16 results found
Zhou J, Moore RET, Rehkämper M, et al., 2023, Cadmium and zinc isotope compositions indicate metal sources and retention mechanisms in different soil particle size fractions, Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN: 0304-3894
Soil particle size may significantly affect metal distribution and stable isotopic behavior. Here, two soils were separated into four particle size fractions, namely fine sand, silt, fine silt, and colloidal particles and used to determine cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations and isotope compositions. Concentrations of Cd and Zn were generally enriched in the finer particles and positively correlated with the iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) oxide contents. However, Cd concentration in the fine sand was higher than in the silt fraction due to the higher soil organic matter contents in the former particle fraction. The maximum δ114/110Cd value was found in the colloidal particles (−0.02 and 0.01‰) of both soils while the minimum was in the silt particles (−0.12 and single bond0.06‰). Incorporation into the mineral lattice of Fe and Mn oxides is suggested to explain the slight enrichment of heavy Cd isotopes in the colloidal fraction. The similar δ66Zn values of the four particle fractions (0.20–0.29‰ with a mean of 0.25‰) indicate similar Zn sources in different particle sizes. Metal isotopic fingerprint of different soil particle size fractions provides further insight into underlying metal retention mechanisms within soil micro-zones and helps in tracing metal sources and biogeochemical processes.
Barati E, Moore RET, Ullah I, et al., 2023, Publisher Correction: An investigation of zinc isotope fractionation in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and comparison of zinc and cadmium isotope compositions in hydroponic plant systems under high cadmium stress., Sci Rep, Vol: 13
Zhou J, Moore RET, Rehkämper M, et al., 2023, Zinc supply affects cadmium uptake and translocation in the hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola as evidenced by isotope fractionation., Environmental Science and Technology (Washington), Vol: 57, Pages: 5891-5902, ISSN: 0013-936X
This study employs stable isotope analysis to investigate the mechanisms of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) interaction in the metal hyperaccumulating plant species Sedum plumbizincicola. To this end, the Cd and Zn isotope compositions of root, stem, leaf, and xylem sap samples were determined during metal uptake and translocation at different Cd and Zn concentrations. The enrichment of light isotopes of both elements in plants during uptake was less pronounced at low metal supply levels, likely reflecting the switch from a low-affinity to a high-affinity transport system at lower levels of external metal supply. The lower δ114/110Cd values of xylem sap when treated with a metabolic inhibitor decreasing the active Cd uptake further supports the preference of heavier Cd isotopes during high-affinity transport. The Δ66Znplant-initial solution or Δ66Znplant-final solution values were similar at different Cd concentrations, indicating negligible interaction of Cd in the Zn uptake process. However, decreasing Zn supply levels significantly increased the enrichment of light Cd isotopes in plants (Δ114/110Cd = -0.08‰) in low-Cd treatments but reduced the enrichment of light Cd isotopes in plants (Δ114/110Cd = 0.08‰) under high Cd conditions. A systematic enrichment of heavy Cd and light Zn isotopes was found in root-to-shoot translocation of the metals. The Cd concentrations of the growth solutions thereby had no significant impact on Zn isotope fractionation during root-to-shoot translocation. However, the Δ114/110Cdtranslocation values hint at possible competition between Cd and Zn for transporters during root-to-shoot transfer and this may impact the transport pathway of Cd. The stable isotope data demonstrate that the interactions between the two metals influenced the uptake and transport mechanisms of Cd in S. plumbizincicola but had little effect on those of Zn.
