Imperial College London

ProfessorRogerGunn

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Brain Sciences

Emeritus Professor of Molecular Neuroimaging
 
 
 
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r.gunn

 
 
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Burlington DanesHammersmith Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
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386 results found

Matthews P, Venkataraman A, Mansur A, Rizzo G, Bishop C, Lewis Y, Kocagoncu E, Lingford-Hughes A, Huiban M, Passchier J, Rowe J, Tsukada H, Brooks D, Martarello L, Comley R, Chen L, Schwarz A, Hargreaves R, Gunn R, Rabiner Eet al., 2022, Widespread cell stress and mitochondrial dysfunction occur in patients with early Alzheimer’s Disease, Science Translational Medicine, ISSN: 1946-6234

Journal article

Mohamed MA, Zeng Z, Gennaro M, Lao-Kaim N, Myers J, Calsolaro V, Femminella G, Tyacke R, Martin-Bastida A, Gunn R, Nutt D, Edison P, Piccini P, Roussakis Aet al., 2022, Astrogliosis in aging and Parkinson’s disease dementia: a new clinical study with 11C-BU99008 PET/CT, Brain Communications, ISSN: 2632-1297

The role of astrogliosis in the pathology of brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases has recently drawn great attention. Imidazoline-2 binding sites (I2BS) represent a possible target to map the distribution of reactive astrocytes. In this study, we use 11C-BU99008, an I2BS-specific PET radioligand, to image reactive astrocytes in vivo in healthy controls (HCs) andpatients with established Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD).Eighteen HCs (age: 45−78 years) and six patients with PDD (age: 64−77 years) had one 11C-BU99008 PET-CT scan with arterial input function. All subjects underwent one 3T MRI brain scan to facilitate the analysis of the PET-CT data and to capture individual cerebral atrophy. Regional 11C-BU99008 volumes of distribution (VT) were calculated for each subject by two-tissue compartmental modelling.Positive correlations between 11C-BU99008 VT values and age were found for all tested regions across the brain within HCs (p<0.05); furthermore, multiple regression indicated that aging affects 11C-BU99008 VT values in a region-specific manner. Independent samples t-test indicated that there was no significant group difference in 11C-BU99008 VT values betweenPDD (n=6; mean age = 71.97±4.66 years) and older HCs (n=9; mean age = 71.90±5.51 years).Our dataset shows that astrogliosis is common with aging in a region-specific manner. However, in this set-up, 11C-BU99008 PET cannot differentiate patients with PDD from healthy controls of similar age.

Journal article

Livingston NR, Calsolaro V, Hinz R, Nowell J, Raza S, Gentleman S, Tyacke RJ, Myers J, Venkataraman AV, Perneczky R, Gunn RN, Rabiner EA, Parker CA, Murphy PS, Wren PB, Nutt DJ, Matthews PM, Edison Pet al., 2022, Relationship between astrocyte reactivity, using novel C-11-BU99008 PET, and glucose metabolism, grey matter volume and amyloid load in cognitively impaired individuals, MOLECULAR PSYCHIATRY, Vol: 27, Pages: 2019-2029, ISSN: 1359-4184

Journal article

Syvänen S, Gunn RN, Zhang L, 2022, Principles of PET and Its Role in Understanding Drug Delivery to the Brain, AAPS Advances in the Pharmaceutical Sciences Series, Pages: 329-352

Positron emission tomography (PET) is a noninvasive medical imaging technique that enables the investigation of drug pharmacokinetics in vivo. The technique is especially powerful for pharmacokinetic studies of new CNS drug candidates as tissue samples from the brain are understandably difficult to obtain. The PET technique involves the administration of a radiolabeled molecule, often referred to as a PET radiotracer, whose spatiotemporal distribution can be measured using tomography. The radiolabeled molecule can be the drug under investigation, a structurally different molecule that binds to the same target as the drug candidate, or a molecule that interacts with a downstream target that is believed to be affected by the action of the drug candidate. Such radiolabeled probes allow PET to address several questions central for CNS drug development: Does the drug candidate reach the target site? Does the drug candidate interact with the desired target? Is the concentration of the drug at the target site sufficient to illicit an effect? What is the temporal nature of such an interaction? What is the relationship between the target site concentration and the administered dose and/or plasma concentrations?.

