Imperial College London

Dr Rufus Cartwright MD(res) MRCOG

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction

Honorary Clinical Senior Lecturer
 
 
 
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r.cartwright

 
 
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Institute of Reproductive and Developmental BiologyHammersmith Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
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272 results found

Lavikainen LI, Guyatt GH, Kalliala IEJ, Cartwright R, Luomaranta AL, Vernooij RWM, Tähtinen RM, Tadayon Najafabadi B, Singh T, ROTBIGGS Investigators, Pourjamal N, Oksjoki SM, Khamani N, Karjalainen PK, Joronen KM, Izett-Kay ML, Haukka J, Halme ALE, Ge FZ, Galambosi PJ, Devereaux PJ, Cárdenas JL, Couban RJ, Aro KM, Aaltonen RL, Tikkinen KAOet al., 2024, Risk of thrombosis and bleeding in gynecologic noncancer surgery: systematic review and meta-analysis., Am J Obstet Gynecol, Vol: 230, Pages: 390-402

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to provide procedure-specific estimates of the risk for symptomatic venous thromboembolism and major bleeding in noncancer gynecologic surgeries. DATA SOURCES: We conducted comprehensive searches on Embase, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Furthermore, we performed separate searches for randomized trials that addressed the effects of thromboprophylaxis. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Eligible studies were observational studies that enrolled ≥50 adult patients who underwent noncancer gynecologic surgery procedures and that reported the absolute incidence of at least 1 of the following: symptomatic pulmonary embolism, symptomatic deep vein thrombosis, symptomatic venous thromboembolism, bleeding that required reintervention (including re-exploration and angioembolization), bleeding that led to transfusion, or postoperative hemoglobin level <70 g/L. METHODS: A teams of 2 reviewers independently assessed eligibility, performed data extraction, and evaluated the risk of bias of the eligible articles. We adjusted the reported estimates for thromboprophylaxis and length of follow-up and used the median value from studies to determine the cumulative incidence at 4 weeks postsurgery stratified by patient venous thromboembolism risk factors and used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach to rate the evidence certainty. RESULTS: We included 131 studies (1,741,519 patients) that reported venous thromboembolism risk estimates for 50 gynecologic noncancer procedures and bleeding requiring reintervention estimates for 35 procedures. The evidence certainty was generally moderate or low for venous thromboembolism and low or very low for bleeding requiring reintervention. The risk for symptomatic venous thromboembolism varied from a median of <0.1% for several procedures (eg, transvaginal oocyte retrieval) to 1.5% for others (eg, minimally invasive sacrocolpopexy with hysterectomy, 1.2%-4.6% across

Journal article

Lavikainen LI, Guyatt GH, Luomaranta AL, Cartwright R, Kalliala IEJ, Couban RJ, Aaltonen RL, Aro KM, Cárdenas JL, Devereaux PJ, Galambosi PJ, Ge FZ, Halme ALE, Haukka J, Izett-Kay ML, Joronen KM, Karjalainen PK, Khamani N, Oksjoki SM, Pourjamal N, ROTBIGGS Investigators, Singh T, Tähtinen RM, Vernooij RWM, Tikkinen KAOet al., 2024, Risk of thrombosis and bleeding in gynecologic cancer surgery: systematic review and meta-analysis., Am J Obstet Gynecol, Vol: 230, Pages: 403-416

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to provide procedure-specific estimates of the risk of symptomatic venous thromboembolism and major bleeding in the absence of thromboprophylaxis, following gynecologic cancer surgery. DATA SOURCES: We conducted comprehensive searches on Embase, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar for observational studies. We also reviewed reference lists of eligible studies and review articles. We performed separate searches for randomized trials addressing effects of thromboprophylaxis and conducted a web-based survey on thromboprophylaxis practice. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Observational studies enrolling ≥50 adult patients undergoing gynecologic cancer surgery procedures reporting absolute incidence for at least 1 of the following were included: symptomatic pulmonary embolism, symptomatic deep vein thrombosis, symptomatic venous thromboembolism, bleeding requiring reintervention (including reexploration and angioembolization), bleeding leading to transfusion, or postoperative hemoglobin <70 g/L. METHODS: Two reviewers independently assessed eligibility, performed data extraction, and evaluated risk of bias of eligible articles. We adjusted the reported estimates for thromboprophylaxis and length of follow-up and used the median value from studies to determine cumulative incidence at 4 weeks postsurgery stratified by patient venous thromboembolism risk factors. The GRADE approach was applied to rate evidence certainty. RESULTS: We included 188 studies (398,167 patients) reporting on 37 gynecologic cancer surgery procedures. The evidence certainty was generally low to very low. Median symptomatic venous thromboembolism risk (in the absence of prophylaxis) was <1% in 13 of 37 (35%) procedures, 1% to 2% in 11 of 37 (30%), and >2.0% in 13 of 37 (35%). The risks of venous thromboembolism varied from 0.1% in low venous thromboembolism risk patients undergoing cervical conization to 33.5% in high venous thromboembolism risk patients und