Barati E, Moore R, Ullah I, et al., 2023, An investigation of zinc isotope fractionation in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and comparison of zinc and cadmium isotope compositions in hydroponic plant systems under high cadmium stress, Scientific Reports, Vol: 13, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 2045-2322
This study aims to establish whether zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) share similar physiological mechanisms for uptake and translocation in cacao plants (Theobroma cacao L.). Multiple-collector ICP-MS was used to determine the Zn stable isotope compositions in the roots, stems and leaves of 19 diverse cacao genotypes grown in hydroponics with 20 µmol L−1 CdCl2. Additional plants of one genotype were grown in hydroponic solutions containing lower Cd concentrations (0 and 5 µmol L−1 added CdCl2). Regardless of the Cd concentration used in the exposures, the Zn stable isotope compositions show the same systematic patterns in plant organs, with δ66Znroot > δ66Znstem > δ66Znleaf (δ66Zn denotes relative differences in 66Zn/64Zn ratios in parts per thousand). The mean Zn stable isotope fractionation between the plants and the hydroponic solutions was ε66Znuptake = –1.15 ± 0.36‰ (2SD), indicating preferential uptake of isotopically light Zn by plants from the hydroponic solution. The mean stable isotope fractionation factor associated with translocation of Zn from roots to shoots, ε66Znseq-mob = + 0.52 ± 0.36‰ (2SD), shows that isotopically heavy Zn is preferentially sequestered in the cacao roots, whilst isotopically light Zn is mobilised to the leaves. A comparison with the Cd stable isotope compositions of the same plants shows that both isotopically light Zn and Cd are preferentially taken up by cacao plants. In contrast to Zn, however, the cacao roots retain isotopically light Cd and transfer isotopically heavy Cd to the leaves.
Sullivan K, Moore R, Vanhaecke F, 2023, The influence of physiological and lifestyle factors on essential mineral element isotopic compositions in the human body: implications for the design of isotope metallomics research, Metallomics: integrated biometal science, Vol: 15, ISSN: 1756-5901
In the last 20 years, the application of high-precision isotopic analysis of essential mineral elements (Mg, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn) to biomedicine (sometimes referred to as isotope metallomics) has revealed that their stable isotopic compositions are altered by the metal dysregulation that is fundamental to the pathogenesis of many cancers and other diseases. Despite many published works showing the diagnostic and prognostic potential of this approach, a number of factors that may influence the stable isotopic composition of these essential mineral elements in healthy individuals remain unstudied. In this perspective article, we summarize the available evidence from trophic level studies, animal models, and ancient and modern humans, relating to physiological and lifestyle factors that appear likely (there is evidence indicating their influence) or unlikely (there is evidence indicating their lack of influence) to require controlling for when investigating variations in essential mineral element isotopic compositions in human subjects. We also discuss factors that require additional data to properly assess. There is evidence that sex, menopausal status, age, diet, vitamin and metal supplementation, genetic variation, and obesity influence the isotopic composition of at least one essential mineral element in the human body. The task of investigating potential influences on essential mineral element isotopic compositions in the human body is sizeable, but presents an exciting research opportunity, with each incremental advance helping to improve the quality of research output in the context of isotope metallomics.
Pickard H, Palk E, Schönbächler M, et al., 2022, The cadmium and zinc isotope compositions of the silicate Earth – implications for terrestrial volatile accretion, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol: 338, Pages: 165-180, ISSN: 0016-7037
Zinc and Cd isotope compositions are presented for a comprehensive suite of terrestrial rocks to constrain the extent of Zn and Cd isotope fractionation during igneous processes and better define the δ66Zn and δ114Cd values of the silicate Earth (the δ values denote per mille deviations of 66Zn/64Zn from JMC Lyon Zn and of 114Cd/110Cd from NIST SRM 3108 Cd). Analyses of spinel lherzolites provide a bulk silicate Earth (BSE) δ114CdBSE value of –0.06 ± 0.03‰ (2SD). For Zn, the peridotite data of the current and previous studies define a mean δ66ZnBSE = 0.20 ± 0.05‰ (2SD). Komatiite analyses of this and published investigations yield similar mean values, which suggests that the Zn and Cd isotope compositions of the mantle remained fairly constant since the Archean. Data for loess provide upper continental crust compositions of δ114Cd = 0.03 ± 0.10‰ and δ66Zn = 0.23 ± 0.07‰. The