Book chapter

Reynolds S, Kazan SM, Anton A, Alizadeh T, Gunn RN, Paley MN, Tozer GM, Cunningham VJet al., 2021, Kinetic modelling of dissolution dynamic nuclear polarisation C-13 magnetic resonance spectroscopy data for analysis of pyruvate delivery and fate in tumours, NMR IN BIOMEDICINE, Vol: 35, ISSN: 0952-3480

Journal article

Venkataraman A, Bishop C, Mansur A, Rizzo G, Lewis Y, Kocagoncu E, Lingford-Hughes A, Huiban M, Passchier J, Rowe JB, Tsukada H, Brooks DJ, Martarello L, Comley RA, Chen L, Hargreaves R, Schwarz AJ, Gunn RN, Rabiner E, Matthews PMet al., 2021, Imaging synaptic microstructure and synaptic loss in vivo in early Alzheimer’s Disease, Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

Background Synaptic loss and neurite dystrophy are early events in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). We aimed to characterise early synaptic microstructural changes in vivo.Methods MRI neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were used to image cortical microstructure in both sporadic, late onset, amyloid PET positive AD patients and healthy controls (total n = 28). We derived NODDI measures of grey matter extracellular free water (FISO), neurite density (NDI) and orientation dispersion (ODI), which provides an index of neurite branching and orientation, as well as more conventional DTI measures of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean/axial/radial diffusivity (MD, AD, RD, respectively). We also performed [11C]UCB-J PET, which provides a specific measure of the density of pre-synaptic vesicular protein SV2A. Both sets of measures were compared to regional brain volumes.Results The AD patients showed expected relative decreases in regional brain volumes (range, -6 to - 23%) and regional [11C]UCB-J densities (range, -2 to -25%). Differences between AD and controls were greatest in the hippocampus. NODDI microstructural measures showed greater FISO (range, +26 to +44%) in AD, with little difference in NDI (range, -1 to +7%) and mild focal changes in ODI (range, -4 to +3%). Regionally greater FISO and lower [11C]UCB-J binding were correlated across grey matter in patients (most strongly in the caudate, r2 = 0.37, p = 0.001). FISO and DTI RD were strongly positively associated, particularly in the hippocampus (r2 = 0.98, p < 7.4 × 10−9). After 12-18 months we found a 5% increase in FISO in the temporal lobe, but little change across all ROIs in NDI and ODI. An exploratory analysis showed higher parietal lobe FISO was associated with lower language scores in people with AD.Conclusions We interpreted the increased extracellular free water as a possible consequence of glial activation. The dynamic range of disease

Working paper

Mansur A, Rizzo G, Rabiner EA, Gunn RNet al., 2021, Simultaneous multi-parameter multi-tracer estimation with dynamic neuro-PET data, Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, Pages: 216-217, ISSN: 0271-678X

Conference paper

Rizzo G, Searle GE, Passchier J, Lewis Y, Erritzoe D, Gunn RN, Knudsen GM, Beaver JD, Rabiner EAet al., 2021, Determination of the 5-HT2C receptor fraction in the human hippocampus in vivo: A [C-11]Cimbi-36 PET study, Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, Pages: 234-236, ISSN: 0271-678X

Conference paper

Rabiner EA, Uz T, Mansur A, Brown T, Chen G, Wu J, Atienza J, Schwarz AJ, Yin W, Lewis Y, Searle GE, Dennison JMTJ, Passchier J, Gunn RN, Tauscher Jet al., 2021, Endogenous dopamine release in the human brain as a pharmacodynamic biomarker: evaluation of the new GPR139 agonist TAK-041 with [C-11]PHNO PET, NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY, Vol: 47, Pages: 1405-1412, ISSN: 0893-133X

Journal article

Veronese M, Rizzo G, Belzunce M, Schubert J, Searle G, Whittington A, Mansur A, Dunn J, Reader A, Gunn RN, and the Grand Challenge Participantset al., 2021, Reproducibility of findings in modern PET neuroimaging: insight from the NRM2018 grand challenge, Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, Vol: 41, Pages: 2778-2796, ISSN: 0271-678X

