Imperial College London

DrRaffaelePalladino

Faculty of MedicineSchool of Public Health

Research Associate
 
 
 
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r.palladino Website

 
 
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309Reynolds BuildingCharing Cross Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

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113 results found

Montuori P, Loperto I, Paolo C, Castrianni D, Nubi R, De Rosa E, Palladino R, Triassi Met al., 2021, Bodybuilding, dietary supplements and hormones use: behaviour and determinant analysis in young bodybuilders, BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vol: 13, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 2052-1847

BackgroundAmong athletes, bodybuilders are more predisposed to the use of dietary supplements (DS) and hormones (H) to increase in adaptations to physical training and performance. The purpose of the study was to identify social, psychological, and organisational factors that are associated with the use of food supplements and hormones in young bodybuilders of the metropolitan area of Naples.Methods107 athletes, practicing bodybuilding, were consecutively recruited in 30 gyms, randomly selected in the metropolitan area of Naples. Athletes were administered an anonymous questionnaire. The questionnaire consists of 5 sections (socio-demographic, frequency and reasons for bodybuilding, knowledge, attitudes and behaviours). Descriptive statistics were performed using T-test and Chi-square statistics. A score was created for knowledge, attitudes, behaviours. Multivariable logistic regression models were employed to assess association between each score and the use of DS and H. Statistical analyses were carried out using STATA 15.Results81.31% of the subjects reported to use DS while 35.51% H. Females are less likely to practise bodybuilding frequently than males (OR 0.18 (95% CI 0.05–0.69), p = 0.01). Subjects who have attended high school or university have a lower probability of taking DS (OR 0.17 (95% CI 0.04–0.65), p = 0.01). H users also use supplements more frequently (OR 61.21 (95% CI 3.99–939.31), p < 0.001). Those who scored higher on knowledge scores are more likely to take DS (OR 1.53 (95% CI 1.11–2.12), p < 0.001). Attitudes are correlated with the use of DS; those who scored higher were less likely to use DS (OR 0.77 (95% CI 0.30–0.98), p = 0.03). People who use DS are 30 times more likely to use H at the same time (OR 30.25 (95% CI 2.51–365.24), p < 0.001). Subjects who have a higher score for knowledge and attitudes are less like

Journal article

Lavorgna L, Iaffaldano P, Abbadessa G, Lanzillo R, Esposito S, Ippolito D, Sparaco M, Cepparulo S, Lus G, Viterbo R, Clerico M, Trojsi F, Ragonese P, Borriello G, Signoriello E, Palladino R, Moccia M, Brigo F, Troiano M, Tedeschi G, Bonavita Set al., 2021, Disability assessment using Google Maps (vol 17, pg 1, 2021), NEUROLOGICAL SCIENCES, ISSN: 1590-1874

Journal article

Ward JL, Azzopardi PS, Francis KL, Santelli JS, Skirbekk V, Sawyer SM, Kassebaum NJ, Mokdad AH, Hay SI, Abd-Allah F, Abdoli A, Abdollahi M, Abedi A, Abolhassani H, Abreu LG, Abrigo MRM, Abu-Gharbieh E, Abushouk AI, Adebayo OM, Adekanmbi V, Adham D, Advani SM, Afshari K, Agrawal A, Ahmad T, Ahmadi K, Ahmed AE, Aji B, Akombi-Inyang B, Alahdab F, Al-Aly Z, Alam K, Alanezi FM, Alanzi TM, Alcalde-Rabanal JE, Alemu BW, Al-Hajj S, Alhassan RK, Ali S, Alicandro G, Alijanzadeh M, Aljunid SM, Almasi-Hashiani A, Almasri NA, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Alonso J, Al-Raddadi RM, Altirkawi KA, Alvis-Guzman N, Amare AT, Amini S, Aminorroaya A, Amit AML, Amugsi DA, Ancuceanu R, Anderlini D, Andrei CL, Androudi S, Ansari F, Ansari I, Antonio CAT, Anvari D, Anwer R, Appiah SCY, Arabloo J, Arab-Zozani M, Ärnlöv J, Asaad M, Asadi-Aliabadi M, Asadi-Pooya AA, Atout MMW, Ausloos M, Avenyo EK, Avila-Burgos L, Ayala Quintanilla BP, Ayano G, Aynalem YA, Azari S, Azene ZN, Bakhshaei MH, Bakkannavar SM, Banach M, Banik PC, Barboza MA, Barker-Collo SL, Bärnighausen TW, Basu S, Baune BT, Bayati M, Bedi N, Beghi E, Bekuma TT, Bell AW, Bell ML, Benjet C, Bensenor IM, Berhe AK, Berhe K, Berman AE, Bhagavathula AS, Bhardwaj N, Bhardwaj P, Bhattacharyya K, Bhattarai S, Bhutta ZA, Bijani A, Bikbov B, Biondi A, Birhanu TTM, Biswas RK, Bohlouli S, Bolla SR, Boloor A, Borschmann R, Boufous S, Bragazzi NL, Braithwaite D, Breitborde NJK, Brenner H, Britton GB, Burns RA, Burugina Nagaraja S, Butt ZA, Caetano dos Santos FL, Cámera LA, Campos-Nonato IR, Campuzano Rincon JC, Cárdenas R, Carreras G, Carrero JJ, Carvalho F, Castaldelli-Maia JM, Castañeda-Orjuela CA, Castelpietra G, Catalá-López F, Cerin E, Chandan JS, Chang H-Y, Chang J-C, Charan J, Chattu VK, Chaturvedi S, Choi J-YJ, Chowdhury MAK, Christopher DJ, Chu D-T, Chung MT, Chung S-C, Cicuttini FM, Constantin TV, Costa VM, Dahlawi SMA, Dai H, Dai X, Damiani G, Dandona L, Dandona R, Daneshpajouhnejad P, Darwesh AM, Dávila-Cervantes CA, Davletov K, De la Hoz FP, De Let al., 2021, Global, regional, and national mortality among young people aged 10–24 years, 1950–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, The Lancet, Vol: 398, Pages: 1593-1618, ISSN: 0140-6736