Journal article

Pereira GMV, Cartwright R, Juliato CRT, Domoney C, Iglesia CB, Brito LGOet al., 2024, Treatment of women with vaginal laxity: systematic review with meta-analysis., J Sex Med

BACKGROUND: Despite several treatments that have been used for women reporting vaginal laxity (VL), to our knowledge no systematic review is available on the topic so far. AIM: In this study, we sought to summarize the best available evidence about the efficacy and safety of interventions for treating VL, whether conservative or surgical. METHODS: A comprehensive search strategy was performed in Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library for reports of clinical trials published from database inception to September 2022. Studies selected for inclusion were in the English language and were performed to investigate any type of treatment for VL, with or without a comparator, whether nonrandomized studies or randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Case reports and studies without a clear definition of VL were excluded. OUTCOMES: The outcomes were interventions (laser, radiofrequency, surgery, and topical treatment), adverse effects, sexual function, pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength, and improvement of VL by the VL questionnaire (VLQ). RESULTS: From 816 records, 38 studies remained in the final analysis. Laser and radiofrequency (RF) were the energy-based treatment devices most frequently studied. Pooled data from eight observational studies have shown improved sexual function assessed by a Female Sexual Function Index score mean difference (MD) of 6.51 (95% CI, 5.61-7.42; i2 = 85%, P < .01) before and after intervention, whether by RF (MD, 6.00; 95% CI, 4.26-7.73; i2 = 80%; P < .001) or laser (MD, 6.83; 95% CI, 5.01-8.65; i2 = 92%; P < .01). However, this finding was not shown when only 3 RCTs were included, even when separated by type of intervention (RF or laser). When RF treatment was compared to sham controls, VLQ scores did not improve (MD, 1.01; 95% CI, -0.38 to 2.40; i2 = 94%; P < .001). Patient PFM strength improved af

Journal article

Sarker P, Pereira GMV, Khullar V, Yu J, Cartwright Ret al., 2024, VDR, CXCR1, CXCR2, PSCA Polymorphisms and Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Women: Genetic Association Study., Int Urogynecol J

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common human infections. Evidence suggests that there might be a genetic predisposition to UTI. Previous small candidate gene studies have suggested that common variants in genes involved in the immune response to UTI could increase susceptibility to the development of recurrent UTI (rUTI). The objective was to conduct a gene association study to replicate previous gene association studies identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) putatively associated with rUTI in adult women. METHODS: Women with a history of rUTI and healthy controls were recruited (n = 1,008) from gynaecology outpatient clinics. Participants completed a signed consent form and questionnaire for phenotyping. DNA was extracted from blood or saliva samples for each participant. Putative associated SNPs were identified from a comprehensive systematic review of prior gene association studies. Primers for each selected SNP were designed, and genotyping was conducted using a competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The Chi-squared test was used to assess the association between each variant and rUTI. Genotyping quality was assessed by checking for deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. RESULTS: We found no association between SNPs tested in the VDR (p = 0.16, p = 0.09, p = 0.36), CXCR1 (p = 0.09), CXCR2 (p = 0.39), PSCA (p = 0.74) genes, and rUTI in adult women. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the largest study to date, finding no significant associations. Previously reported positive associations may have been due to type 1 error, or genotyping errors. Future studies should adjust for confounders and employ adequate sample sizes. A greater understanding of the genetic components associated with rUTI may influence future treatment guidelines and screening for susceptible patients.

