations. Patients underwent detailed assessment of medication adherence which allowed us to measure the efficacy of the implementation of the optimization protocol and interpretation of the main trial endpoints. METHODS: Prescribing data were collected throughout the trial. Self-reported adherence was assessed, and urine samples collected at pre-randomization and at follow-up for direct assessment of adherence using high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC MS/MS). RESULTS: Self-reported adherence was >96% for all drugs in both treatment groups at both stages. The percentage of samples in which drug was detected at pre-randomization and at follow-up in the PCI versus placebo groups respectively was: clopidogrel, 96% versus 90% and 98% versus 94%; atorvastatin, 95% versus 92% and 92% versus 91%; perindopril, 95% versus 97% and 85% versus 100%; bisoprolol, 98% versus 99% and 96% versus 97%; amlodipine, 99% versus 99% and 94% versus 96%; nicorandil, 98% versus 96% and 94% versus 92%; ivabradine, 100% versus 100% and 100% versus 100%; and ranolazine, 100% versus 100% and 100% versus 100%. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence levels were high throughout the study when quantified by self-reporting methods and similarly high proportions of drug were detected by urinary assay. The results indicate successful implementation of the optimization protocol delivered by telephone, an approach that could serve as a model for treatment of chronic conditions, particularly as consultations are increasingly conducted online.

Journal article

McCreanor V, Nowbar A, Rajkumar C, Barnett AG, Francis D, Graves N, Boden WE, Weintraub WS, Al-Lamee R, Parsonage WAet al., 2021, Cost-effectiveness analysis of percutaneous coronary intervention for single-vessel coronary artery disease: an economic evaluation of the ORBITA trial, BMJ Open, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-8, ISSN: 2044-6055

Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) compared with placebo in patients with single-vessel coronary artery disease and angina despite anti-anginal therapy.Design A cost-effectiveness analysis comparing PCI with placebo. A Markov model was used to measure incremental cost-effectiveness, in cost per quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained, over 12 months. Health utility weights were estimated using responses to the EuroQol 5-level questionnaire, from the Objective Randomised Blinded Investigation with optimal medical Therapy of Angioplasty in stable angina trial and UK preference weights. Costs of procedures and follow-up consultations were derived from Healthcare Resource Group reference costs and drug costs from the National Health Service (NHS) drug tariff. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was undertaken to test the robustness of results to parameter uncertainty. Scenario analyses were performed to test the effect on results of reduced pharmaceutical costs in patients undergoing PCI, and the effect of patients crossing over from placebo to PCI due to refractory angina within 12 months.Setting Five UK NHS hospitals.Participants 200 adult patients with stable angina and angiographically severe single-vessel coronary artery disease on anti-anginal therapy.Interventions At recruitment, patients received 6 weeks of optimisation of medical therapy for angina after which they were randomised to PCI or a placebo procedure.Outcome measures Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) expressed as cost (in £) per QALY gained for PCI compared with placebo.Results The estimated ICER is £90 218/QALY gained when using PCI compared with placebo in patients receiving medical treatment for angina due to single-vessel coronary artery disease. Results were robust under sensitivity analyses.Conclusions The ICER for PCI compared with placebo, in patients with single-vessel coronary artery disease and angina on anti-angi

Journal article

Foley M, Rajkumar CA, Shun-Shin M, Ganesananthan S, Seligman H, Howard J, Nowbar AN, Keeble TR, Davies JR, Tang KH, Gerber R, O'Kane P, Sharp ASP, Petraco R, Malik IS, Nijjer S, Sen S, Francis DP, Al-Lamee Ret al., 2021, Achieving optimal medical therapy: insights from the ORBITA trial., Journal of the American Heart Association, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-20, ISSN: 2047-9980