BackgroundDocumentation of patterns and long-term trends in mortality in young people, which reflect huge changes in demographic and social determinants of adolescent health, enables identification of global investment priorities for this age group. We aimed to analyse data on the number of deaths, years of life lost, and mortality rates by sex and age group in people aged 10–24 years in 204 countries and territories from 1950 to 2019 by use of estimates from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019.MethodsWe report trends in estimated total numbers of deaths and mortality rate per 100 000 population in young people aged 10–24 years by age group (10–14 years, 15–19 years, and 20–24 years) and sex in 204 countries and territories between 1950 and 2019 for all causes, and between 1980 and 2019 by cause of death. We analyse variation in outcomes by region, age group, and sex, and compare annual rate of change in mortality in young people aged 10–24 years with that in children aged 0–9 years from 1990 to 2019. We then analyse the association between mortality in people aged 10–24 years and socioeconomic development using the GBD Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite measure based on average national educational attainment in people older than 15 years, total fertility rate in people younger than 25 years, and income per capita. We assess the association between SDI and all-cause mortality in 2019, and analyse the ratio of observed to expected mortality by SDI using the most recent available data release (2017).FindingsIn 2019 there were 1·49 million deaths (95% uncertainty interval 1·39–1·59) worldwide in people aged 10–24 years, of which 61% occurred in males. 32·7% of all adolescent deaths were due to transport injuries, unintentional injuries, or interpersonal violence and conflict; 32·1% were due to communicable, nutritional, or mater

Journal article

Micah AE, Cogswell IE, Cunningham B, Ezoe S, Harle AC, Maddison ER, McCracken D, Nomura S, Simpson KE, Stutzman HN, Tsakalos G, Wallace LE, Zhao Y, Zende RR, Abbafati C, Abdelmasseh M, Abedi A, Abegaz KH, Abhilash ES, Abolhassani H, Abrigo MRM, Adhikari TB, Afzal S, Ahinkorah BO, Ahmadi S, Ahmed H, Ahmed MB, Ahmed Rashid T, Ajami M, Aji B, Akalu Y, Akunna CJ, Al Hamad H, Alam K, Alanezi FM, Alanzi TM, Alemayehu Y, Alhassan RK, Alinia C, Aljunid SM, Almustanyir SA, Alvis-Guzman N, Alvis-Zakzuk NJ, Amini S, Amini-Rarani M, Amu H, Ancuceanu R, Andrei CL, Andrei T, Angell B, Anjomshoa M, Antonio CAT, Antony CM, Aqeel M, Arabloo J, Arab-Zozani M, Aripov T, Arrigo A, Ashraf T, Atnafu DD, Ausloos M, Avila-Burgos L, Awan AT, Ayano G, Ayanore MA, Azari S, Azhar GS, Babalola TK, Bahrami MA, Baig AA, Banach M, Barati N, Bärnighausen TW, Barrow A, Basu S, Baune BT, Bayati M, Benzian H, Berman AE, Bhagavathula AS, Bhardwaj N, Bhardwaj P, Bhaskar S, Bibi S, Bijani A, Bodolica V, Bragazzi NL, Braithwaite D, Breitborde NJK, Breusov AV, Briko NI, Busse R, Cahuana-Hurtado L, Callander EJ, Cámera LA, Castañeda-Orjuela CA, Catalá-López F, Charan J, Chatterjee S, Chattu SK, Chattu VK, Chen S, Cicero AFG, Dadras O, Dahlawi SMA, Dai X, Dalal K, Dandona L, Dandona R, Davitoiu DV, De Neve J-W, de Sá-Junior AR, Denova-Gutiérrez E, Dhamnetiya D, Dharmaratne SD, Doshmangir L, Dube J, Ehsani-Chimeh E, El Sayed Zaki M, El Tantawi M, Eskandarieh S, Farzadfar F, Ferede TY, Fischer F, Foigt NA, Freitas A, Friedman SD, Fukumoto T, Fullman N, Gaal PA, Gad MM, Garcia-Gordillo MA, Garg T, Ghafourifard M, Ghashghaee A, Gholamian A, Gholamrezanezhad A, Ghozali G, Gilani SA, Glăvan I-R, Glushkova EV, Goharinezhad S, Golechha M, Goli S, Guha A, Gupta VB, Gupta VK, Haakenstad A, Haider MR, Hailu A, Hamidi S, Hanif A, Harapan H, Hartono RK, Hasaballah AI, Hassan S, Hassanein MH, Hayat K, Hegazy MI, Heidari G, Hendrie D, Heredia-Pi I, Herteliu C, Hezam K, Holla R, Hossain SJ, Hosseinzadeh M, Hostiuc S, Huda Tet al., 2021, Tracking development assistance for health and for COVID-19: a review of development assistance, government, out-of-pocket, and other private spending on health for 204 countries and territories, 1990–2050, The Lancet, Vol: 398, Pages: 1317-1343, ISSN: 0140-6736

BackgroundThe rapid spread of COVID-19 renewed the focus on how health systems across the globe are financed, especially during public health emergencies. Development assistance is an important source of health financing in many low-income countries, yet little is known about how much of this funding was disbursed for COVID-19. We aimed to put development assistance for health for COVID-19 in the context of broader trends in global health financing, and to estimate total health spending from 1995 to 2050 and development assistance for COVID-19 in 2020.MethodsWe estimated domestic health spending and development assistance for health to generate total health-sector spending estimates for 204 countries and territories. We leveraged data from the WHO Global Health Expenditure Database to produce estimates of domestic health spending. To generate estimates for development assistance for health, we relied on project-level disbursement data from the major international development agencies' online databases and annual financial statements and reports for information on income sources. To adjust our estimates for 2020 to include disbursements related to COVID-19, we extracted project data on commitments and disbursements from a broader set of databases (because not all of the data sources used to estimate the historical series extend to 2020), including the UN Office of Humanitarian Assistance Financial Tracking Service and the International Aid Transparency Initiative. We reported all the historic and future spending estimates in inflation-adjusted 2020 US$, 2020 US$ per capita, purchasing-power parity-adjusted US$ per capita, and as a proportion of gross domestic product. We used various models to generate future health spending to 2050.FindingsIn 2019, health spending globally reached $8·8 trillion (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 8·7–8·8) or $1132 (1119–1143) per person. Spending on health varied within and across income groups and geogra