Journal article

Lavikainen LI, Guyatt GH, Sallinen VJ, Karanicolas PJ, Couban RJ, Singh T, Lee Y, Elberkennou J, Aaltonen R, Ahopelto K, Beilmann-Lehtonen I, Blanker MH, Cárdenas JL, Cartwright R, Craigie S, Devereaux PJ, Garcia-Perdomo HA, Ge FZ, Gomaa HA, Halme ALE, Haukka J, Karjalainen PK, Kilpeläinen TP, Kivelä AJ, Lampela H, Mattila AK, Najafabadi BT, Nykänen TP, Pandanaboyana S, Pourjamal N, Ratnayake CBB, Raudasoja A, Vernooij RWM, Violette PD, Wang Y, Xiao Y, Yao L, Tikkinen KAO, ROTBIGGS Investigatorset al., 2024, Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses of the Procedure-specific Risks of Thrombosis and Bleeding in General Abdominal, Colorectal, Upper Gastrointestinal, and Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery., Ann Surg, Vol: 279, Pages: 213-225

OBJECTIVE: To provide procedure-specific estimates of symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) and major bleeding after abdominal surgery. BACKGROUND: The use of pharmacological thromboprophylaxis represents a trade-off that depends on VTE and bleeding risks that vary between procedures; their magnitude remains uncertain. METHODS: We identified observational studies reporting procedure-specific risks of symptomatic VTE or major bleeding after abdominal surgery, adjusted the reported estimates for thromboprophylaxis and length of follow-up, and estimated cumulative incidence at 4 weeks postsurgery, stratified by VTE risk groups, and rated evidence certainty. RESULTS: After eligibility screening, 285 studies (8,048,635 patients) reporting on 40 general abdominal, 36 colorectal, 15 upper gastrointestinal, and 24 hepatopancreatobiliary surgery procedures proved eligible. Evidence certainty proved generally moderate or low for VTE and low or very low for bleeding requiring reintervention. The risk of VTE varied substantially among procedures: in general abdominal surgery from a median of <0.1% in laparoscopic cholecystectomy to a median of 3.7% in open small bowel resection, in colorectal from 0.3% in minimally invasive sigmoid colectomy to 10.0% in emergency open total proctocolectomy, and in upper gastrointestinal/hepatopancreatobiliary from 0.2% in laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy to 6.8% in open distal pancreatectomy for cancer. CONCLUSIONS: VTE thromboprophylaxis provides net benefit through VTE reduction with a small increase in bleeding in some procedures (eg, open colectomy and open pancreaticoduodenectomy), whereas the opposite is true in others (eg, laparoscopic cholecystectomy and elective groin hernia repairs). In many procedures, thromboembolism and bleeding risks are similar, and decisions depend on individual risk prediction and values and preferences regarding VTE and bleeding.

Journal article

Yu J, Varella Pereira GM, Allen-Brady K, Cuffolo R, Siddharth A, Koch M, Chua JWF, Sorrentino F, Dytko O, Ng K-Y, Violette P, Khullar V, Wang ZT, Cartwright Ret al., 2023, Genetic polymorphisms associated with urinary tract infection in children and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis., Am J Obstet Gynecol

INTRODUCTION: The lifetime risk of urinary tract infection is known from first-degree relative studies to be highly heritable. Associations have also been observed across the life course from pediatric urinary tract infection to recurrent urinary tract infection in adulthood, suggesting lifelong susceptibility factors. Candidate gene studies and genome-wide association studies have tested for genetic associations of urinary tract infection; however, no contemporary systematic synthesis of studies is available. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review to identify all genetic polymorphisms tested for an association with urinary tract infection in children and adults; and to assess their strength, consistency, and risk of bias among reported associations. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: PubMed, HuGE Navigator and Embase were searched from January 1, 2005 to November 16, 2023, using a combination of genetic and phenotype key words. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: Fixed and random effects meta-analyses were conducted using codominant models of inheritance in metan. The interim Venice criteria were used to assess their credibility of pooled associations. RESULTS: After removing 451 duplicates, 1821 studies reports were screened, with 106 selected for full-text review, 22 were included in the meta-analysis (7 adult studies and 15 pediatric studies). Our meta-analyses demonstrated significant pooled associations for pediatric urinary tract infection with variation in CXCR1, IL8, TGF, TLR4 and VDR; all of which have plausible roles in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection. Our meta-analyses also demonstrated a significant pooled association for adult urinary tract infection with variation in CXCR1. All significant pooled associations were graded according to their epidemiological credibility, sample sizes, heterogeneity between studies, and risk of bias. CONCLUSION: This systematic review provides a current synthesis of the known genetic architec

