20 results found
Carmichael R, 2022, Accelerating the transition to heat pumps: measuring real-world performance and enabling peer-to-peer learning - An Energy Futures Lab Briefing Paper, Accelerating the transition to heat pumps: measuring real-world performance and enabling peer-to-peer learning
Major challenges exist for decarbonising heat in buildings through mass adoption of heat pumps. These include consumer uncertainty and gaps in evidence, data and installer skills. This Energy Futures Lab briefing paper explores in detail the potential impacts and feasibility of one approach to supporting the transition: leveraging early adopters by measuring in-situ heat pump installation outcomes and sharing these as case studies to enable peer-to-peer learning among consumers and installers. Topics discussed include: the role of advice and support in the heat pump adoption customer journey; methods of assessing heat pump and building performance; stakeholder benefits from sharing data; and the context for implementing these recommendations.
Carmichael R, Gross R, Hanna R, et al., 2021, The Demand Response Technology Cluster: accelerating UK residential consumer engagement with time-of-use tariffs, electric vehicles and smart meters via digital comparison tools, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol: 139, ISSN: 1364-0321
Cost-effectively decarbonising the power sector and household energy use using variable renewable energy will require that electricity consumption becomes much more flexible and responsive to constraints in supply and the distribution network. In recent years residential demand response (DR) has received increasing attention that has sought to answer, based on current evidence, questions about how much consumers will engage with DR. This paper critically reviews the evidence base for residential consumer engagement with DR and draws out several important limitations in it. We argue for a more action- oriented focus on developing practical strategies to enable and unlock greater loadshifting and consumer engagement with DR within a changing technology and regulatory context. A number of recommendations are put forward for accelerating UK consumer engagement with DR, presented under three broad strategies: (a) promote awareness of smart tariffs, smart meters and storage and automation behind-the-meter devices as mutually-supportive components within a common ‘DR technology cluster’; (b) deliver targeted support for adoption of electric vehicles and other storage and automation technologies; (c) enable and support informed adoption of DR-enabling products and services through ‘smarter’ digital comparison tools (DCTs), data portability, and faster, simpler switching. The interdependency between components within this DR technology cluster delivers efficiency but also poses a risk that one delayed component (e.g., smart metering) will hold-up policy and industry support for other components. The urgency of decarbonisation goals makes it necessary to push forward as many of these elements as possible rather than the pace being set by the slowest.
Carmichael RICHARD, Halttunen KRISTA, Palazzo Corner SOFIA, et al., 2021, Paying for UK Net Zero: principles for a cost-effective and fair transition
Carmichael R, 2021, The shift to sustainable diets, PSYCHOLOGIST, Vol: 34, Pages: 45-47, ISSN: 0952-8229
Carmichael R, Hand J, 2020, Reduce, Replace, Repair - A practical pathway for individuals to reach Net Zero (with Foreword by Nigel Topping and Gonzalo Muñoz, High Level Climate Action Champions for COP26), Reduce, Replace, Repair - A practical pathway for individuals to reach Net Zero (with Foreword by Nigel Topping and Gonzalo Muñoz, High Level Climate Action Champions for COP26), London, Publisher: GIKI
Following an emissions reductions framework of Reduce, Replace and Repair (the 3Rs) we construct a representative pathway for a typical UK individual which shows the tangible steps they can take to cut their carbon footprint. We find that, based on technologies available today, Reduce and Replace steps can achieve a carbon footprint that is aligned with the 1.5C Paris targets. With the inclusion of Repair steps the same individual can lead a Net Zero life. As such we believe that the 3Rs framework is very encouraging in showing a practical pathway to Net Zero in the UK. Moreover, it could also be very impactful for individual behaviour change globally because many of the actions are applicable across other high-income, high-emitting countries.
Carmichael R, Rhodes A, Hanna R, et al., 2020, Smart and flexible electric heat: an energy futures lab briefing paper, Smart and Flexible Electric Heat: An Energy Futures Lab Briefing Paper
Heating in residential, commercial and industrial settings makes up almost half of final energy consumption in the UK, more than the energy consumed for electricity or transport. The electrification of heat is anticipated to play a major role for the UK’s efforts to reduce emissions to net-zero by 2050. Heating demand is highly variable between seasons and time of day. To take maximum advantage of low-carbon generation, and to respect the limitations of the distribution grid, electricity loads for heating will need to be flexible. This Briefing Paper explores the potential for smart flexible low-carbon electric heating in UK homes and the challenges for consumer engagement. This paper considers four key elements for enabling smart, flexible and cost- effective electric heating in UK homes: low-carbon heating systems; cost-reflective electricity pricing; thermally efficient buildings; and smart storage devices.