Journal article

Palladino R, Marrie RA, Majeed A, Chataway Jet al., 2021, Management of vascular risk in people with multiple sclerosis in England: a population-based matched cohort study, MS Conference, Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, Pages: 219-219, ISSN: 1352-4585

Conference paper

Moccia M, Affinito G, Capacchione A, Lanzillo R, Carotenuto A, Montella E, Triassi M, Morra VB, Palladino Ret al., 2021, Interferon beta for the treatment of multiple sclerosis in the Campania Region of Italy: Merging the real-life to routinely collected healthcare data, PLoS One, Vol: 16, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 1932-6203

BackgroundWe aim to overcome limitations of previous clinical and population-based studies by merging a clinical registry to routinely-collected healthcare data, and to specifically describe differences in clinical outcomes, healthcare resource utilization and costs between interferon beta formulations for multiple sclerosis (MS).MethodsWe included 850 patients with MS treated with interferon beta formulations, from 2015 to 2019, seen at the MS Clinical Care and Research Centre (Federico II University of Naples, Italy) and with linkage to routinely-collected healthcare data (prescription data, hospital admissions, outpatient services). We extracted and computed clinical outcomes (relapses, 6-month EDSS progression using a roving EDSS as reference), persistence (time spent on a specific interferon beta formulation), adherence (medication possession ratio (MPR)), healthcare resource utilization and costs (annualized hospitalization rate (AHR), costs for hospital admissions and DMTs). To evaluate differences between interferon beta formulations, we used linear regression (adherence), Poisson regression (AHR), mixed-effect regression (costs), and Cox-regression models (time varying variables); covariates were age, sex, treatment duration, baseline EDSS and adherence.ResultsLooking at clinical outcomes, rates of relapses and EDSS progression were lower than studies run on previous cohorts; there was no differences in relapse risk between interferon beta formulations. Risk of discontinuation was higher for Betaferon®/Extavia® (HR = 3.28; 95%CI = 2.11, 5.12; p<0.01). Adherence was lower for Betaferon®/Extavia® (Coeff = -0.05; 95%CI = -0.10, -0.01; p = 0.02), and Avonex® (Coeff = -0.06; 95%CI = -0.11, -0.02; p<0.01), when compared with Rebif® and Plegridy® (Coeff = 0.08; 95%CI = 0.01, 0.16; p = 0.02). AHR and costs for MS hospital admissions were higher for Betaferon®/Extavia® (IRR = 2.38; 95%CI = 1.01, 5.55; p = 0.04; Coeff = 14.95

Journal article

Palladino R, Chataway J, Majeed A, Marrie RAet al., 2021, Interface of multiple sclerosis, depression, vascular disease, and mortality a population-based matched cohort study, Neurology, Vol: 97, Pages: E1322-E1333, ISSN: 0028-3878

Background and Objectives To assess whether the association among depression, vascular disease, and mortality differs in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) compared with age-, sex-, and general practice–matched controls.Methods We conducted a population-based retrospective matched cohort study between January 1, 1987, and September 30, 2018, that included people with MS and matched controls without MS from England, stratified by depression status. We used time-varying Cox proportional hazard regression models to test the association among MS, depression, and time to incident vascular disease and mortality. Analyses were also stratified by sex.Results We identified 12,251 people with MS and 72,572 matched controls. At baseline, 21% of people with MS and 9% of controls had depression. Compared with matched controls without depression, people with MS had an increased risk of incident vascular disease regardless of whether they had comorbid depression. The 10-year hazard of all-cause mortality was 1.75-fold greater in controls with depression (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.59–1.91), 3.88-fold greater in people with MS without depression (95% CI 3.66–4.10), and 5.43-fold greater in people with MS and depression (95% CI 4.88–5.96). Overall, the interaction between MS status and depression was synergistic, with 14% of the observed effect attributable to the interaction. Sex-stratified analyses confirmed differences in hazard ratios.Discussion Depression is associated with increased risks of incident vascular disease and mortality in people with MS, and the effects of depression and MS on all-cause mortality are synergistic. Further studies should evaluate whether effectively treating depression is associated with a reduced risk of vascular disease and mortality.

Journal article

Paulson KR, Kamath AM, Alam T, Bienhoff K, Abady GG, Abbas J, Abbasi-Kangevari M, Abbastabar H, Abd-Allah F, Abd-Elsalam SM, Abdoli A, Abedi A, Abolhassani H, Abreu LG, Abu-Gharbieh E, Abu-Rmeileh NME, Abushouk AI, Adamu AL, Adebayo OM, Adegbosin AE, Adekanmbi V, Adetokunboh OO, Adeyinka DA, Adsuar JC, Afshari K, Aghaali M, Agudelo-Botero M, Ahinkorah BO, Ahmad T, Ahmadi K, Ahmed MB, Aji B, Akalu Y, Akinyemi OO, Aklilu A, Al-Aly Z, Alam K, Alanezi FM, Alanzi TM, Alcalde-Rabanal JE, Al-Eyadhy A, Ali T, Alicandro G, Alif SM, Alipour V, Alizade H, Aljunid SM, Almasi-Hashiani A, Almasri NA, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Alonso J, Al-Raddadi RM, Altirkawi KA, Alumran AK, Alvis-Guzman N, Alvis-Zakzuk NJ, Ameyaw EK, Amini S, Amini-Rarani M, Amit AML, Amugsi DA, Ancuceanu R, Anderlini D, Andrei CL, Ansari F, Ansari-Moghaddam A, Antonio CAT, Antriyandarti E, Anvari D, Anwer R, Aqeel M, Arabloo J, Arab-Zozani M, Aripov T, Ärnlöv J, Artanti KD, Arzani A, Asaad M, Asadi-Aliabadi M, Asadi-Pooya AA, Asghari Jafarabadi M, Athari SS, Athari SM, Atnafu DD, Atreya A, Atteraya MS, Ausloos M, Awan AT, Ayala Quintanilla BP, Ayano G, Ayanore MA, Aynalem YA, Azari S, Azarian G, Azene ZN, B DB, Babaee E, Badiye AD, Baig AA, Banach M, Banik PC, Barker-Collo SL, Barqawi HJ, Bassat Q, Basu S, Baune BT, Bayati M, Bedi N, Beghi E, Beghi M, Bell ML, Bendak S, Bennett DA, Bensenor IM, Berhe K, Berman AE, Bezabih YM, Bhagavathula AS, Bhandari D, Bhardwaj N, Bhardwaj P, Bhattacharyya K, Bhattarai S, Bhutta ZA, Bikbov B, Biondi A, Birihane BM, Biswas RK, Bohlouli S, Bragazzi NL, Breusov AV, Brunoni AR, Burkart K, Burugina Nagaraja S, Busse R, Butt ZA, Caetano dos Santos FL, Cahuana-Hurtado L, Camargos P, Cámera LA, Cárdenas R, Carreras G, Carrero JJ, Carvalho F, Castaldelli-Maia JM, Castañeda-Orjuela CA, Castelpietra G, Cerin E, Chang J-C, Chanie WF, Charan J, Chatterjee S, Chattu SK, Chattu VK, Chaturvedi S, Chen S, Cho DY, Choi J-YJ, Chu D-T, Ciobanu LG, Cirillo M, Conde J, Costa VM, Couto RAS, Dachew BA, Dahlaet al., 2021, Global, regional, and national progress towards Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 for neonatal and child health: all-cause and cause-specific mortality findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, The Lancet, Vol: 398, Pages: 870-905, ISSN: 0140-6736