Background In stable coronary artery disease, medications are used for 2 purposes: cardiovascular risk reduction and symptom improvement. In clinical trials and clinical practice, medication use is often not optimal. The ORBITA (Objective Randomised Blinded Investigation With Optimal Medical Therapy of Angioplasty in Stable Angina) trial was the first placebo-controlled trial of percutaneous coronary intervention. A key component of the ORBITA trial design was the inclusion of a medical optimization phase, aimed at ensuring that all patients were treated with guideline-directed truly optimal medical therapy. In this study, we report the medical therapy that was achieved. Methods and Results After enrollment into the ORBITA trial, all 200 patients entered a 6-week period of intensive medical therapy optimization, with initiation and uptitration of risk reduction and antianginal therapy. At the prerandomization stage, the median number of antianginals established was 3 (interquartile range, 2-4). A total of 195 patients (97.5%) reached the prespecified target of ≥2 antianginals; 136 (68.0%) did not stop any antianginals because of adverse effects, and the median number of antianginals stopped for adverse effects per patient was 0 (interquartile range, 0-1). Amlodipine and bisoprolol were well tolerated (stopped for adverse effects in 4/175 [2.3%] and 9/167 [5.4%], respectively). Ranolazine and ivabradine were also well tolerated (stopped for adverse effects in 1/20 [5.0%] and 1/18 [5.6%], respectively). Isosorbide mononitrate and nicorandil were stopped for adverse effects in 36 of 172 (20.9%) and 32 of 141 (22.7%) of patients, respectively. Statins were well tolerated and taken by 191 of 200 (95.5%) patients. Conclusions In the 12-week ORBITA trial period, medical therapy was successfully optimized and well tolerated, with few drug adverse effects leading to therapy cessation. Truly optimal medical therapy can be achieved in clinical trials, and translating this i

Journal article

Ahmad Y, Kane C, Arnold AD, Cook C, Keene D, Shun-Shin M, Cole G, Al-Lamee R, Francis D, Howard Jet al., 2021, Randomized blinded placebo-controlled trials of renal sympathetic denervation for hypertension: a meta-analysis, Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine, ISSN: 1553-8389

BackgroundThe efficacy of renal denervation has been controversial, but the procedure has now undergone several placebo-controlled trials. New placebo-controlled trial data has recently emerged, with longer follow-up of one trial and the full report of another trial (which constitutes 27% of the total placebo-controlled trial data). We therefore sought to evaluate the effect of renal denervation on ambulatory and office blood pressures in patients with hypertension.MethodsWe systematically identified all blinded placebo-controlled randomized trials of catheter-based renal denervation for hypertension. The primary efficacy outcome was ambulatory systolic blood pressure change relative to placebo. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed.Results6 studies randomizing 1232 patients were eligible. 713 patients were randomized to renal denervation and 519 to placebo. Renal denervation significantly reduced ambulatory systolic blood pressure (−3.52 mmHg; 95% CI −4.94 to −2.09; p < 0.0001), ambulatory diastolic blood pressure (−1.93 mmHg; 95% CI −3.04 to −0.83, p = 0.0006), office systolic blood pressure size (−5.10 mmHg; 95% CI −7.31 to −2.90, p < 0.0001) and office diastolic pressure (effect size −3.11 mmHg; 95% CI −4.43 to −1.78, p < 0.0001). Adverse events were rare and not more common with denervation.ConclusionsThe totality of blinded, randomized placebo-controlled data shows that renal denervation is safe and provides genuine reduction in blood pressure for at least 6 months post-procedure. If this effect continues in the long term, renal denervation might provide a life-long 10% relative risk reduction in major adverse cardiac events and 7.5% relative risk reduction in all-cause mortality.

Journal article

Naderi H, Robinson S, Swaans MJ, Bual N, Cheung W-S, Reid L, Shun-Shin M, Asaria P, Pabari P, Cole G, Kanaganayagam GS, Sutaria N, Bellamy M, Fox K, Nihoyannopoulos P, Petraco R, Al-Lamee R, Nijjer SS, Sen S, Ruparelia N, Baker C, Mikhail G, Malik I, Khamis R, Varnava A, Francis D, Mayet J, Rana Bet al., 2021, Adapting the role of handheld echocardiography during the COVID-19 pandemic: A practical guide, PERFUSION-UK, Vol: 36, Pages: 547-558, ISSN: 0267-6591

Journal article

Seligman H, Sen S, Nijjer S, Al-Lamee R, Clifford P, Sethi A, Hadjiloizou N, Kaprielian R, Ramrakha P, Bellamy M, Khan MA, Kooner J, Foale RA, Mikhail G, Baker CS, Mayet J, Malik I, Khamis R, Francis D, Petraco Ret al., 2020, Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic: Deviations from Guidelines and Pragmatic Considerations for Patients and Healthcare Workers, Interventional Cardiology Review, Vol: 15, Pages: e16-e16, ISSN: 1756-1477