The reproducibility of findings is a compelling methodological problem that the neuroimaging community is facing these days. The lack of standardized pipelines for image processing, quantification and statistics plays a major role in the variability and interpretation of results, even when the same data are analysed. This problem is well-known in MRI studies, where the indisputable value of the method has been complicated by a number of studies that produce discrepant results. However, any research domain with complex data and flexible analytical procedures can experience a similar lack of reproducibility. In this paper we investigate this issue for brain PET imaging. During the 2018 NeuroReceptor Mapping conference, the brain PET community was challenged with a computational contest involving a simulated neurotransmitter release experiment. Fourteen international teams analysed the same imaging dataset, for which the ground-truth was known. Despite a plurality of methods, the solutions were consistent across participants, although not identical. These results should create awareness that the increased sharing of PET data alone will only be one component of enhancing confidence in neuroimaging results and that it will be important to complement this with full details of the analysis pipelines and procedures that have been used to quantify data.

Journal article

Whittington A, Gunn RN, Alzheimers Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, 2021, TauIQ: a canonical image based algorithm to quantify tau PET scans., Journal of Nuclear Medicine, Vol: 62, Pages: 1292-1300, ISSN: 0161-5505

Recently, AmyloidIQ was introduced as a new canonical image-based algorithm to quantify amyloid PET scans and demonstrated increased power over traditional SUV ratio (SUVR) approaches when assessed in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. We build further on this mathematical framework to develop a TauIQ algorithm for the quantitative analysis of the more complex spatial distribution displayed by tau PET radiotracers. Methods: Cross-sectional (n = 615) and longitudinal (n = 149) 18F-flortaucipir data were obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative along with necessary adjunct amyloid PET and T1-weighted structural MRI data. A subset of these data were used to derive a chronological tau dataset, using AmyloidIQ analysis of associated amyloid PET data to calculate the subject's temporal position in the canonical AD disease process, from which canonical images for the nonspecific and specific binding components of 18F-flortaucipir in AD were calculated. These 2 canonical images were incorporated into the TauIQ algorithm that enables the quantification of both global and local tau outcome measures using an image-based regression and statistical parametric analysis of the initial residual image. Performance of the TauIQ algorithm was compared with SUVR approaches for cross-sectional analyses, longitudinal analyses, and correlation with clinical measures (Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale [ADAS-Cog], Clinical Dementia Rating scale-sum of boxes [CDR-SB], and Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE]). Results: TauIQ successfully calculated global tau load (TauL) in all 791 scans analyzed (range, -3.5% to 185.2%; mean ± SD, 23% ± 20.5%) with a nonzero additional local tau component being required in 31% of all scans (cognitively normal [CN], 22%; mild cognitive impairment [MCI], 35%; dementia, 72%). TauIQ was compared with the best SUVR approach in the cross-sectional analysis (TauL increase in effect size: CN- vs. CN+, +

Journal article

Venkataraman A, Mansur A, Rizzo G, Bishop C, Lewis Y, Kocagoncu E, Lingford-Hughes A, Huiban M, Passchier J, Rowe J, Tsukada H, Brooks DJ, Martarello L, Comley RA, Chen L, Schwarz AJ, Hargreaves R, Gunn R, Rabiner E, Matthews PMet al., 2021, Widespread cell stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in early Alzheimer’s Disease, Publisher: MedRxiv

Cell stress and impaired oxidative phosphorylation are central to mechanisms of synaptic loss and neurodegeneration in the cellular pathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We quantified the in vivo density of the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker, the sigma 1 receptor (S1R) using [11C]SA4503 PET, as well as that of mitochondrial complex I (MC1) with [18F]BCPP-EF and the pre-synaptic vesicular protein SV2A with [11C]UCB-J in 12 patients with early AD and in 16 cognitively normal controls. We integrated these molecular measures with assessments of regional brain volumes and brain perfusion (CBF) measured with MRI arterial spin labelling. 8 AD patients were followed longitudinally to estimate rates of change with disease progression over 12-18 months. The AD patients showed widespread increases in S1R (≤ 27%) and regional decreases in MC1 (≥ -28%), SV2A (≥ -25%), brain volume (≥ -23%), and CBF (≥ -26%). [18F]BCPP-EF PET MC1 density (≥ -12%) and brain volumes (≥ -5%) were further reduced at follow up in brain regions consistent with the differences between AD patients and controls at baseline. Exploratory analyses showing associations of MC1, SV2A and S1R density with cognitive changes at baseline and longitudinally with AD, but not in controls, suggested a loss of metabolic functional reserve with disease. Our study thus provides novel in vivo evidence for widespread cellular stress and bioenergetic abnormalities in early AD and that they may be clinically meaningful.