BackgroundSustainable Development Goal 3.2 has targeted elimination of preventable child mortality, reduction of neonatal death to less than 12 per 1000 livebirths, and reduction of death of children younger than 5 years to less than 25 per 1000 livebirths, for each country by 2030. To understand current rates, recent trends, and potential trajectories of child mortality for the next decade, we present the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 findings for all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality in children younger than 5 years of age, with multiple scenarios for child mortality in 2030 that include the consideration of potential effects of COVID-19, and a novel framework for quantifying optimal child survival.MethodsWe completed all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality analyses from 204 countries and territories for detailed age groups separately, with aggregated mortality probabilities per 1000 livebirths computed for neonatal mortality rate (NMR) and under-5 mortality rate (U5MR). Scenarios for 2030 represent different potential trajectories, notably including potential effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the potential impact of improvements preferentially targeting neonatal survival. Optimal child survival metrics were developed by age, sex, and cause of death across all GBD location-years. The first metric is a global optimum and is based on the lowest observed mortality, and the second is a survival potential frontier that is based on stochastic frontier analysis of observed mortality and Healthcare Access and Quality Index.FindingsGlobal U5MR decreased from 71·2 deaths per 1000 livebirths (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 68·3–74·0) in 2000 to 37·1 (33·2–41·7) in 2019 while global NMR correspondingly declined more slowly from 28·0 deaths per 1000 live births (26·8–29·5) in 2000 to 17·9 (16·3–19·8) in 2019.

Journal article

Cirillo M, Bilancio G, Cavallo P, Palladino R, Zulli E, Villa R, Veneziano R, Laurenzi Met al., 2021, Urinary Potassium and Kidney Function Decline in the Population-Observational Study, NUTRIENTS, Vol: 13

Journal article

Palladino R, Bollon J, Ragazzoni L, Barone-Adesi Fet al., 2021, Effect of timing of implementation of the lockdown on the number of deaths for COVID-19 in four European countries, Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, Vol: 15, Pages: e40-e42, ISSN: 1935-7893

Journal article

Affinito G, Arpaia P, Barone-Adesi F, Fontana L, Palladino R, Triassi Met al., 2021, A Cardiovascular Risk Score for Use in Occupational Medicine, JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE, Vol: 10

Journal article

Palladino R, Daniele C, Damiano DA, Marta DV, Marco F, Giuseppina S, Francesco B-Aet al., 2021, A quantitative benefit-risk analysis of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vac-cine among people under 60 in Italy, Vaccines, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2076-393X

The Oxford-AstraZeneca ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 is a vaccine against the COVID-19 infection that was granted a conditional marketing authorization by the European Commission in January 2021. However, following a report from the Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) of European Medicines Agency, which reported an association with thrombo-embolic events (TEE), in particular disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST), many European countries either limited it to individuals older than 55–60 years or suspended its use. We used publicly available data to carry out a quantitative benefit–risk analysis of the vaccine among people under 60 in Italy. Specifically, we used data from PRAC, Eudravigilance and ECDC to estimate the excess number of deaths for TEE, DIC and CVST expected in vaccine users, stratified by age groups. We then used data from the National Institute of Health to calculate age-specific COVID-19 mortality rates in Italy. Preventable deaths were calculated assuming a 72% vaccine efficacy over an eight-month period. Finally, the benefit–risk ratio of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination was calculated as the ratio of preventable COVID-19 deaths to vaccine-related deaths, using Monte-Carlo simulations. We found that among subjects aged 20–29 years the benefit–risk (B-R) ratio was not clearly favorable (0.70; 95% Uncertainty Interval (UI): 0.27–2.11). However, in the other age groups the benefits of vaccination largely exceeded the risks (for age 30–49, B-R ratio: 22.9: 95%UI: 10.1–186.4). For age 50–59, B-R ratio: 1577.1: 95%UI: 1176.9–2121.5). Although many countries have limited the use of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine, the benefits of using this vaccine clearly outweigh the risks in people older than 30 years. Study limitations included risk of underreporting and that we did not provide age-specific estimates. The use of this vaccine should be a strategic and

Journal article

Ricigliano VAG, Tonietto M, Palladino R, Poirion E, De Luca A, Branzoli F, Bera G, Maillart E, Stankoff B, Bodini Bet al., 2021, Thalamic energy dysfunction is associated with thalamo-cortical tract damage in multiple sclerosis: a diffusion spectroscopy study, Multiple Sclerosis Journal, Vol: 27, Pages: 528-538, ISSN: 1352-4585