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is forcing cardiology departments to rapidly adapt existing clinical guidelines to a new reality and this is especially the case for acute coronary syndrome pathways. In this focused review, the authors discuss how COVID-19 is affecting acute cardiology care and propose pragmatic guideline modifications for the diagnosis and management of acute coronary syndrome patients, particularly around the appropriateness of invasive strategies as well as length of hospital stay. The authors also discuss the use of personal protective equipment for healthcare workers in cardiology. Based on shared global experiences and growing peer-reviewed literature, it is possible to put in place modified acute coronary syndrome treatment pathways to offer safe pragmatic decisions to patients and staff.

Journal article

Ganesananthan S, Rajkumar C, Shun-Shin M, Nowbar A, Foley M, Seligman H, Wensel R, Davies J, Francis D, Al-Lamee RKet al., 2020, Ventilatory Gas Exchange in Stable Coronary Artery Disease, Publisher: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, ISSN: 0009-7322

Conference paper

Ganesananthan S, Rajkumar C, Shun-Shin M, Nowbar A, Foley M, Seligman H, Wensel R, Davies J, Francis D, Al-Lamee RKet al., 2020, Exercise Capacity as a Predictor of the Placebo-controlled Efficacy of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Stable Coronary Artery Disease: The Ventilatory Gas Exchange-stratified Analysis of ORBITA, Publisher: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, ISSN: 0009-7322

Conference paper

Kunadian V, Chieffo A, Camici PG, Berry C, Escaned J, Maas A, Prescott E, Karam N, Appelman Y, Fraccaro C, Buchanan GL, Manzo-Silberman S, Al-Lamee R, Regar E, Lansky A, Abbott JD, Badimon L, Duncker DJ, Mehran R, Capodanno D, Baumbach Aet al., 2020, An EAPCI Expert Consensus Document on Ischaemia with Non-Obstructive Coronary Arteries in Collaboration with European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Coronary Pathophysiology & Microcirculation Endorsed by Coronary Vasomotor Disorders International Study Group, EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL, Vol: 41, Pages: 3504-+, ISSN: 0195-668X

Journal article

Teoh Z, Al-Lamee RK, 2020, COURAGE, ORBITA, and ISCHEMIA: Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Stable Coronary Artery Disease., Interv Cardiol Clin, Vol: 9, Pages: 469-482

This review article summarizes key landmark trials that have shaped understanding of the role of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in stable coronary artery disease (CAD). The relationship between stenosis, ischemia, and angina is more complex than first imagined. Anginal relief remains the primary indication for PCI in stable CAD. The first placebo-controlled PCI trial showed a surprisingly small effect size, suggesting a significant placebo effect. PCI in stable CAD has not been shown to improve mortality or overall myocardial infarction rates, even in the presence of significant ischemia. Rather, risk reduction medical therapy remains the main intervention for improving outcomes.

Journal article

Warisawa T, Cook CM, Rajkumar C, Howard JP, Seligman H, Ahmad Y, El Hajj S, Doi S, Nakajima A, Nakayama M, Goto S, Vera-Urquiza R, Sato T, Kikuta Y, Kawase Y, Nishina H, Petraco R, Al-Lamee R, Nijjer S, Sen S, Nakamura S, Lerman A, Matsuo H, Francis DP, Akashi YJ, Escaned J, Davies JEet al., 2020, Safety of Revascularization Deferral of Left Main Stenosis Based on Instantaneous Wave-Free Ratio Evaluation, JACC-CARDIOVASCULAR INTERVENTIONS, Vol: 13, Pages: 1655-1664, ISSN: 1936-8798

Journal article

Ahmad Y, 2020, Complete revascularisation by percutaneous coronary intervention for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and multivessel coronary artery disease: an updated meta-analysis and meta-regression of randomized trials, Journal of the American Heart Association, Vol: 9, Pages: 1-83, ISSN: 2047-9980