Zn isotope and abundance data for peridotites and oceanic basalts are in accord with the previous observation of a mantle array, with basalts having higher Zn concentrations and δ66Zn values than the peridotites. To a first order, this reflects slightly incompatible behaviour of Zn during mantle melting and melt differentiation with associated enrichment of heavy Zn isotopes in the melt phase. Cadmium is marginally more incompatible than Zn during igneous processes and the oceanic basalts also display a minor enrichment of heavy Cd isotopes relative to peridotites. However, secondary processes produce significant Cd isotope variability in both mantle melts and peridotites, obscuring the primary igneous array. The δ66ZnBSE estimates of this and previous studies resemble the Zn isotope compositions of CV and CO carbonaceous and some enstatite chondrites. In contrast, the BSE has a lower δ114CdBSE value than enstatite and carbonaceous chondrites. This implies that the Cd isotope
Wiggenhauser M, Moore RET, Wang P, et al., 2022, Stable isotope fractionation of metals and metalloids in plants: a review, Frontiers in Plant Science, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1664-462X
This work critically reviews stable isotope fractionation of essential (B, Mg, K, Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo), beneficial (Si), and non-essential (Cd, Tl) metals and metalloids in plants. The review (i) provides basic principles and methodologies for non-traditional isotope analyses, (ii) compiles isotope fractionation for uptake and translocation for each element and connects them to physiological processes, and (iii) interlinks knowledge from different elements to identify common and contrasting drivers of isotope fractionation. Different biological and physico-chemical processes drive isotope fractionation in plants. During uptake, Ca and Mg fractionate through root apoplast adsorption, Si through diffusion during membrane passage, Fe and Cu through reduction prior to membrane transport in strategy I plants, and Zn, Cu, and Cd through membrane transport. During translocation and utilization, isotopes fractionate through precipitation into insoluble forms, such as phytoliths (Si) or oxalate (Ca), structural binding to cell walls (Ca), and membrane transport and binding to soluble organic ligands (Zn, Cd). These processes can lead to similar (Cu, Fe) and opposing (Ca vs. Mg, Zn vs. Cd) isotope fractionation patterns of chemically similar elements in plants. Isotope fractionation in plants is influenced by biotic factors, such as phenological stages and plant genetics, as well as abiotic factors. Different nutrient supply induced shifts in isotope fractionation patterns for Mg, Cu, and Zn, suggesting that isotope process tracing can be used as a tool to detect and quantify different uptake pathways in response to abiotic stresses. However, the interpretation of isotope fractionation in plants is challenging because many isotope fractionation factors associated with specific processes are unknown and experiments are often exploratory. To overcome these limitations, fundamental geochemical research should expand the database of isotope fractionation factors and disentangl
Sullivan KV, Moore RET, Capper MS, et al., 2021, Zinc stable isotope analysis reveals Zn dyshomeostasis in benign tumours, breast cancer, and adjacent histologically normal tissue, Matallomics, Vol: 13, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 1756-591X
The disruption of Zn homeostasis has been linked with breast cancer development and progression. To enhance our understanding of changes in Zn homeostasis both inside and around the tumour microenvironment, Zn concentrations and isotopic compositions (δ66Zn) were determined in benign (BT) and malignant (MT) tumours, healthy tissue from reduction mammoplasty (HT), and histologically normal tissue adjacent to benign (NAT(BT)) and malignant tumours (NAT(MT)). Mean Zn concentrations in NAT(BT) are 5.5 µg g−1 greater than in NAT(MT) (p = 0.00056) and 5.1 µg g−1 greater than in HT (p = 0.0026). Zinc concentrations in MT are 12.9 µg g−1 greater than in HT (p = 0.00012) and 13.3 µg g−1 greater than in NAT(MT) (p < 0.0001), whereas δ66Zn is 0.17‰ lower in MT than HT (p = 0.017). Benign tumour Zn concentrations are also elevated compared to HT (p = 0.00013), but are not significantly elevated compared to NAT(BT) (p = 0.32). The δ66Zn of BT is 0.15‰ lower than in NAT(BT) (p = 0.045). The similar light δ66Zn of BT and MT compared to HT and NAT may be related to the isotopic compensation of increased metallothionein (64Zn-rich) expression by activated matrix metalloproteinase (66Zn-rich) in MT, and indicates a resultant 66Zn-rich reservoir may exist in patients with breast tumours. Zinc isotopic compositions thus show promise as a potential diagnostic tool for the detection of breast tumours. The revealed differences of Zn accumulation in healthy and tumour-adjacent tissues require additional investigation.