Background:Diffusion-weighted 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (DW-MRS) allows to quantify creatine-phosphocreatine brain diffusivity (ADC(tCr)), whose reduction in multiple sclerosis (MS) has been proposed as a proxy of energy dysfunction.Objective:To investigate whether thalamic ADC(tCr) changes are associated with thalamo-cortical tract damage in MS.Methods:Twenty patients with MS and 13 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled in a DW-MRS and DW imaging (DWI) study. From DW-MRS, ADC(tCr) and total N-acetyl-aspartate diffusivity (ADC(tNAA)) were extracted in the thalami. Three thalamo-cortical tracts and one non-thalamic control tract were reconstructed from DWI. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean (MD), axial (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD), reflecting microstructural integrity, were extracted for each tract. Associations between thalamic ADC(tCr) and tract metrics were assessed using linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, thalamic volume, thalamic ADC(tNAA), and tract-specific lesion load.Results:Lower thalamic ADC(tCr) was associated with higher MD and RD of thalamo-cortical projections in MS (MD: p = 0.029; RD: p = 0.017), but not in HC (MD: p = 0.625, interaction term between thalamic ADC(tCr) and group = 0.019; RD: p = 0.320, interaction term = 0.05). Thalamic ADC(tCr) was not associated with microstructural changes of the control tract.Conclusion:Reduced thalamic ADC(tCr) correlates with thalamo-cortical tract damage in MS, showing that pathologic changes in thalamic energy metabolism are associated with structural degeneration of connected fibers.

Journal article

Petruzzo M, Reia A, Maniscalco GT, Luiso F, Lanzillo R, Russo CV, Carotenuto A, Allegorico L, Palladino R, Brescia Morra V, Moccia Met al., 2021, The Framingham cardiovascular risk score and 5-year progression of multiple sclerosis, European Journal of Neurology, Vol: 28, Pages: 893-900, ISSN: 1351-5101

Background and purposeCardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities can affect the prognosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). The Framingham risk score is an algorithm that can estimate the 10‐year risk of developing macrovascular disease. Our objectives were to evaluate the possible association between the Framingham risk score at baseline and MS relapses, disability, and disease‐modifying therapy (DMT) choices over a 5‐year follow‐up.MethodsThis is a retrospective cohort study including 251 MS subjects. At baseline, we calculated the Framingham risk score considering the following variables: age, sex, diabetes, smoking, systolic blood pressure, and body mass index. MS outcomes including relapses, disability, and treatments were collected over 5 years. Cox proportional regression models were employed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs).ResultsA one‐point increase in the Framingham risk score was associated with 31% higher risk of relapse (HR = 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.68), 19% higher risk of reaching of EDSS 6.0 (HR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.05, 3.01), and 62% higher risk of DMT escalation (HR = 1.62; 95% CI = 1.22, 3.01).ConclusionsHigher cardiovascular risk was associated with higher risk of relapses, disability, and DMT escalation in MS. Early identification, correction, and treatment of cardiovascular comorbidities should be carefully considered within MS management.

Journal article

Picillo M, Palladino R, Erro R, Alfano R, Colosimo C, Marconi R, Antonini A, Barone Pet al., 2021, The PRIAMO study: age- and sex-related relationship between prodromal constipation and disease phenotype in early Parkinson's disease, Journal of Neurology, Vol: 268, Pages: 448-454, ISSN: 0340-5354

ObjectivesTo explore the impact of sex and age on relationship between prodromal constipation and disease phenotype in Parkinson’s disease at early stages.MethodsA total of 385 Parkinson’s disease patients from the PRIAMO study were classified according to the presence of prodromal constipation and followed for 24 months. Multivariable mixed-effect models were applied. All analyses were performed separately for sex (64.1% men) and median age (different by sex: 67 years-old in men and 68 years-old in women).ResultsAs for sex, prodromal constipation was associated with greater odds of attention/memory complaints and apathy symptoms in women only. As for age, prodromal constipation was associated with lower cognitive and higher apathy scores in older patients only.ConclusionsProdromal constipation anticipates lower cognitive performances and more severe apathy since the earliest stages in women and older patients. Sex- and age-related heterogeneity of prodromal markers of Parkinson’s disease may impact disease phenotype.

Journal article

Cirillo M, Palladino R, Ciacci C, Atripaldi L, Fumo MG, Giordana R, Triassi Met al., 2021, Kidney Replacement Treatment in South-Western Italy (Campania): Population-Based Study on Gender and Residence Inequalities in Health Care Access, JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE, Vol: 10

Journal article

Roth GA, Mensah GA, Johnson CO, Addolorato G, Ammirati E, Baddour LM, Barengo NC, Beaton AZ, Benjamin EJ, Benziger CP, Bonny A, Brauer M, Brodmann M, Cahill TJ, Carapetis J, Catapano AL, Chugh SS, Cooper LT, Coresh J, Criqui M, DeCleene N, Eagle KA, Emmons-Bell S, Feigin VL, Fernández-Solà J, Fowkes G, Gakidou E, Grundy SM, He FJ, Howard G, Hu F, Inker L, Karthikeyan G, Kassebaum N, Koroshetz W, Lavie C, Lloyd-Jones D, Lu HS, Mirijello A, Temesgen AM, Mokdad A, Moran AE, Muntner P, Narula J, Neal B, Ntsekhe M, Moraes de Oliveira G, Otto C, Owolabi M, Pratt M, Rajagopalan S, Reitsma M, Ribeiro ALP, Rigotti N, Rodgers A, Sable C, Shakil S, Sliwa-Hahnle K, Stark B, Sundström J, Timpel P, Tleyjeh IM, Valgimigli M, Vos T, Whelton PK, Yacoub M, Zuhlke L, Murray C, Fuster V, GBD-NHLBI-JACC Global Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases Writing Groupet al., 2020, Global burden of cardiovascular diseases and risk factors, 1990-2019: update from the GBD 2019 study., Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Vol: 76, Pages: 2982-3021, ISSN: 0735-1097