Working paper

Onwordi EC, Whitehurst T, Mansur A, Statton B, Berry A, Quinlan M, O'Regan D, Rogdaki M, Reis Marques T, Rabiner E, Gunn R, Vernon A, Natesan S, Howes Oet al., 2021, The relationship between synaptic density marker SV2A, glutamate and N-acetyl aspartate levels in healthy volunteers and schizophrenia: a multimodal PET and magnetic resonance spectroscopy brain imaging study, Translational Psychiatry, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 2158-3188

Glutamatergic excitotoxicity is hypothesised to underlie synaptic loss in schizophrenia pathogenesis, but it is unknown whether synaptic markers are related to glutamatergic function in vivo. Additionally, it has been proposed that N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) levels reflect neuronal integrity. Here, we investigated whether synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2 A (SV2A) levels are related to glutamatergic markers and NAA in healthy volunteers (HV) and schizophrenia patients (SCZ). Forty volunteers (SCZ n = 18, HV n = 22) underwent [11C]UCB-J positron emission tomography and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) imaging in the left hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to index [11C]UCB-J distribution volume ratio (DVR), and creatine-scaled glutamate (Glu/Cr), glutamate and glutamine (Glx/Cr) and NAA (NAA/Cr). In healthy volunteers, but not patients, [11C]UCB-J DVR was significantly positively correlated with Glu/Cr, in both the hippocampus and ACC. Furthermore, in healthy volunteers, but not patients, [11C]UCB-J DVR was significantly positively correlated with Glx/Cr, in both the hippocampus and ACC. There were no significant relationships between [11C]UCB-J DVR and NAA/Cr in the hippocampus or ACC in healthy volunteers or patients. Therefore, an appreciable proportion of the brain 1H-MRS glutamatergic signal is related to synaptic density in healthy volunteers. This relationship is not seen in schizophrenia, which, taken with lower synaptic marker levels, is consistent with lower levels of glutamatergic terminals and/or a lower proportion of glutamatergic relative to GABAergic terminals in the ACC in schizophrenia.

Journal article

Calsolaro V, Matthews PM, Donat CK, Livingston NR, Femminella GD, Guedes SS, Myers J, Fan Z, Tyacke RJ, Venkataraman AV, Perneczky R, Gunn R, Rabiner EA, Gentleman S, Parker CA, Murphy PS, Wren PB, Hinz R, Sastre M, Nutt DJ, Edison Pet al., 2021, Astrocyte reactivity with late onset cognitive impairment assessed in-vivo using 11C-BU99008 PET and its relationship with amyloid load, Molecular Psychiatry, Vol: 26, Pages: 5848-5855, ISSN: 1359-4184

11C-BU99008 is a novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracer that enables selective imaging of astrocyte reactivity in vivo. To explore astrocyte reactivity associated with Alzheimer’s disease, 11 older, cognitively impaired (CI) subjects and 9 age-matched healthy controls (HC) underwent 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 18F-florbetaben and 11C-BU99008 PET. The 8 amyloid (Aβ)-positive CI subjects had higher 11C-BU99008 uptake relative to HC across the whole brain, but particularly in frontal, temporal, medial temporal and occipital lobes. Biological parametric mapping demonstrated a positive voxel-wise neuroanatomical correlation between 11C-BU99008 and 18F-florbetaben. Autoradiography using 3H-BU99008 with post-mortem Alzheimer’s brains confirmed through visual assessment that increased 3H-BU99008 binding localised with the astrocyte protein glial fibrillary acid protein and was not displaced by PiB or florbetaben. This proof-of-concept study provides direct evidence that 11C-BU99008 can measure in vivo astrocyte reactivity in people with late-life cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. Our results confirm that increased astrocyte reactivity is found particularly in cortical regions with high Aβ load. Future studies now can explore how clinical expression of disease varies with astrocyte reactivity.