Schilling K, Moore RET, Sullivan KV, et al., 2021, Zinc stable isotopes in urine as diagnostic for cancer of secretory organs, Metallomics: integrated biometal science, Vol: 13, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 1756-5901
Breast, prostate, and pancreatic cancers alter the zinc (Zn) metabolism. Combined analyses of urinary Zn concentrations [Zn] and Zn stable isotope compositions (δ66Zn) may provide a non-invasive approach for tracing malignancy-induced Zn dyshomeostasis. In this study, we measured [Zn] and δ66Zn in urine from prostate (n = 22), breast (n = 16), and from women with benign breast disease (n = 14) and compared those with age-matched healthy controls (22–49 years or 50+ years) and published data for pancreatic cancer (n = 17). Our results show that cancer-induced changes are reflected in higher urinary [Zn] and lower urinary δ66Zn for pancreatic and prostate cancer and benign breast disease when compared with healthy controls. For prostate cancer, the progression of low [Zn] and high δ66Zn for patients of low-risk disease toward high [Zn] and low δ66Zn for the higher risk patients demonstrates that [Zn] and δ66Zn in urine could serve as a reliable prognostic tool. Urinary excretion of isotopically light Zn by patients with prostatic and pancreatic cancer is probably the result of increased reactive oxygen species in cancerous cells, which limits the scavenging of hydroxyl radicals and thus facilitates the oxidation of metalloproteins with sulfur-rich ligands. Urine from breast cancer patients shows undistinguishable δ66Zn to healthy controls, implying that the expression of metalloproteins with sulfur-rich ligands is stronger in breast cancer tissues. In conclusion, urinary δ66Zn may provide a non-invasive diagnostic tool for pancreatic cancer and support disease prognosis for prostate cancer. These findings should translate to comprehensive transverse and longitudinal cohort studies in future.
Sullivan K, Moore RET, Rehkämper M, et al., 2020, Postprandial zinc stable isotope response in human blood serum, Metallomics, ISSN: 1756-5901
In recent years, considerable advances have been made in the field of medical isotope metallomics, but numerous fundamental physiological processes remain to be investigated. Past studies report that blood serum Zn concentration decrease by about 20%, depending on the size of meal, approximately 3 hours postprandially (i.e. after eating), before returning to baseline values if no meals are consumed over the following 4 to 5 hours. Nine participants were recruited for this study to investigate whether this postprandial Zn concentration decrease is accompanied by a stable isotope response. A baseline serum sample was collected from participants in the morning after overnight fasting. A 576 kcal meal was then provided and additional serum samples were taken 90 and 180 minutes post-meal to coincide with the peak postprandial response. Serum Zn concentrations decreased postprandially by an average of 21 ± 9% (1SD), but this was not accompanied by a change in stable Zn isotope composition (mean Δ66Zn180-minute – Baseline = 0.01 ± 0.09‰, 2SD). We propose that hemodilution and the rapid, efficient postprandial transfer of albumin-bound Zn from serum to the liver and pancreas is responsible for the lack of postprandial serum Zn isotopic response. These results indicate that studies examining solely the distribution of Zn isotopes in serum may obtain samples without considering timing of the most recent meal. However, future studies seeking to compare serum Zn concentrations with δ66Zn values should draw blood samples in the morning after overnight fasting.
Moore R, Ullah I, de Oliveira VH, et al., 2020, Cadmium isotope fractionation reveals genetic variation in Cd uptake and translocation by Theobroma cacao and role of natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 5 and heavy metal ATPase-family transporters, Horticulture Research, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2052-7276
In response to new European Union regulations, studies are underway to mitigate accumulation of toxic cadmium (Cd) in cacao (Theobroma cacao, Tc). This study advances such research with Cd isotope analyses of 19 genetically diverse cacao clones and yeast transformed to express cacao natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP5) and heavy metal ATPases (HMAs). The plants were enriched in light Cd isotopes relative to the hydroponic solution with Δ114/110Cdtot-sol = −0.22 ± 0.08‰. Leaves show a systematic enrichment of isotopically heavy Cd relative to total plants, in accord with closed-system isotope fractionation of Δ114/110Cdseq-mob = −0.13‰, by sequestering isotopically light Cd in roots/stems and mobilisation of remaining Cd to leaves. The findings demonstrate that (i) transfer of Cd between roots and leaves is primarily unidirectional; (ii) different clones utilise similar pathways for Cd sequestration, which differ from those of other studied plants; (iii) clones differ in their efficiency of Cd sequestration. Transgenic yeast that expresses TcNRAMP5 (T. cacao natural resistance-associated macrophage gene) had isotopically lighter Cd than did cacao. This suggests that NRAMP5 transporters constitute an important pathway for uptake of Cd by cacao. Cd isotope signatures of transgenic yeast expressing HMA-family proteins suggest that they may contribute to Cd sequestration. The data are the first to record isotope fractionation induced by transporter proteins in vivo.