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), principally ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke, are the leading cause of global mortality and a major contributor to disability. This paper reviews the magnitude of total CVD burden, including 13 underlying causes of cardiovascular death and 9 related risk factors, using estimates from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2019. GBD, an ongoing multinational collaboration to provide comparable and consistent estimates of population health over time, used all available population-level data sources on incidence, prevalence, case fatality, mortality, and health risks to produce estimates for 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019. Prevalent cases of total CVD nearly doubled from 271 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 257 to 285 million) in 1990 to 523 million (95% UI: 497 to 550 million) in 2019, and the number of CVD deaths steadily increased from 12.1 million (95% UI:11.4 to 12.6 million) in 1990, reaching 18.6 million (95% UI: 17.1 to 19.7 million) in 2019. The global trends for disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years of life lost also increased significantly, and years lived with disability doubled from 17.7 million (95% UI: 12.9 to 22.5 million) to 34.4 million (95% UI:24.9 to 43.6 million) over that period. The total number of DALYs due to IHD has risen steadily since 1990, reaching 182 million (95% UI: 170 to 194 million) DALYs, 9.14 million (95% UI: 8.40 to 9.74 million) deaths in the year 2019, and 197 million (95% UI: 178 to 220 million) prevalent cases of IHD in 2019. The total number of DALYs due to stroke has risen steadily since 1990, reaching 143 million (95% UI: 133 to 153 million) DALYs, 6.55 million (95% UI: 6.00 to 7.02 million) deaths in the year 2019, and 101 million (95% UI: 93.2 to 111 million) prevalent cases of stroke in 2019. Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of disease burden in the world. CVD burden continues its decades-long rise for almost al

Journal article

Palladino R, Migliatico I, Sgariglia R, Nacchio M, Iaccarino A, Malapelle U, Vigliar E, Salvatore D, Troncone G, Bellevicine Cet al., 2020, Thyroid fine-needle aspiration trends before, during, and after the lockdown: what we have learned so far from the COVID-19 pandemic, Endocrine, Vol: 71, Pages: 20-25, ISSN: 1355-008X

PurposeNowadays, the clinical management of thyroid nodules needs to be multi-disciplinary. In particular, the crosstalk between endocrinologists and cytopathologists is key. When FNAs are properly requested by endocrinologists for nodules characterised by relevant clinical and ultrasound features, cytopathologists play a pivotal role in the diagnostic work-up. Conversely, improper FNA requests can lead to questionable diagnostic efficiency. Recently, recommendations to delay all non-urgent diagnostic procedures, such as thyroid FNAs, to contain the spread of COVID-19 infection, have made the interplay between endocrinologists and cytopathologists even more essential. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on our practice by evaluating the total number of FNAs performed and the distribution of the Bethesda Categories before, during, and after the lockdown.MethodsWe analysed the FNA trends before (1st January 2019 to March 13th 2020), during (March 14th to May 15th), and after (May 16th to July 7th) the lockdown.ResultsAlthough the total number of weekly FNAs dropped from 62.1 to 23.1, our referring endocrinologists managed to prioritise patients with high-risk nodules. In fact, in the post-lockdown, the weekly proportion of benign diagnoses dropped on average by 12% and that of high-risk diagnoses increased by 6%.ConclusionsThe lesson we have learned so far from this pandemic is that by applying safety protocols to avoid contagion and by increasing the threshold for FNA requests for thyroid nodules, we can continue to guarantee our services to high-risk patients even in times of a health crisis.

Journal article

Capasso N, Palladino R, Montella E, Pennino F, Lanzillo R, Carotenuto A, Petracca M, Iodice R, Iovino A, Aruta F, Pastore V, Buonomo AR, Zappulo E, Gentile I, Triassi M, Morra VB, Moccia Met al., 2020, Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies in Multiple Sclerosis: The Hidden Part of the Iceberg, JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE, Vol: 9

Journal article

Lo Vecchio A, Smarrazzo A, Amato C, Palladino R, Scarano SM, Spagnuolo MI, Bruzzese E, Guarino Aet al., 2020, Increasing tuberculosis rates and association with migration in children living in Campania region, southern Italy: a 10-year cohort study, The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, Vol: 39, Pages: 1017-1022, ISSN: 0891-3668

Background: Italy is classified as a low tuberculosis (TB) incidence country (rate 6.5/100,000 inhabitants). However, the Campania Region Pediatric Reference Centre (CRRC) observed an increase in TB, contemporarily with a rise in migration.Our aim was to investigate trends in TB notification rates, association with migration, and changes in clinical outcomes of children living in Campania.Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study (January 1, 2009–December 31, 2018), including children <18 years who received diagnosis of TB at the CRRC. Yearly crude TB incidence rates and relative confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. Two main outcome measures were considered: loss to follow-up and poor clinical outcome, including prolonged or second-line treatment, sequelae, or death.Results: Overall 146 children (52.1% male; median age, 50 months; interquartile range, 96.33) received a diagnosis of TB. TB incidence rates increased from 0.44 cases (95% CI: 0.16–0.97) per 100,000 inhabitants <18 years of age in 2009 to 1.84 cases (95% CI: 1.15–2.79) in 2018 (P < 0.05) and linearly correlated with the rate of migrants (R2 = 0.9272; P < 0.0001). Ziehl-Neelsen-positive children had an increased likelihood of poor clinical outcomes (odds ratio, 4.83; 95% CI: 1.28–18.2; P = 0.020). Compared with Italians, foreign children showed a lower likelihood of cure without sequelae (49.3% versus 67.9%; P < 0.001; odds ratio, 0.45; 95% CI: 0.23–0.89; P = 0.02). They accounted for all fatal cases and loss to follow-up.Conclusion: Pediatric TB rate in Campania increased in the last 10 years in association with the increase in migration. Emphasizing national TB rates may disregard important differences in local infection trends and limit medical awareness about TB. Foreign children may need tailored management programs.