Journal article

Marques TR, Natesan S, Rabiner EA, Searle GE, Gunn R, Howes OD, Kapur Set al., 2021, Adenosine A(2A) receptor in schizophrenia: an in vivo brain PET imaging study, PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY, ISSN: 0033-3158

Journal article

Bucci M, Savitcheva I, Farrar G, Salvado G, Collij L, Dore V, Gispert JD, Gunn R, Hanseeuw B, Hansson O, Shekari M, Lhommel R, Molinuevo JL, Rowe C, Sur C, Whittington A, Buckley C, Nordberg Aet al., 2021, A multisite analysis of the concordance between visual image interpretation and quantitative analysis of [F-18]flutemetamol amyloid PET images, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND MOLECULAR IMAGING, Vol: 48, Pages: 2183-2199, ISSN: 1619-7070

Journal article

Mansur A, Rabiner EA, Tsukada H, Comley RA, Lewis Y, Huiban M, Passchier J, Gunn RNet al., 2021, Test-retest variability and reference region-based quantification of 18F-BCPP-EF for imaging mitochondrial complex I in the human brain, Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, Vol: 41, Pages: 771-779, ISSN: 0271-678X

Mitochondrial complex I (MC-I) is an essential regulator of brain bioenergetics and can be quantified in the brain using PET radioligand 18F-BCPP-EF. Here we evaluate the test-retest reproducibility of 18F-BCPP-EF in humans, and assess the use of a non-invasive quantification method (standardised uptake value ratio - SUVR). Thirty healthy volunteers had a 90-min dynamic 18F-BCPP-EF scan with arterial blood sampling, five of which received a second scan to be included in the test-retest analysis. Time-activity curves (TAC) were analysed using multilinear analysis 1 (MA1) and the two-tissue compartment model (2TC) to estimate volumes of distribution (VT). Regional SUVR-1 values were calculated from the 70 to 90-min TAC data using the centrum semiovale as a pseudo reference region, and compared to kinetic analysis-derived outcome measures. The mean absolute test-retest variability of VT ranged from 12% to 18% across regions. Both DVR-1and SUVR-1 had improved test-retest variability in the range 2%-7%. SUVR-1 was highly correlated with DVR-1 (r2 = 0.97, n = 30). In conclusion, 18F-BCPP-EF has suitable test-retest reproducibility and can be used to quantify MC-I in clinical studies.

Journal article

Wadhwa P, Thielemans K, Efthimiou N, Wangerin K, Keat N, Emond E, Deller T, Bertolli O, Deidda D, Delso G, Tohme M, Jansen F, Gunn RN, Hallett W, Tsoumpas Cet al., 2021, PET image reconstruction using physical and mathematical modelling for time of flight PET-MR scanners in the STIR library, METHODS, Vol: 185, Pages: 110-119, ISSN: 1046-2023

Journal article

Ashok AH, Myers J, Frost G, Turton S, Gunn RN, Passchier J, Colasanti A, Marques TR, Nutt D, Lingford-Hughes A, Howes OD, Rabiner EAet al., 2021, Acute acetate administration increases endogenous opioid levels in the human brain: A [C-11]carfentanil molecular imaging study, JOURNAL OF PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY, Vol: 35, Pages: 606-610, ISSN: 0269-8811

Journal article

Chen DL, Ballout S, Chen L, Cheriyan J, Choudhury G, Denis-Bacelar AM, Emond E, Erlandsson K, Fisk M, Fraioli F, Groves AM, Gunn RN, Hatazawa J, Holman BF, Hutton BF, Iida H, Lee S, MacNee W, Matsunaga K, Mohan D, Parr D, Rashidnasab A, Rizzo G, Subramanian D, Tal-Singer R, Thielemans K, Tregay N, van Beek EJR, Vass L, Melo MFV, Wellen JW, Wilkinson I, Wilson FJ, Winkler Tet al., 2020, Consensus Recommendations on the Use of F-18-FDG PET/CT in Lung Disease, JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE, Vol: 61, ISSN: 0161-5505

Journal article

Onwordi EC, Halff E, Whitehurst T, Mansur A, Statton B, Berry A, Quinlan M, O'Regan D, Rogdaki M, Marques TR, Rabiner EA, Gunn RN, Vernon AC, Natesan S, Howes ODet al., 2020, The relationship between synaptic density marker SV2A and glutamate: a multimodal positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging study, 33rd Congress of the European-College-of-Neuropsychopharmacology (ECNP), Publisher: ELSEVIER, Pages: S296-S296, ISSN: 0924-977X