Carmichael R, Wainwright T, 2020, Psychology and the road to Net Zero, Clinical Psychology Forum, ISSN: 1473-8279
Carmichael R, 2020, Supporting the shift to sustainable diets for Net Zero emissions, The Vegetarian, ISSN: 1475-3413
Carmichael R, 2019, Behaviour change, public engagement and Net Zero, a report for the Committee on Climate Change, London, UK, Publisher: Centre for Energy Policy and Technology (ICEPT) and Centre for Environmental Policy (CEP)
The Committee on Climate Change (CCC) appointed Dr. Richard Carmichael from Imperial College London to help understand the potential for people to make choices that can contribute to reducing emissions, and what this means for policy. This independently published report sets out a range of policy interventions that could encourage changes across surface transport, aviation, heating and diet change. It helped to inform the Committee’s report on Net Zero – The UK’s contribution to stopping global warming, published in May 2019.The independent report does not reflect the view of the Committee, and we do not agree with all of the recommendations.
Carmichael R, Cambridge Economic Policy Associates Ltd, 2017, Distributional impact of time-of-use tariffs. report by Cambridge Economic Policy Associates Ltd. for OFGEM, 2nd May 2017, Distributional Impact of Time-of-Use Tariffs. Report by Cambridge Economic Policy Associates Ltd. for Ofgem.
Weerdt CVD, Carmichael R, Palm B, 2017, ICT for community energy, Renewable Energy and Sustainable Development, Vol: 3, Pages: 71-73, ISSN: 2356-8518
Community energy initiatives are becoming more and more widespread. For them to be successful and flourish, engagement from people in the community is a prerequisite. ICT can provide the means to support engagement, by helping people to assess the impact and benefits of a CE project and by capturing and disseminating the benefits. Also, ICT can support with the design and management of a CE project; and lastly ICT can support research on the topic
Schofield J, Carmichael R, Tindemans S, et al., 2015, Experimental validation of residential consumer responsiveness to dynamic time-of-use pricing, 23rd International Conference on Electricity Distribution (CIRED)
This paper describes the first analysis from the LowCarbon London (LCL), residential dynamic time-of-use(dToU) pricing trial that took place in the London areaduring 2013. High price induced peak reductions fornetwork constraint management are investigatedalongside the temporal availability of demand responsefor supply balancing. By examining both these use caseswe identify potential conflicts between network andsystem objectives. Demand response results are stratifiedby a ranking metric for engagement with the dToU tariffas well as household occupancy and socio-economicclassification.
Carmichael R, Schofield J, Bilton M, et al., 2014, Dynamic pricing of electricity for wind-following?: Understanding demand-response and consumer engagement on the UK’s first trial of a dynamic time-of-use tariff for residential electricity, BEHAVE 2014 Conference
Bilton M, Carmichael R, Whitney A, et al., 2014, Accessiblity and validity of smart meter data, Report C5 for the “Low Carbon London” LCNF project: Imperial College London, C5
Carmichael R, Schofield J, Woolf M, et al., 2014, Residential consumer attitudes to time-varying pricing, Report A2 for the 'Low Carbon London' LCNF project, London, Publisher: Imperial College, A2
Schofield J, Carmichael R, Tindemans S, et al., 2014, Residential consumer responsiveness to time-varying pricing, Report A3 for the “Low Carbon London” LCNF project
Miotto A, Lessiter J, Freeman J, et al., 2011, Cognitive training via interactive television: drivers, barriers and potential users, Universal Access in the Information Society, Pages: 1-18
This paper describes research to investigate the attitudinal and motivational factors that might facilitate or inhibit the uptake and use of cognitive training (CT) applications via interactive television (iTV) by both young and older people and to explore the profiles of potential users of such applications. A questionnaire was designed and distributed as part of the Vital Mind (VM) project. Data from a sample of 848 young and older people were collected and analysed using principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA). PCA of 41 attitude statements identified six components/factors. Three factors measured potential drivers to uptake and use of iTV-based CT applications (‘active wellbeing’, ‘health concern’ and ‘technophilia’) and two measured potential barriers (‘unprogressiveness’ and ‘telly-negativity’). A sixth factor (‘active sociability’) could act as either a driver or barrier, depending on how socially oriented are different CT applications. CA of the factors and age data revealed seven different profiles of potential users of CT through iTV. Three of the clusters were predominantly older (labelled Cultured-Conservatives, Digital-Immigrants and Telly-Fans), three were younger (labelled Healthy-Strivers, Digital-Natives and Net-Generation) and one was middle-aged (labelled Busy-Interactors). Reported media use and activity (mental, physical and social) were consistent with the attitude profiles of the clusters. The appeal of iTV-based CT was generally high, with Digital-Natives and Digital-Immigrants indicating the most interest. This research provides evidence for the key attitudinal dimensions predictive of likely adoption and use of iTV-based CT, and a refined understanding of target younger and older user markets.