Journal article

Lozano R, Fullman N, Mumford JE, Knight M, Barthelemy CM, Abbafati C, Abbastabar H, Abd-Allah F, Abdollahi M, Abedi A, Abolhassani H, Abosetugn AE, Abreu LG, Abrigo MRM, Abu Haimed AK, Abushouk AI, Adabi M, Adebayo OM, Adekanmbi V, Adelson J, Adetokunboh OO, Adham D, Advani SM, Afshin A, Agarwal G, Agasthi P, Aghamir SMK, Agrawal A, Ahmad T, Akinyemi RO, Alahdab F, Al-Aly Z, Alam K, Albertson SB, Alemu YM, Alhassan RK, Ali M, Ali S, Alipour V, Aljunid SM, Alla F, Almadi MAH, Almasi A, Almasi-Hashiani A, Almasri NA, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Almulhim AM, Alonso J, Al-Raddadi RM, Altirkawi KA, Alvis-Guzman N, Alvis-Zakzuk NJ, Amini S, Amini-Rarani M, Amiri F, Amit AML, Amugsi DA, Ancuceanu R, Anderlini D, Andrei CL, Androudi S, Ansari F, Ansari-Moghaddam A, Antonio CAT, Antony CM, Antriyandarti E, Anvari D, Anwer R, Arabloo J, Arab-Zozani M, Aravkin AY, Aremu O, Ärnlöv J, Asaad M, Asadi-Aliabadi M, Asadi-Pooya AA, Ashbaugh C, Athari SS, Atout MMW, Ausloos M, Avila-Burgos L, Ayala Quintanilla BP, Ayano G, Ayanore MA, Aynalem YA, Aynalem GL, Ayza MA, Azari S, Azzopardi PS, B DB, Babaee E, Badiye AD, Bahrami MA, Baig AA, Bakhshaei MH, Bakhtiari A, Bakkannavar SM, Balachandran A, Balassyano S, Banach M, Banerjee SK, Banik PC, Bante AB, Bante SA, Barker-Collo SL, Bärnighausen TW, Barrero LH, Bassat Q, Basu S, Baune BT, Bayati M, Baye BA, Bedi N, Beghi E, Behzadifar M, Bekuma TTT, Bell ML, Bensenor IM, Berman AE, Bernabe E, Bernstein RS, Bhagavathula AS, Bhandari D, Bhardwaj P, Bhat AG, Bhattacharyya K, Bhattarai S, Bhutta ZA, Bijani A, Bikbov B, Bilano V, Biondi A, Birihane BM, Bockarie MJ, Bohlouli S, Bojia HA, Bolla SRR, Boloor A, Brady OJ, Braithwaite D, Briant PS, Briggs AM, Briko NI, Burugina Nagaraja S, Busse R, Butt ZA, Caetano dos Santos FL, Cahuana-Hurtado L, Cámera LA, Cárdenas R, Carreras G, Carrero JJ, Carvalho F, Castaldelli-Maia JM, Castañeda-Orjuela CA, Castelpietra G, Castro F, Catalá-López F, Causey K, Cederroth CR, Cercy KM, Cerin E, Chandan JS, Chang AY, Charan Jet al., 2020, Measuring universal health coverage based on an index of effective coverage of health services in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, The Lancet, Vol: 396, Pages: 1250-1284, ISSN: 0140-6736

BackgroundAchieving universal health coverage (UHC) involves all people receiving the health services they need, of high quality, without experiencing financial hardship. Making progress towards UHC is a policy priority for both countries and global institutions, as highlighted by the agenda of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and WHO's Thirteenth General Programme of Work (GPW13). Measuring effective coverage at the health-system level is important for understanding whether health services are aligned with countries' health profiles and are of sufficient quality to produce health gains for populations of all ages.MethodsBased on the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019, we assessed UHC effective coverage for 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019. Drawing from a measurement framework developed through WHO's GPW13 consultation, we mapped 23 effective coverage indicators to a matrix representing health service types (eg, promotion, prevention, and treatment) and five population-age groups spanning from reproductive and newborn to older adults (≥65 years). Effective coverage indicators were based on intervention coverage or outcome-based measures such as mortality-to-incidence ratios to approximate access to quality care; outcome-based measures were transformed to values on a scale of 0–100 based on the 2·5th and 97·5th percentile of location-year values. We constructed the UHC effective coverage index by weighting each effective coverage indicator relative to its associated potential health gains, as measured by disability-adjusted life-years for each location-year and population-age group. For three tests of validity (content, known-groups, and convergent), UHC effective coverage index performance was generally better than that of other UHC service coverage indices from WHO (ie, the current metric for SDG indicator 3.8.1 on UHC service coverage), the World Bank, and GBD 2017. We quantified

Journal article

Nicastro E, Di Giorgio A, Zambelli M, Ginammi M, Bravi M, Stroppa P, Casotti V, Palladino R, Colledan M, D'Antiga Let al., 2020, Impact of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak on pediatric liver transplant recipients residing in Lombardy, Northern Italy., Liver Transplantation, Vol: 26, Pages: 1359-1362, ISSN: 1074-3022

The novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) disease (COVID-19) represents an unprecedented public health issue for the general population and for patients with underlying chronic conditions. Compared to adults, children seem to have a milder course of the disease, with very few requiring medical attention.