BackgroundFor patients with ST‐segment–elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and multivessel coronary artery disease, the optimal treatment of the non‐infarct‐related artery has been controversial. This up‐to‐date meta‐analysis focusing on individual clinical end points was performed to further evaluate the benefit of complete revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention for patients with STEMI and multivessel coronary artery disease.Methods and ResultsWe systematically identified all randomized trials comparing complete revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention to culprit‐only revascularization for multivessel disease in STEMI and performed a random‐effects meta‐analysis. The primary efficacy end point was cardiovascular death analyzed on an intention‐to‐treat basis. Secondary end points included all‐cause mortality, myocardial infarction, and unplanned revascularization. Ten studies (7542 patients) were included: 3664 patients were randomized to complete revascularization and 3878 to culprit‐only revascularization. Across all patients, complete revascularization was superior to culprit‐only revascularization for reduction in the risk of cardiovascular death (relative risk [RR], 0.68; 95% CI, 0.47–0.98; P=0.037; I2=21.8%) and reduction in the risk of myocardial infarction (RR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.54–0.79; P<0.0001; I2=0.0%). Complete revascularization also significantly reduced the risk of unplanned revascularization (RR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.28–0.51; P<0.0001; I2=64.7%). The difference in all‐cause mortality with percutaneous coronary intervention was not statistically significant (RR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.69–1.04; P=0.108; I2=0.0%).ConclusionsFor patients with STEMI and multivessel disease, complete revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention significantly improves hard clinical outcomes including cardiovascular death and myocardial infarction. These data have implications for clinical practice gu

Journal article

Cook CM, Howard JP, Ahmad Y, Shun-Shin MJ, Sethi A, Clesham GJ, Tang KH, Nijjer SS, Kelly PA, Davies JR, Malik IS, Kaprielian R, Mikhail G, Petraco R, Warisawa T, Al-Janabi F, Karamasis GV, Mohdnazri S, Gamma R, de Waard GA, Al-Lamee R, Keeble TR, Mayet J, Sen S, Francis DP, Davies JEet al., 2020, How Do Fractional Flow Reserve, Whole-Cycle PdPa, and Instantaneous Wave-Free Ratio Correlate With Exercise Coronary Flow Velocity During Exercise-Induced Angina?, CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR INTERVENTIONS, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1941-7640

Journal article

Chacko L, P Howard J, Rajkumar C, Nowbar AN, Kane C, Mahdi D, Foley M, Shun-Shin M, Cole G, Sen S, Al-Lamee R, Francis DP, Ahmad Yet al., 2020, Effects of percutaneous coronary intervention on death and myocardial infarction stratified by stable and unstable coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1941-7705

Background:In patients presenting with ST-segment–elevation myocardial infarction, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) reduces mortality when compared with fibrinolysis. In other forms of coronary artery disease (CAD), however, it has been controversial whether PCI reduces mortality. In this meta-analysis, we examine the benefits of PCI in (1) patients post–myocardial infarction (MI) who did not receive immediate revascularization; (2) patients who have undergone primary PCI for ST-segment–elevation myocardial infarction but have residual coronary lesions; (3) patients who have suffered a non–ST-segment–elevation acute coronary syndrome; and (4) patients with truly stable CAD with no recent infarct. This analysis includes data from the recently presented International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches (ISCHEMIA) and Complete versus Culprit-Only Revascularization Strategies to Treat Multivessel Disease after Early PCI for STEMI (COMPLETE) trials.Methods and Results:We systematically identified all randomized trials of PCI on a background of medical therapy for the treatment of CAD. The ISCHEMIA trial, presented in November 2019, was eligible for inclusion. Data were combined using a random-effects meta-analysis. The primary end point was all-cause mortality. Forty-six trials, including 37 757 patients, were eligible. In the 3 unstable scenarios, PCI had the following effects on mortality: unrevascularized post-MI relative risk (RR) 0.68 (95% CI, 0.45–1.03); P=0.07; multivessel disease following ST-segment–elevation myocardial infarction (RR, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.69–1.04]; P=0.11); non–ST-segment–elevation acute coronary syndrome (RR, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.72–0.97]; P=0.02). Overall, in these unstable scenarios PCI was associated with a significant reduction in mortality (RR, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.75–0.93]; P=0.02). In unstable CAD, PCI also reduced cardiac

Journal article

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