Video games are typically executed on Windows platforms with DirectX API and require high performance CPUs and graphics hardware. For pervasive gaming in various environments like at home, hotels, or internet cafes, it is beneficial to run games also on mobile devices and modest performance CE devices avoiding the necessity of placing a noisy workstation in the living room or costly computers/consoles in each room of a hotel. This paper presents a new cross-platform approach for distributed 3D gaming in wired/wireless local networks. We introduce the novel system architecture and protocols used to transfer the game graphics data across the network to end devices. Simultaneous execution of video games on a central server and a novel streaming approach of the 3D graphics output to multiple end devices enable the access of games on low cost set top boxes and handheld devices that natively lack the power of executing a game with high-quality graphical output.
Carmichael R, 2002, Becoming vegetarian and vegan: rhetoric, ambivalence and repression in self-narrative
This thesis takes a discursive-rhetorical approach to becoming vegetarian and vegan. Previous studies have pointed to complexity and variety in definitions, types and most highly prized but ambivalently valued foodstuffs. The cultural and social criteria of vegetarianism, making `objective' studies difficult. Meat is also one of the meanings of diet in terms of `identities' are well established but the rhetorical approach taken here explores identity as accomplished through social practices offocus is on the complex and varied construction of social categories/identities in accounting. Rather than seeing variation and disagreement as problematic, analytic recast as dilemmas of identity and account-giving. accounts and the practices of justification and criticism. Cultural ambivalences areDiary and serial interview `case-material' was collected from 23 new and aspiringvegetarians and vegans. Participants' accounts are shown to handle a number of dilemmatic aspects of vegetarian/vegan identity; notably, a dilemma of moral superiority and a dilemma of abstinence. These dilemmas are discussed in terms of identity-management is argued to fundamentally involve relationships. Seen as stereotype-avoidance, commitment, and the co-construction of self and Other. Such biographical elements in self-construction, the inter-dependence of self- contexts, texts and resources for account-giving, relationships highlight both local and narratives/identities and the need for managing them, especially when identities are changed. A number of other rhetorical resources and practices used in the management of identity are also drawn out, including the discourses of lapsing, desire dilemmas of accounting through presenting the self as ambivalent, conflicted and and temptation and accounts of suppression and repression. The management of divided is underlined. Following recent work by Billig (e. g., 1999a), ambivalence and to a discussion of identity, contradiction and repression in terms o
Coventry KR, Carmichael R, Garrod SC, 1994, Spatial Prepositions, Object-Specific Function, and Task Requirements, Journal of Semantics, Pages: 289-309
Two separate issues were looked at in this experimental study of the semantics of spatial prepositions. In the context of work to specify general factors of a functional geometry mediating the use of spatial prepositions (Garrod & Sanford 1989; Coventry 1992, 1993), object-specific effects were investigated. Subjects described video scenes of various objects and their responses of in, on, over, and beside were monitored. The independent variables involved the manipulation of functionality specific to various types of objects. It was concluded that knowledge about how particular objects interact with each other contributes to the representation of functional relations which determine preposition usage. Therefore a specification of functional geometries cannot proceed without a prior formulation of our knowledge about the physical and social worlds. Additionally two different experimental measures of prepositional covariance with the scenes were used: Lickert-scale judgements and sentence completions. Responses from two separate groups were compared. The findings indicated some agreement between the two measures, but also some differences in patterns of response. It is suggested that the measures are tapping different processes, and that a variety of methods need to be used to abstract to lexical representation.
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