Journal article

Falkenbach P, Raudasoja AJJ, Vernooij RWM, Mustonen JMJ, Agarwal A, Aoki Y, Blanker MHH, Cartwright R, Garcia-Perdomo HAA, Kilpelaeinen TPP, Lainiala O, Lamberg T, Nevalainen OPO, Raittio E, Richard POO, Violette PDD, Tikkinen KAO, Sipilae R, Turpeinen M, Komulainen Jet al., 2023, Reporting of costs and economic impacts in randomized trials of de-implementation interventions for low-value care: a systematic scoping review, IMPLEMENTATION SCIENCE, Vol: 18, ISSN: 1748-5908

Journal article

Lavikainen LI, Gyatt GH, Kalliala IEJ, Cartwright R, Luomaranta AL, Vernooij RWM, Tahtinen RM, Najafabadi BT, Singh T, Pourjamal N, Oksjoki SM, Khamani N, Karjalainen PK, Joronen KM, Izett-Kay ML, Haukka J, Halme ALE, Ge FZ, Galambosi PJ, Devereaux PJ, Cardenas JL, Couban RJ, Aro KM, Aaltonen RL, Tikkinen KAOet al., 2023, Systematic reviews of risks of thrombosis and bleeding in gynecologic non-cancer surgery, Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 13-14, ISSN: 1470-0328

Conference paper

Lavikainen LI, Gyatt GH, Kalliala IEJ, Cartwright R, Luomaranta AL, Vernooij RWM, Tahtinen RM, Najafabadi BT, Singh T, Pourjamal N, Oksjoki SM, Khamani N, Karjalainen PK, Joronen KM, Izett-Kay ML, Haukka J, Halme ALE, Ge FZ, Galambosi PJ, Devereaux PJ, Cardenas JL, Couban RJ, Aro KM, Aaltonen RL, Tikkinen KAOet al., 2023, Systematic reviews of risks of thrombosis and bleeding in gynecologic non- cancer surgery, Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 13-14, ISSN: 1470-0328

Conference paper

Singh T, Lavikainen L, Halme ALE, Aaltonen R, Agarwal A, Blanker MH, Bolsunovskyi K, Cartwright R, Garcia-Perdomo H, Gutschon R, Lee Y, Pourjamal N, Vernooij RWM, Violette PD, Haukka J, Guyatt GH, Tikkinen KAOet al., 2023, Timing of symptomatic venous thromboembolism after surgery: meta-analysis, BRITISH JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Vol: 110, Pages: 553-561, ISSN: 0007-1323

Journal article

Kluivers KB, Lince SL, Ruiz-Zapata AM, Post WM, Cartwright R, Kerkhof MH, Widomska J, De Witte W, Pecanka J, Kiemeney LA, Vermeulen SH, Goeman JJ, Allen-Brady K, Oosterwijk E, Poelmans Get al., 2023, Molecular Landscape of Pelvic Organ Prolapse Provides Insights into Disease Etiology, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, Vol: 24

Journal article

Raudasoja AJ, Falkenbach P, Vernooij RWM, Mustonen JMJ, Agarwal A, Aoki Y, Blanker MH, Cartwright R, Garcia-Perdomo HA, Kilpelainen TP, Lainiala O, Lamberg T, Nevalainen OPO, Raittio E, Richard PO, Violette PD, Komulainen J, Sipila R, Tikkinen KAOet al., 2022, Randomized controlled trials in de-implementation research: a systematic scoping review, IMPLEMENTATION SCIENCE, Vol: 17, ISSN: 1748-5908