Conference paper

Wang G, Rahmim A, Gunn RN, 2020, PET Parametric Imaging: Past, Present, and Future, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON RADIATION AND PLASMA MEDICAL SCIENCES, Vol: 4, Pages: 663-675, ISSN: 2469-7311

Journal article

Roussakis AA, Gennaro M, Gordon MF, Reilmann R, Borowsky B, Rynkowski G, Savola JM, Hayden MR, Gunn R, Tabrizi S, Piccini Pet al., 2020, A longitudinal PET study to assess the state of microglia activation in a Phase 2 study of Laquinimod as a treatment for Huntington's disease (LEGATO-HD), Movement-Disorder-Society (MDS) International Virtual Congress, Publisher: WILEY, Pages: S102-S102, ISSN: 0885-3185

Conference paper

Wilson H, Pagano G, de Natale ER, Mansur A, Caminiti SP, Polychronis S, Middleton LT, Price G, Schmidt KF, Gunn RN, Rabiner EA, Politis Met al., 2020, Mitochondrial complex 1, sigma 1, and synaptic vesicle 2A in early drug-naive Parkinson's Disease, Movement Disorders, Vol: 35, Pages: 1416-1427, ISSN: 0885-3185

BackgroundDysfunction of mitochondrial energy generation may contribute to neurodegeneration, leading to synaptic loss in Parkinson's disease (PD). The objective of this study was to find cross‐sectional and longitudinal changes in PET markers of synaptic vesicle protein 2A, sigma 1 receptor, and mitochondrial complex 1 in drug‐naive PD patients.MethodsTwelve early drug‐naive PD patients and 16 healthy controls underwent a 3‐Tesla MRI and PET imaging to quantify volume of distribution of [11C]UCB‐J, [11C]SA‐4503, and [18F]BCPP‐EF for synaptic vesicle protein 2A, sigma 1 receptor, and mitochondrial complex 1, respectively. Nine PD patients completed approximately 1‐year follow‐up assessments.ResultsReduced [11C]UCB‐J volume of distribution in the caudate, putamen, thalamus, brain stem, and dorsal raphe and across cortical regions was observed in drug‐naive PD patients compared with healthy controls. [11C]UCB‐J volume of distribution was reduced in the locus coeruleus and substantia nigra but did not reach statistical significance. No significant differences were found in [11C]SA‐4503 and [18F]BCPP‐EF volume of distribution in PD compared with healthy controls. Lower brain stem [11C]UCB‐J volume of distribution correlated with Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III and total scores. No significant longitudinal changes were identified in PD patients at follow‐up compared with baseline.ConclusionsOur findings represent the first in vivo evidence of mitochondrial, endoplasmic reticulum, and synaptic dysfunction in drug‐naive PD patients. Synaptic dysfunction likely occurs early in disease pathophysiology and has relevance to symptomatology. Mitochondrial complex 1 and sigma 1 receptor pathology warrants further investigations in PD. Studies in larger cohorts with longer follow‐up will determine the validity of these PET markers to track disease progression. © 2020 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, In

Journal article

Turton S, Myers J, Mick I, Colasanti A, Venkataraman A, Durant C, Waldman A, Brailsford A, Parkin M, Rabiner EA, Gunn R, Lightman S, Nutt D, Lingford-Hughes ARet al., 2020, Blunted endogenous opioid release following an oral dexamphetamine challenge in abstinent alcohol dependent individuals, Molecular Psychiatry, Vol: 25, Pages: 1749-1758, ISSN: 1359-4184

