Imperial College London


Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Brain Sciences

Professor of Practice (Neurology)







12L12CLab BlockCharing Cross Campus






BibTex format

author = {Scalfari, A and Romualdi, C and Nicholas, RS and Mattoscio, M and Magliozzi, R and Morra, A and Monaco, S and Muraro, PA and Calabrese, M},
doi = {10.1212/WNL.0000000000005685},
journal = {NEUROLOGY},
pages = {E2107--E2118},
title = {The cortical damage, early relapses, and onset of the progressive phase in multiple sclerosis},
url = {},
volume = {90},
year = {2018}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Objective To investigate the relationship among cortical radiologic changes, the number of early relapses (ERs), and the long-term course of multiple sclerosis (MS).Methods In this cohort study, we assessed the number of cortical lesions (CLs) and white matter (WM) lesions and the cortical thickness (Cth) at clinical onset and after 7.9 mean years among 219 patients with relapsing remitting (RR) MS with 1 (Low-ER), 2 (Mid-ER), and ≥3 (High-ER) ERs during the first 2 years. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses investigated early factors influencing the risk of secondary progressive (SP) MS.Results Fifty-nine patients (27%) converted to SPMS in 6.1 mean years. A larger number of CLs at onset predicted a higher risk of SPMS (hazard ratio [HR] 2.16, 4.79, and 12.3 for 2, 5, and 7 CLs, respectively, p < 0.001) and shorter latency to progression. The High-ER compared to the Low-ER and Mid-ER groups had a larger volume of WM lesions and CLs at onset, accrued more CLs, experienced more severe cortical atrophy over time, and entered the SP phase more rapidly. In the multivariate model, older age at onset (HR 1.97, p < 0.001), a larger baseline CL (HR 2.21, p = 0.005) and WM lesion (HR 1.32, p = 0.03) volume, early changes of global Cth (HR 1.36, p = 0.03), and ≥3 ERs (HR 6.08, p < 0.001) independently predicted a higher probability of SP.Conclusions Extensive cortical damage at onset is associated with florid inflammatory clinical activity and predisposes to a rapid occurrence of the progressive phase. Age at onset, the number of early attacks, and the extent of baseline focal cortical damage can identify groups at high risk of progression who may benefit from more active therapy.
AU - Scalfari,A
AU - Romualdi,C
AU - Nicholas,RS
AU - Mattoscio,M
AU - Magliozzi,R
AU - Morra,A
AU - Monaco,S
AU - Muraro,PA
AU - Calabrese,M
DO - 10.1212/WNL.0000000000005685
EP - 2118
PY - 2018///
SN - 0028-3878
SP - 2107
TI - The cortical damage, early relapses, and onset of the progressive phase in multiple sclerosis
UR -
UR -
UR -
VL - 90
ER -