Imperial College London


Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Surgery & Cancer

Research Fellow



r.lear12 CV




1064Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother Wing (QEQM)St Mary's Campus





Publication Type

9 results found

Lear R, Freise L, Kybert M, Darzi A, Neves AL, Mayer EKet al., 2022, Perceptions of Quality of Care Among Users of a Web-Based Patient Portal: Cross-sectional Survey Analysis., J Med Internet Res, Vol: 24

BACKGROUND: Web-based patient portals enable patients access to, and interaction with, their personal electronic health records. However, little is known about the impact of patient portals on quality of care. Users of patient portals can contribute important insights toward addressing this knowledge gap. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe perceived changes in the quality of care among users of a web-based patient portal and to identify the characteristics of patients who perceive the greatest benefit of portal use. METHODS: A cross-sectional web-based survey study was conducted to understand patients' experiences with the Care Information Exchange (CIE) portal. Patient sociodemographic data were collected, including age, sex, ethnicity, educational level, health status, geographic location, motivation to self-manage, and digital health literacy (measured by the eHealth Literacy Scale). Patients with experience using CIE, who specified both age and sex, were included in these analyses. Relevant survey items (closed-ended questions) were mapped to the Institute of Medicine's 6 domains of quality of care. Users' responses were examined to understand their perceptions of how portal use has changed the overall quality of their care, different aspects of care related to the 6 domains of care quality, and patient's satisfaction with care. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to identify patient characteristics associated with perceived improvements in overall care quality and greater satisfaction with care. RESULTS: Of 445 CIE users, 38.7% (n=172) reported that the overall quality of their care was better; 3.2% (n=14) said their care was worse. In the patient centeredness domain, 61.2% (273/445) of patients felt more in control of their health care, and 53.9% (240/445) felt able to play a greater role in decision-making. Regarding timeliness, 40.2% (179/445) of patients reported they could access appointments, diagnoses, and treatment more quickly. Approxi

Journal article

Lear R, Freise L, Kybert M, Darzi A, Neves AL, Mayer Eet al., 2022, Patients’ willingness and ability to identify and respond to errors in their personal health records: a mixed methods analysis of cross-sectional survey data, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Vol: 24, ISSN: 1438-8871

Background:Errors in electronic health records are known to contribute to patient safety incidents, yet systems for checking the accuracy of patient records are almost non-existent. Personal health records, enabling patient access to, and interaction, with the clinical record, offer a valuable opportunity for patients to actively participate in error surveillance.Objective:The aim of this study was to evaluate patients’ willingness and ability to identify and respond to errors in their personal health records.Methods:A cross-sectional survey study was conducted using an online questionnaire. Patient sociodemographic data were collected, including age, gender, ethnicity, educational level, health status, geographical location, motivation to self-manage, and digital health literacy (measured by the eHEALS tool). Patients with experience of using the Care Information Exchange (CIE) portal, who specified both age and gender, were included in these analyses. Patients’ responses to four relevant survey items (closed-ended questions, some with space for free-text comments) were examined to understand their willingness and ability to identify and respond to errors in their personal health records. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify patient characteristics that predict i) ability to understand information in CIE, and ii) willingness to respond to errors in their records. The Framework Method was used to derive themes from patients’ free-text responses.Results:Of 445 patients, 40.7% (n=181) “definitely” understood CIE information and around half (49.4%, n=220) understood CIE information “to some extent”. Patients with high digital health literacy (eHEALS score ≥30) were more confident in their ability to understand their records compared to patients with low digital health literacy (odds ratio (OR) 7.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.04-20.29, P<.001). Information-related barriers (medical terminology; lack of

Journal article

Lear R, Godfrey AD, Riga C, Norton C, Vincent C, Bicknell CDet al., 2017, Surgeons' Perceptions of the Causes of Preventable Harm in Arterial Surgery: A Mixed-Methods Study, European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Vol: 54, Pages: 778-786, ISSN: 1078-5884

