Imperial College London

DrRezaHaghighi Osgouei

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Surgery & Cancer

Research Associate







H.3.8Chelsea and Westminster HospitalChelsea and Westminster Campus






BibTex format

author = {Haghighi, Osgouei R and Marechal, L and Kontovounisios, C and Bello, F},
doi = {10.1109/toh.2020.2968446},
journal = {IEEE Transactions on Haptics},
pages = {183--190},
title = {Soft pneumatic actuator for rendering anal sphincter tone},
url = {},
volume = {13},
year = {2020}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Sphincter tone examination, as part of digital rectal examination (DRE), can provide essential information to support the early detection of colorectal cancer. Mastering DRE skills for junior doctors is always challenging due to the lack of real training cases. In this article, we developed a soft pneumatic active actuator,made of a compound of silicone rubber materials, to mimic human sphincter muscles and simulate various anal sphincter tones for the purpose of training. Different pumping actuation (syringe and bellows) and driving mechanisms (linear, stepper, and servo motor) were implemented and compared for their effect on the rendered tones. A further comparison was made with a previous prototype based on a cable-driven mechanism. Both quantitative and qualitative assessments were conducted to evaluate the performance of each mechanism. A differential pressure sensor was used to measure applied pressure on a catheter balloon placed inside the sphincter, comparing the readings with anorectal manometry data obtained from real patients. Qualitative feedback was gathered through a user study with ten colorectal expert practitioners. Four questions were asked targeting reaction/response time, pressure level, pressure quality, and similarity to a real case. The results show the capacity and limitation of each mechanism, with the one based on a servo motor and a bellows being the most favourably rated.
AU - Haghighi,Osgouei R
AU - Marechal,L
AU - Kontovounisios,C
AU - Bello,F
DO - 10.1109/toh.2020.2968446
EP - 190
PY - 2020///
SN - 1939-1412
SP - 183
TI - Soft pneumatic actuator for rendering anal sphincter tone
T2 - IEEE Transactions on Haptics
UR -
UR -
VL - 13
ER -