Journal article

Yu J, Allen-Brady K, Chua J, Cuffolo R, Koch M, Singh SH, Sorrentino F, Siddharth A, Violette P, Cartwright Ret al., 2022, Genetic Risk Factors for Paediatric and Adult UTI: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis, Publisher: SPRINGER LONDON LTD, Pages: S306-S307, ISSN: 0937-3462

Conference paper

Pourjamal N, Lavikainen L, Halme ALE, Cartwright R, Ahopelto K, Guyatt GH, Tikkinen KAOet al., 2022, Global practice variation in pharmacologicthromboprophylaxis for general and gynaecologicalsurgery: systematic review, BJS OPEN, Vol: 6, ISSN: 2474-9842

Journal article

Sharples K, Vear NK, Porter-Steele J, Anderson DJ, Moeke-Maxwell TH, Laing BB, Young L, Bailey TG, Benge S, Huang Y, Crowley E, Day R, Cartwright R, Findlay M, Porter D, Kuper M, Campbell I, McCarthy ALet al., 2022, Protocol of trans-Tasman feasibility randomised controlled trial of the Younger Women's Wellness After Breast Cancer (YWWACP) lifestyle intervention, PILOT AND FEASIBILITY STUDIES, Vol: 8

Journal article

Izett-Kay ML, Rahmanou P, Cartwright RJ, Price N, Jackson SRet al., 2022, Laparoscopic sacrohysteropexy versus vaginal hysterectomy and apical suspension: 7-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial., Int Urogynecol J, Vol: 33, Pages: 1957-1965

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Laparoscopic mesh sacrohysteropexy offers a uterine-sparing alternative to vaginal hysterectomy with apical suspension, although randomised comparative data are lacking. This study was aimed at comparing the long-term efficacy of laparoscopic mesh sacrohysteropexy and vaginal hysterectomy with apical suspension for the treatment of uterine prolapse. METHODS: A randomised controlled trial comparing laparoscopic mesh sacrohysteropexy and vaginal hysterectomy with apical suspension for the treatment of uterine prolapse was performed, with a minimum follow-up of 7 years. The primary outcome was reoperation for apical prolapse. Secondary outcomes included patient-reported mesh complications, Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification, Patient Global Impression of Improvement in prolapse symptoms and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Vaginal Symptoms, Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (ICIQ-FLUTS) and PISQ-12 questionnaires. RESULTS: A total of 101 women were randomised and 62 women attended for follow-up at a mean of 100 months postoperatively (range 84-119 months). None reported a mesh-associated complication. The risk of reoperation for apical prolapse was 17.2% following vaginal hysterectomy (VH) and 6.1% following laparoscopic mesh sacrohysteropexy (LSH; relative risk 0.34, 95% CI 0.07-1.68, p = 0.17). Laparoscopic sacrohysteropexy was associated with a statistically significantly higher apical suspension (POP-Q point C -5 vs -4.25, p = 0.02) and longer total vaginal length (9 cm vs 6 cm, p < 0.001). There was no difference in the change in ICIQ-VS scores between the two groups (ICIQ-VS change -22 vs -25, p = 0.59). CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic sacrohysteropexy and vaginal hysterectomy with apical suspension have comparable reoperation rates and subjective outcomes. Potential advantages of laparoscopic sacrohysteropexy include a lower risk of ap

Journal article

Deprest JA, Cartwright R, Dietz HP, Oliveira Brito LG, Koch M, Allen-Brady K, Manonai J, Weintraub AY, Chua JWF, Cuffolo R, Sorrentino F, Cattani L, Decoene J, Page A-S, Weeg N, Varella Pereira GM, Mori da Cunha de Carvalho MGMC, Mackova K, Hympanova LH, Moalli P, Shynlova O, Alperin M, Bortolini MATet al., 2022, International Urogynecological Consultation (IUC): pathophysiology of pelvic organ prolapse (POP), INTERNATIONAL UROGYNECOLOGY JOURNAL, Vol: 33, Pages: 1699-1710, ISSN: 0937-3462

Journal article

Garcia B, Cartwright R, Iglesia C, Rangel SCR, Gold D, Novikova N, Jose J, Burkett LS, Dieter A, Dubinskaya A, Heisler Cet al., 2022, Joint Report on Terminology for Cosmetic Gynecology, FEMALE PELVIC MEDICINE AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY, Vol: 28, Pages: 351-366, ISSN: 2151-8378