BackgroundSystem factors contributing to preventable harm in vascular patients have not been previously reported in detail. The aim of this exploratory mixed-methods study was to describe vascular surgeons' perceptions of factors contributing to adverse events (AEs) in arterial surgery. A secondary aim was to report recommendations to improve patient safety.MethodsVascular consultants/registrars working in the British National Health Service were questioned about the causes of preventable AEs through survey and semi-structured interview (response rates 77% and 83%, respectively). Survey respondents considered a recent AE, indicating on a 5 point Likert scale the extent to which various factors from a validated framework contributed toward the incident. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to obtain detailed accounts of contributory factors, and to elicit recommendations to improve safety.ResultsSeventy-seven surgeons completed the survey on 77 separate AEs occurring during open surgery (n = 41) and in endovascular procedures (n = 36). Ten interviewees described 15 AEs. The causes of AEs were multifactorial (median number of factors/AE = 5, IQR 3-9, range 0–25). Factors frequently reported by survey respondents were communication failures (36.4%; n = 28/77); inadequate staffing levels/skill mix (32.5%; n = 25/77); lack of knowledge/skill (37.3%; n = 28/75). Themes emerging from interviews were team factors (communication failure, lack of team continuity, lack of clarity over roles/responsibilities); work environment factors (poor staffing levels, equipment problems, distractions); inadequate training/supervision. Knowledge/skill (p = .034) and competence (p = .018) appeared to be more prominent in causing AEs in open procedures compared with endovascular procedures; organisational structure was more frequently implicated in AEs occurring in endovascular procedures (p = .017). To improve safety, interviewees proposed team training programmes (5/10 interview

Journal article

Lear R, Godfrey AD, Riga C, Norton C, Vincent C, Bicknell CDet al., 2017, The impact of system factors on quality and safety in arterial surgery: a systematic review, European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Vol: 54, Pages: 79-93, ISSN: 1078-5884

ObjectiveA systems approach to patient safety proposes that a wide range of factors contribute to surgical outcome, yet the impact of team, work environment, and organisational factors, is not fully understood in arterial surgery. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize and discuss what is already known about the impact of system factors on quality and safety in arterial surgery.Data sourcesA systematic review of original research papers in English using MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and Cochrane databases, was performed according to PRISMA guidelines.Review methodsIndependent reviewers selected papers according to strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, and using predefined data fields, extracted relevant data on team, work environment, and organisational factors, and measures of quality and/or safety, in arterial procedures.ResultsTwelve papers met the selection criteria. Study endpoints were not consistent between papers, and most failed to report their clinical significance. A variety of tools were used to measure team skills in five papers; only one paper measured the relationship between team factors and patient outcomes. Two papers reported that equipment failures were common and had a significant impact on operating room efficiency. The influence of hospital characteristics on failure-to-rescue rates was tested in one large study, although their conclusions were limited to the American Medicare population. Five papers implemented changes in the patient pathway, but most studies failed to account for potential confounding variables.ConclusionsA small number of heterogenous studies have evaluated the relationship between system factors and quality or safety in arterial surgery. There is some evidence of an association between system factors and patient outcomes, but there is more work to be done to fully understand this relationship. Future research would benefit from consistency in definitions, the use of validated assessment tools, measurement of cli

Journal article

Desender L, Van Herzeele I, Lachat M, Duchateau J, Bicknell C, Teijink J, Heyligers J, Vermassen F, PAVLOV Study Groupet al., 2017, A multicentre trial of patient specific rehearsal prior to EVAR: impact on procedural planning and team performance, European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Vol: 53, Pages: 354-361, ISSN: 1532-2165