Addiction has been proposed as a ‘reward deficient’ state, which is compensated for with substance use. There is growing evidence of dysregulation in the opioid system, which plays a key role in reward, underpinning addiction. Low levels of endogenous opioids are implicated in vulnerability for developing alcohol dependence (AD) and high mu-opioid receptor (MOR) availability in early abstinence is associated with greater craving. This high MOR availability is proposed to be the target of opioid antagonist medication to prevent relapse. However, changes in endogenous opioid tone in AD are poorly characterised and are important to understand as opioid antagonists do not help everyone with AD. We used [11C]carfentanil, a selective MOR agonist positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand, to investigate endogenous opioid tone in AD for the first time. We recruited 13 abstinent male AD and 15 control participants who underwent two [11C]carfentanil PET scans, one before and one 3 h following a 0.5 mg/kg oral dose of dexamphetamine to measure baseline MOR availability and endogenous opioid release. We found significantly blunted dexamphetamine-induced opioid release in 5 out of 10 regions-of-interest including insula, frontal lobe and putamen in AD compared with controls, but no significantly higher MOR availability AD participants compared with HC in any region. This study is comparable to our previous results of blunted dexamphetamine-induced opioid release in gambling disorder, suggesting that this dysregulation in opioid tone is common to both behavioural and substance addictions.

Journal article

Kocagoncu E, Quinn A, Firouzian A, Cooper E, Greve A, Gunn R, Green G, Woolrich MW, Henson RN, Lovestone S, Rowe JBet al., 2020, Tau pathology in early Alzheimer's disease is linked to selective disruptions in neurophysiological network dynamics, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC

Working paper

Kocagoncu E, Quinn A, Firouzian A, Cooper E, Greve A, Gunn R, Green G, Woolrich MW, Henson RN, Lovestone S, Deep and Frequent Phenotyping study team, Rowe JBet al., 2020, Tau pathology in early Alzheimer's disease is linked to selective disruptions in neurophysiological network dynamics, Neurobiology of Aging, Vol: 92, Pages: 141-152, ISSN: 0197-4580

Understanding the role of Tau protein aggregation in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is critical for the development of new Tau-based therapeutic strategies to slow or prevent dementia. We tested the hypothesis that Tau pathology is associated with functional organization of widespread neurophysiological networks. We used electro-magnetoencephalography with [18F]AV-1451 PET scanning to quantify Tau-dependent network changes. Using a graph theoretical approach to brain connectivity, we quantified nodal measures of functional segregation, centrality, and the efficiency of information transfer and tested them against levels of [18F]AV-1451. Higher Tau burden in early Alzheimer's disease was associated with a shift away from the optimal small-world organization and a more fragmented network in the beta and gamma bands, whereby parieto-occipital areas were disconnected from the anterior parts of the network. Similarly, higher Tau burden was associated with decreases in both local and global efficiency, especially in the gamma band. The results support the translational development of neurophysiological "signatures" of Alzheimer's disease, to understand disease mechanisms in humans and facilitate experimental medicine studies.

Journal article

Popescu SG, Whittington A, Gunn RN, Matthews PM, Glocker B, Sharp DJ, Cole JHet al., 2020, Nonlinear biomarker interactions in conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease, Human Brain Mapping, Vol: 41, Pages: 4406-4418, ISSN: 1065-9471

Multiple biomarkers can capture different facets of Alzheimer's disease. However, statistical models of biomarkers to predict outcomes in Alzheimer's rarely model nonlinear interactions between these measures. Here, we used Gaussian Processes to address this, modelling nonlinear interactions to predict progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's over 3 years, using Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) data. Measures included: demographics, APOE4 genotype, CSF (amyloid‐β42, total tau, phosphorylated tau), [18F]florbetapir, hippocampal volume and brain‐age. We examined: (a) the independent value of each biomarker; and (b) whether modelling nonlinear interactions between biomarkers improved predictions. Each measured added complementary information when predicting conversion to Alzheimer's. A linear model classifying stable from progressive MCI explained over half the variance (R2 = 0.51, p < .001); the strongest independently contributing biomarker was hippocampal volume (R2 = 0.13). When comparing sensitivity of different models to progressive MCI (independent biomarker models, additive models, nonlinear interaction models), we observed a significant improvement (p < .001) for various two‐way interaction models. The best performing model included an interaction between amyloid‐β‐PET and P‐tau, while accounting for hippocampal volume (sensitivity = 0.77, AUC = 0.826). Closely related biomarkers contributed uniquely to predict conversion to Alzheimer's. Nonlinear biomarker interactions were also implicated, and results showed that although for some patients adding additional biomarkers may add little value (i.e., when hippocampal volume is high), for others (i.e., with low hippocampal volume) further invasive and expensive examination may be warranted. Our framework enables visualisation of these interactions, in individual patient biomarker ‘space', providing information for per