Barraza F, Moore R, Rehkamper M, et al., 2019, Cadmium isotope fractionation in soil-cacao systems of Ecuador: a pilot field study, RSC Advances: an international journal to further the chemical sciences, Vol: 9, Pages: 34011-34022, ISSN: 2046-2069
The often high Cd concentrations of cacao beans are a serious concern for producers in Latin America due to the implementation of stricter Cd limits for cocoa products by the European Union in 2019. This is the first investigation to employ coupled Cd isotope and concentration measurements to study soil – cacao systems. Analyses were carried out for 29 samples of soils, soil amendments and cacao tree organs from organic farms in Ecuador that harvest three distinct cacao cultivars. The majority of soils from 0–80 cm depth have very similar δ114/110Cd of about −0.1‰ to 0‰. Two 0–5 cm topsoils, however, have high Cd concentrations coupled with heavy Cd isotope compositions of δ114/110Cd ≈ 0.2%, possibly indicating Cd additions from the tree litter used as organic fertilizer. Whilst cacao leaves, pods and beans are ubiquitously enriched in Cd relative to soils there are distinct Cd isotope signatures. The leaves and pods are isotopically heavier than the soils, with similar Δ114/110Cdleaf–soil values of 0.22 ± 0.07‰ to 0.41 ± 0.09‰. In contrast, the data reveal differences in Δ114/110Cdbean–leaf that may be linked to distinct cacao cultivars. In detail, Δ114/110Cdbean–leaf values of −0.34‰ to −0.40‰ were obtained for Nacional cacao from two farms, whilst CCN-51 hybrid cacao from a third farm showed no fractionation within error (−0.08 ± 0.13‰). As such, further work to investigate whether Cd isotopes are indeed useful for tracing sources of Cd enrichments in soils and to inform genetic efforts to reduce the Cd burden of cocoa is indicated.
Rehkamper M, Moore R, Maret W, et al., 2019, Assessment of coupled Zn concentration and natural stable isotope analyses of urine as a novel probe of Zn status, Metallomics, Vol: 11, Pages: 1506-1517, ISSN: 1756-5901
Zinc is a common trace metal in the human body, present in about 10% of proteins. Despite numerous roles of Zn in health and disease, there is still a need for a robust biomarker of Zn status. Many parameters have been proposed, with varying levels of success, with plasma Zn often favoured. This study investigates if Zn status can be assessed from the natural stable Zn isotope composition of urine. To this end, 60 urine samples were analysed from ten healthy participants. Remarkably, samples with lower Zn concentrations are systematically enriched in heavy Zn isotopes. Most of the low-Zn urine originated from individuals who omitted dairy, meat or both from their diets. When data for blood serum from age-matched, healthy individuals are compared with the urine results, the former plot at the extension of the urine trend at higher Zn concentrations and lighter isotope compositions. The observed co-variation of Zn isotope compositions with concentrations is indicative of an isotope fractionation system where both properties are controlled by the same processes. It is interpreted as arising from filtration and/or reabsorption processes within the kidney, which are associated with absorbed dietary Zn. The data suggest that the Zn in blood serum that is bound to low molecular weight molecules has an isotope composition distinct from total serum, due to the different affinities of molecular Zn-binding residues to heavy and light Zn isotopes. This technique provides additional information into an individual's Zn status compared to urine or plasma Zn levels alone.