OBJECTIVE: Patient specific rehearsal (PsR) prior to endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) enables the endovascular team to practice and evaluate the procedure prior to treating the real patient. This multicentre trial aimed to evaluate the utility of PsR prior to EVAR as a pre-operative planning and briefing tool. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with an aneurysm suitable for EVAR were randomised to pre-operative or post-operative PsR. Before and after the PsR, the lead implanter completed a questionnaire to identify any deviation from the initial treatment plan. All team members completed a questionnaire evaluating realism, technical issues, and human factor aspects pertinent to PsR. Technical and human factor skills, and technical and clinical success rates were compared between the randomised groups. RESULTS: 100 patients were enrolled between September 2012 and June 2014. The plan to visualise proximal and distal landing zones was adapted in 27/50 (54%) and 38/50 (76%) cases, respectively. The choice of the main body, contralateral limb, or iliac extensions was adjusted in 8/50 (16%), 17/50 (34%), and 14/50 (28%) cases, respectively. At least one of the abovementioned parameters was changed in 44/50 (88%) cases. For 100 EVAR cases, 199 subjective questionnaires post-PsR were completed. PsR was considered to be useful for selecting the optimal C-arm angulation (median 4, IQR 4-5) and was recognised as a helpful tool for team preparation (median 4, IQR 4-4), to improve communication (median 4, IQR 3-4), and encourage confidence (median 4, IQR 3-4). Technical and human factor skills and technical and initial clinical success rates were similar between the randomisation groups. CONCLUSION: PsR prior to EVAR has a significant impact on the treatment plan and may be useful as a pre-operative planning and briefing tool. Subjective ratings indicate that this technology may facilitate planning of optimal C-arm angulation and improve non-technical skills. TRIAL REGISTRATION:

Journal article

Lear R, Riga C, Godfrey AD, Falaschetti E, Cheshire NJ, Van Herzeele I, Norton C, Vincent C, Darzi AW, Bicknell CD, LEAP Study Collaboratorset al., 2016, Multicentre observational study of surgical system failures in aortic procedures and their effect on patient outcomes, British Journal of Surgery, Vol: 103, Pages: 1467-1475, ISSN: 1365-2168

BACKGROUND: Vascular surgical care has changed dramatically in recent years with little knowledge of the impact of system failures on patient safety. The primary aim of this multicentre observational study was to define the landscape of surgical system failures, errors and inefficiency (collectively termed failures) in aortic surgery. Secondary aims were to investigate determinants of these failures and their relationship with patient outcomes. METHODS: Twenty vascular teams at ten English hospitals trained in structured self-reporting of intraoperative failures (phase I). Failures occurring in open and endovascular aortic procedures were reported in phase II. Failure details (category, delay, consequence), demographic information (patient, procedure, team experience) and outcomes were reported. RESULTS: There were strong correlations between the trainer and teams for the number and type of failures recorded during 88 procedures in phase I. In 185 aortic procedures, teams reported a median of 3 (i.q.r. 2-6) failures per procedure. Most frequent failures related to equipment (unavailability, failure, configuration, desterilization). Most major failures related to communication. Fourteen failures directly harmed 12 patients. Significant predictors of an increased failure rate were: endovascular compared with open repair (incidence rate ratio (IRR) for open repair 0·71, 95 per cent c.i. 0·57 to 0·88; P = 0·002), thoracic aneurysms compared with other aortic pathologies (IRR 2·07, 1·39 to 3·08; P < 0·001) and unfamiliarity with equipment (IRR 1·52, 1·20 to 1·91; P < 0·001). The major failure total was associated with reoperation (P = 0·011), major complications (P = 0·029) and death (P = 0·027). CONCLUSION: Failure in aortic procedures is frequently caused by issues with team-wo

Journal article

Bosanquet DC, Stather P, Sidloff DA, Dattani N, Shalhoub J, Pancholi J, Gall T, Lear Ret al., 2016, How to Engage in Trainee-led Multicentre Collaborative Vascular Research: The Vascular and Endovascular Research Network (VERN), European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Vol: 52, Pages: 392-392, ISSN: 1532-2165

Journal article

Lear R, Vincent C, Van Herzeele I, Cheshire N, Bicknell Cet al., 2013, Structured team self-report of intraoperative error can identify obstacles to safe surgery., Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf, Vol: 39, ISSN: 1553-7250

Journal article

Weerakkody RA, Cheshire NJ, Riga C, Lear R, Hamady MS, Moorthy K, Darzi AW, Vincent C, Bicknell CDet al., 2013, Surgical technology and operating-room safety failures: a systematic review of quantitative studies, BMJ QUALITY & SAFETY, Vol: 22, Pages: 710-718, ISSN: 2044-5415

Journal article

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