Journal article

Sharma PK, Wells L, Rizzo G, Elson JL, Passchier J, Rabiner EA, Gunn RN, Dexter DT, Pienaar ISet al., 2020, DREADD activation of pedunculopontine cholinergic neurons reverses motor deficits and restores striatal dopamine signaling in parkinsonian rats., Neurotherapeutics, Vol: 17, Pages: 1120-1141, ISSN: 1878-7479

The brainstem-based pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) traditionally associates with motor function, but undergoes extensive degeneration during Parkinson's disease (PD), which correlates with axial motor deficits. PPN-deep brain stimulation (DBS) can alleviate certain symptoms, but its mechanism(s) of action remains unknown. We previously characterized rats hemi-intranigrally injected with the proteasomal inhibitor lactacystin, as an accurate preclinical model of PD. Here we used a combination of chemogenetics with positron emission tomography imaging for in vivo interrogation of discrete neural networks in this rat model of PD. Stimulation of excitatory designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs expressed within PPN cholinergic neurons activated residual nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons to produce profound motor recovery, which correlated with striatal dopamine efflux as well as restored dopamine receptor 1- and dopamine receptor 2-based medium spiny neuron activity, as was ascertained with c-Fos-based immunohistochemistry and stereological cell counts. By revealing that the improved axial-related motor functions seen in PD patients receiving PPN-DBS may be due to stimulation of remaining PPN cholinergic neurons interacting with dopaminergic ones in both the substantia nigra pars compacta and the striatum, our data strongly favor the PPN cholinergic-midbrain dopaminergic connectome as mechanism for PPN-DBS's therapeutic effects. These findings have implications for refining PPN-DBS as a promising treatment modality available to PD patients.

Journal article

Onega M, Parker CA, Coello C, Rizzo G, Keat N, Ramada-Magalhaes J, Moz S, Tang S-P, Plisson C, Wells L, Ashworth S, Slack RJ, Vitulli G, Wilson FJ, Gunn R, Lukey PT, Passchier Jet al., 2020, Preclinical evaluation of [F-18]FB-A20FMDV2 as a selective marker for measuring alpha(V)beta(6) integrin occupancy using positron emission tomography in rodent lung, European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Vol: 47, Pages: 958-966, ISSN: 0340-6997

PurposeIntegrin αvβ6 belongs to the RGD subset of the integrin family, and its expression levels are a prognostic and theranostic factor in some types of cancer and pulmonary fibrosis. This paper describes the GMP radiolabelling of the synthetic 20 amino acid peptide A20FMDV2 (NAVPNLRGDLQVLAQKVART), derived from the foot-and-mouth disease virus, and characterises the use of [18F]FB-A20FMDV2 as a high affinity, specific and selective PET radioligand for the quantitation and visualisation of αvβ6 in rodent lung to support human translational studies.MethodsThe synthesis of [18F]FB-A20FMDV2 was performed using a fully automated and GMP-compliant process. Sprague-Dawley rats were used to perform homologous (unlabelled FB-A20FMDV2) and heterologous (anti-αvβ6 antibody 8G6) blocking studies. In order to generate a dosimetry estimate, tissue residence times were generated, and associated tissue exposure and effective dose were calculated using the Organ Level Internal Dose Assessment/Exponential Modelling (OLINDA/EXM) software.Results[18F]FB-A20FMDV2 synthesis was accomplished in 180 min providing ~800 MBq of [18F]FB-A20FMDV2 with a molar activity of up to 150 GBq/μmol and high radiochemical purity (> 97%). Following i.v. administration to rats, [18F]FB-A20FMDV2 was rapidly metabolised with intact radiotracer representing 5% of the total radioactivity present in rat plasma at 30 min. For the homologous and heterologous block in rats, lung-to-heart SUV ratios at 30–60 min post-administration of [18F]FB-A20FMDV2 were reduced by 38.9 ± 6.9% and 56 ± 19.2% for homologous and heterologous block, respectively. Rodent biodistribution and dosimetry calculations using OLINDA/EXM provided a whole body effective dose in humans 33.5 μSv/MBq.Conclusion[18F]FB-A20FMDV2 represents a specific and selective PET ligand to measure drug-associated αvβ6 integrin occupancy in lung. The ef

Journal article

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