Journal article

Yu J, Allen-Brady K, Siddharth A, Cuffolo R, Sidhu H, Cartwright Ret al., 2022, Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and UTI: Systematic review and meta-analysis, Publisher: SPRINGER LONDON LTD, Pages: S52-S53, ISSN: 0937-3462

Conference paper

Chua JWF, Allen-Brady K, Cuffolo R, Koch M, Sorrentino F, Cartwright Ret al., 2022, Systematic review and meta-analysis of genetic association studies of pelvic organ prolapse, Publisher: SPRINGERNATURE, Pages: 106-107, ISSN: 1018-4813

Conference paper

Ossin DA, Carter EC, Cartwright R, Violette PD, Iyer S, Klein GT, Senapati S, Klaassen Z, Botros SMet al., 2022, Shared decision-making in urology and female pelvic floor medicine and reconstructive surgery, NATURE REVIEWS UROLOGY, Vol: 19, Pages: 161-170, ISSN: 1759-4812

Journal article

Izett-Kay M, Rahmanou P, Cartwright R, Price N, Jackson Set al., 2022, Hysterectomy or Hysteropexy? Long term follow-up from a randomised controlled trial, Publisher: SPRINGER LONDON LTD, Pages: 446-446, ISSN: 0937-3462

Conference paper

Allen-Brady K, Chua JWF, Cuffolo R, Koch M, Sorrentino F, Cartwright Jet al., 2022, Systematic review and meta-analysis of genetic association studies of pelvic organ prolapse, International Urogynecology Journal and Pelvic Floor Dysfunction, Vol: 33, Pages: 67-82, ISSN: 0937-3462

Introduction and hypothesisFamily and twin studies demonstrate that pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is heritable, but the genetic etiology is poorly understood. This review aimed to identify genetic loci and specific polymorphisms associated with POP, while assessing the strength, consistency, and risk of bias among reported associations.MethodsUpdating an earlier systematic review, PubMed and HuGE Navigator as well as relevant conference abstracts were searched using genetic and phenotype keywords from 2015 to 2020. Screening and data extraction were performed in duplicate. Fixed and random effects meta-analyses were conducted using co-dominant models of inheritance. We assessed credibility of pooled associations using interim Venice criteria.ResultsWe screened 504 new abstracts and included 46 published and 7 unpublished studies. In pooled analyses we found significant associations for four polymorphisms: rs2228480 at the ESR1 gene (OR 0.67 95% CI 0.46–0.98, I2 = 0.0%, Venice rating BAB), rs12589592 at the FBLN5 gene (OR 1.46 95% CI 1.11–1.82, I2 = 36.3%, Venice rating BBB), rs484389 in the PGR gene (OR 0.61 95% CI 0.39–0.96, I2 = 32.4%, Venice rating CBB), and rs1800012 at the COL1A1 gene (OR 0.80 95% CI 0.66–0.96, I2 = 0.0%, Venice rating BAB). Further credible novel variants have also been recently identified in genome-wide association studies.ConclusionThe genetic contributions to POP remain poorly understood. Several biologically plausible variants have been identified, but much work is required to establish the role of these genes in the pathogenesis of POP or to establish a role for genetic testing in clinical practice.

Journal article

Abhari RE, Izett-Kay ML, Morris HL, Cartwright R, Snelling SJBet al., 2021, Host-biomaterial interactions in mesh complications after pelvic floor reconstructive surgery, NATURE REVIEWS UROLOGY, Vol: 18, Pages: 725-738, ISSN: 1759-4812

Journal article

Violette PD, Cartwright R, Devereaux PJ, Gross PL, Kaukonen K-M, Sandset PM, Kilpelainen TP, Lavikainen L, Sallinen V, Horstia S, Guyatt GH, Tikkinen KAOet al., 2021, ARTS: A Large, International Trial of Thromboprophylaxis in Intra-abdominal, Gynecologic, and Urologic Surgery, EUROPEAN UROLOGY FOCUS, Vol: 7, Pages: 1222-1225