Moore R, Rehkamper M, Kreissig K, et al., 2018, Determination of major and trace element variability in healthy human urine by ICP-QMS and specific gravity normalisation, RSC Advances, Vol: 8, Pages: 38022-38035, ISSN: 2046-2069
Sixty five urine samples obtained during one or two non-consecutive days from 10 healthy individuals were analysed for major (Na, Mg, K, Ca) and trace (Co, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Mo and Pb) element concentrations. Following microwave digestion, the analyses were carried out using ICP-QMS (inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry) incorporating a collision/reaction cell. Repeat analyses of quality control samples show that the procedure produces unbiased results and is well suited for routine urinalysis of the investigated elements. Concentrations were normalised using specific gravity (SG) and the resultant decrease in variability supports previous conclusions that SG-normalisation appropriately corrects for differences in urine dilution. The elemental concentrations of the individual urine samples show large differences in dispersion. Most variable are As, Co and Zn, with CVs (coefficients of variation) of >75%. The major elements as well as Rb, Sr and Mo display intermediate variability, whilst Cu and Pb have the least elemental dispersion with CV values of about 30%. A detailed assessment shows that the overall elemental variability is governed both by differences between individuals and variations for a single individual over time. Spot urine samples exhibit elemental concentrations that, on average, resemble the daily mean values to within about 30% for all elements except K and Rb. Diet-related changes in urinary element concentration are most prominent for Mg, K, Co, Rb and Pb. The concentrations of Co, As and Rb appear to vary systematically with gender but this may primarily reflect co-variance with specific diets.
Moore RET, Larner F, Coles BJ, et al., 2017, High precision zinc stable isotope measurement of certified biological reference materials using the double spike technique and multiple collector-ICP-MS, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, Vol: 409, Pages: 2941-2950, ISSN: 1618-2650
Biological reference materials with well-characterized stable isotope compositions are lacking in the field of ‘isotope biochemistry’, which seeks to understand bodily processes that rely on essential metals by determiningmetal stable isotope ratios. Here, we present Zn stable isotope data for six biological reference materials with certified trace metal concentrations, fish muscle, bovine muscle, pig kidney, human hair,human blood serum and human urine. Replicate analyses of multiple aliquots of each material achieved reproducibilities (2sd) of 0.04-0.13 ‰ for δ66/64Zn 22 (which denotes the deviation of the 66 Zn/64Zn ratio of a sample from a pure Zn reference material in parts per 1000). This implies only very minor isotopic heterogeneities within the samples, rendering them suitable as quality control materials for Zn isotopeanalyses. This endorsement is reinforced by (i) the close agreement of our Zn isotope data for two of the samples (bovine 2 muscle and human blood serum) to previously published results for different batches of the same material and (ii) the similarity of the isotopic data for the samples (δ66/64Zn≈ –0.8 to 0.0 ‰) to previously published Zn isotope results for similar biological materials. Further tests revealed that the applied Zn separation procedure is sufficiently effective to enable accurate data acquisition even at low mass resolving power (M/ΔM ≈ 400), as measurements and analyses conducted at much higher mass resolution (M/ΔM ≈ 8500) delivered essentially identicalresults.
Archer C, Andersen MB, Cloquet C, et al., 2016, Inter-calibration of a proposed new primary reference standard AA-ETH Zn for zinc isotopic analysis, Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, Vol: 32, Pages: 415-419, ISSN: 0267-9477
We have prepared a large volume of pure, concentrated and homogenous zinc standard solution. This new standard solution is intended to be used as a primary reference standard for the zinc isotope community, and to serve as a replacement for the nearly exhausted current reference standard, the so-called JMC-Lyon Zn. The isotopic composition of this new zinc standard (AA-ETH Zn) has been determined through an inter-laboratory calibration exercise, calibrated against the existing JMC-Lyon standard, as well as the certified Zn reference standard IRMM-3702. The data show that the new standard is isotopically indistinguishable from the IRMM-3702 zinc standard, with a weighted δ66/64Zn value of 0.28 ± 0.02‰ relative to JMC-Lyon. We suggest that this new standard be assigned a δ66/64Zn value of +0.28‰ for reporting of future Zn isotope data, with the rationale that all existing published Zn isotope data are presented relative to the JMC-Lyon standard. Therefore our proposed presentation allows for a direct comparison with all previously published data, and that are directly traceable to a certified reference standard, IRMM-3702 Zn. This standard will be made freely available to all interested labs through contact with the corresponding author.
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