Journal article

Bausch K, Cartwright R, 2021, Evidence-based Urology: When Is a Study or Meta-analysis Big Enough?, EUROPEAN UROLOGY FOCUS, Vol: 7, Pages: 1240-1242

Journal article

Lavikainen L, Guyatt GH, Lee Y, Couban RJ, Luomaranta AL, Sallinen VJ, Kalliala IEJ, Karanicolas PJ, Cartwright R, Aaltonen RL, Ahopelto K, Aro KM, Beilmann-Lehtonen I, Blanker MH, Cardenas JL, Craigie S, Galambosi PJ, Garcia-Perdomo HA, Ge FZ, Gomaa HA, Huang L, Izett-Kay ML, Joronen KM, Karjalainen PK, Khamani N, Kilpelainen TP, Kivela AJ, Korhonen T, Lampela H, Mattila AK, Najafabadi BT, Nykanen TP, Nysten C, Oksjoki SM, Pandanaboyana S, Pourjamal N, Ratnayake CBB, Raudasoja AR, Singh T, Tahtinen RM, Vernooij RWM, Wang Y, Xiao Y, Yao L, Haukka J, Tikkinen KAOet al., 2021, Systematic reviews of observational studies of Risk of Thrombosis and Bleeding in General and Gynecologic Surgery (ROTBIGGS): introduction and methodology, SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS, Vol: 10

Journal article

Violette PD, Vernooij RWM, Aoki Y, Agarwal A, Cartwright R, Arai Y, Tailly T, Novara G, Baldeh T, Craigie S, Breau RH, Guyatt GH, Tikkinen KAOet al., 2021, An International Survey on the Use of Thromboprophylaxis in Urological Surgery, EUROPEAN UROLOGY FOCUS, Vol: 7, Pages: 653-658

Journal article

Johannessen HH, Cartwright R, 2021, Constipation during and after pregnancy, BJOG-AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY, Vol: 128, Pages: 1065-1065, ISSN: 1470-0328

Journal article

Cartwright J, Frankin L, Tikkinen K, Kallila I, Miotla P, Rechberger T, Offiah I, McMahon S, O'Reilly B, Lince S, Kluivers K, Post W, Poelmans G, Palmer M, Wessels H, Wong A, Kuh D, Kivimaki M, Kumari M, Mangino M, Spector T, Guggenheim J, Lehne B, De Silva M, Evans D, Lawlor D, Karhunen V, Mannikko M, Marczak M, Bennett P, Khullar V, Jarvelin M, Walley A, on behalf of the IGNITE Consortiumet al., 2021, Genome wide association study identifies two novel loci associated with female stress and urgency urinary incontinence, The Journal of Urology, ISSN: 0022-5347

Background:Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not identified replicable genetic risk loci for stress or urgency urinary incontinence.Methods:We carried out a discovery stage case control GWAS in three independent discovery cohorts of European women (n=8,979) for stress incontinence, urgency incontinence, and any incontinence phenotypes. We conducted replication in six additional studies of European ancestry (n=4,069). We collected bladder biopsies from women with incontinence to further investigate bladder expression of implicated genes and pathways (n=50) and used symptom questionnaires for phenotyping. We conducted meta-analyses using inverse variance fixed effects models in METAL, and whole transcriptome analyses using Affymetrix arrays, with replication with TaqMan PCR.Results:In the discovery stage we identified 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped or imputed at five loci that reached genome-wide significance (p<5x10-8). In replication, rs138724718 on chromosome 2, near the macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) gene (replication p=0.003) associated with stress incontinence. In addition, rs34998271 on chromosome 6 near the Endothelin 1 (EDN1) gene (replication p=0.0008) associated with urgency incontinence. In combined meta-analyses of discovery and replication cohorts, associations with genome-wide significance for these two SNPs were confirmed. Transcriptomics analyses showed differential expression of 7 of 19 genes in the endothelin pathway between stress and urgency incontinence (p<0.0001).Conclusion:We uncovered two new risk loci near the genes Endothelin 1 (EDN1), associated with urgency incontinence and Macrophage Receptor with Collagenous Structure (MARCO), associated with stress incontinence. These loci are biologically plausible given their roles in smooth muscle contraction and innate host defense respectively.

Journal article

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