Journal article

Murray CJL, Abbafati C, Abbas KM, Abbasi M, Abbasi-Kangevari M, Abd-Allah F, Abdollahi M, Abedi P, Abedi A, Abolhassani H, Aboyans V, Abreu LG, Abrigo MRM, Abu-Gharbieh E, Abu Haimed AK, Abushouk AI, Acebedo A, Ackerman IN, Adabi M, Adamu AA, Adebayo OM, Adelson JD, Adetokunboh OO, Afarideh M, Afshin A, Agarwal G, Agrawal A, Ahmad T, Ahmadi K, Ahmadi M, Ahmed MB, Aji B, Akinyemiju T, Akombi B, Alahdab F, Alam K, Alanezi FM, Alanzi TM, Albertson SB, Alemu BW, Alemu YM, Alhabib KF, Ali M, Ali S, Alicandro G, Alipour V, Alizade H, Aljunid SM, Alla F, Allebeck P, Almadi MAH, Almasi-Hashiani A, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Almulhim AM, Alonso J, Al-Raddadi RM, Altirkawi KA, Alvis-Guzman N, Amare B, Amare AT, Amini S, Amit AML, Amugsi DA, Anbesu EW, Ancuceanu R, Anderlini D, Anderson JA, Andrei T, Andrei CL, Anjomshoa M, Ansari F, Ansari-Moghaddam A, Antonio CAT, Antony CM, Anvari D, Appiah SCY, Arabloo J, Arab-Zozani M, Aravkin AY, Arba AAK, Aripov T, Ärnlöv J, Arowosegbe OO, Asaad M, Asadi-Aliabadi M, Asadi-Pooya AA, Ashbaugh C, Assmus M, Atout MMW, Ausloos M, Ausloos F, Ayala Quintanilla BP, Ayano G, Ayanore MA, Azari S, Azene ZN, B DB, Babaee E, Badawi A, Badiye AD, Bagherzadeh M, Bairwa M, Bakhtiari A, Bakkannavar SM, Balachandran A, Banach M, Banerjee SK, Banik PC, Baraki AG, Barker-Collo SL, Basaleem H, Basu S, Baune BT, Bayati M, Baye BA, Bedi N, Beghi E, Bell ML, Bensenor IM, Berhe K, Berman AE, Bhagavathula AS, Bhala N, Bhardwaj P, Bhattacharyya K, Bhattarai S, Bhutta ZA, Bijani A, Bikbov B, Biondi A, Bisignano C, Biswas RK, Bjørge T, Bohlouli S, Bohluli M, Bolla SRR, Boloor A, Bose D, Boufous S, Brady OJ, Braithwaite D, Brauer M, Breitborde NJK, Brenner H, Breusov AV, Briant PS, Briggs AM, Britton GB, Brugha T, Burugina Nagaraja S, Busse R, Butt ZA, Caetano dos Santos FL, Cámera LLAA, Campos-Nonato IR, Campuzano Rincon JC, Car J, Cárdenas R, Carreras G, Carrero JJ, Carvalho F, Castaldelli-Maia JM, Castelpietra G, Castro F, Catalá-López F, Causey K, Cederroth CR, Cercy KM Cet al., 2020, Five insights from the global burden of disease study 2019, The Lancet, Vol: 396, Pages: 1135-1159, ISSN: 0140-6736

The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 provides a rules-based synthesis of the available evidence on levels and trends in health outcomes, a diverse set of risk factors, and health system responses. GBD 2019 covered 204 countries and territories, as well as first administrative level disaggregations for 22 countries, from 1990 to 2019. Because GBD is highly standardised and comprehensive, spanning both fatal and non-fatal outcomes, and uses a mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive list of hierarchical disease and injury causes, the study provides a powerful basis for detailed and broad insights on global health trends and emerging challenges. GBD 2019 incorporates data from 281 586 sources and provides more than 3·5 billion estimates of health outcome and health system measures of interest for global, national, and subnational policy dialogue. All GBD estimates are publicly available and adhere to the Guidelines on Accurate and Transparent Health Estimate Reporting. From this vast amount of information, five key insights that are important for health, social, and economic development strategies have been distilled. These insights are subject to the many limitations outlined in each of the component GBD capstone papers.

Journal article

Murray CJL, Aravkin AY, Zheng P, Abbafati C, Abbas KM, Abbasi-Kangevari M, Abd-Allah F, Abdelalim A, Abdollahi M, Abdollahpour I, Abegaz KH, Abolhassani H, Aboyans V, Abreu LG, Abrigo MRM, Abualhasan A, Abu-Raddad LJ, Abushouk AI, Adabi M, Adekanmbi V, Adeoye AM, Adetokunboh OO, Adham D, Advani SM, Agarwal G, Aghamir SMK, Agrawal A, Ahmad T, Ahmadi K, Ahmadi M, Ahmadieh H, Ahmed MB, Akalu TY, Akinyemi RO, Akinyemiju T, Akombi B, Akunna CJ, Alahdab F, Al-Aly Z, Alam K, Alam S, Alam T, Alanezi FM, Alanzi TM, Alemu BW, Alhabib KF, Ali M, Ali S, Alicandro G, Alinia C, Alipour V, Alizade H, Aljunid SM, Alla F, Allebeck P, Almasi-Hashiani A, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Alonso J, Altirkawi KA, Amini-Rarani M, Amiri F, Amugsi DA, Ancuceanu R, Anderlini D, Anderson JA, Andrei CL, Andrei T, Angus C, Anjomshoa M, Ansari F, Ansari-Moghaddam A, Antonazzo IC, Antonio CAT, Antony CM, Antriyandarti E, Anvari D, Anwer R, Appiah SCY, Arabloo J, Arab-Zozani M, Ariani F, Armoon B, Ärnlöv J, Arzani A, Asadi-Aliabadi M, Asadi-Pooya AA, Ashbaugh C, Assmus M, Atafar Z, Atnafu DD, Atout MMW, Ausloos F, Ausloos M, Ayala Quintanilla BP, Ayano G, Ayanore MA, Azari S, Azarian G, Azene ZN, Badawi A, Badiye AD, Bahrami MA, Bakhshaei MH, Bakhtiari A, Bakkannavar SM, Baldasseroni A, Ball K, Ballew SH, Balzi D, Banach M, Banerjee SK, Bante AB, Baraki AG, Barker-Collo SL, Bärnighausen TW, Barrero LH, Barthelemy CM, Barua L, Basu S, Baune BT, Bayati M, Becker JS, Bedi N, Beghi E, Béjot Y, Bell ML, Bennitt FB, Bensenor IM, Berhe K, Berman AE, Bhagavathula AS, Bhageerathy R, Bhala N, Bhandari D, Bhattacharyya K, Bhutta ZA, Bijani A, Bikbov B, Bin Sayeed MS, Biondi A, Birihane BM, Bisignano C, Biswas RK, Bitew H, Bohlouli S, Bohluli M, Boon-Dooley AS, Borges G, Borzì AM, Borzouei S, Bosetti C, Boufous S, Braithwaite D, Breitborde NJK, Breitner S, Brenner H, Briant PS, Briko AN, Briko NI, Britton GB, Bryazka D, Bumgarner BR, Burkart K, Burnett RT, Burugina Nagaraja S, Butt ZA, Caetano dos Santos FL, Cahill LE, Cámeraet al., 2020, Global burden of 87 risk factors in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, The Lancet, Vol: 396, Pages: 1223-1249, ISSN: 0140-6736

BackgroundRigorous analysis of levels and trends in exposure to leading risk factors and quantification of their effect on human health are important to identify where public health is making progress and in which cases current efforts are inadequate. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 provides a standardised and comprehensive assessment of the magnitude of risk factor exposure, relative risk, and attributable burden of disease.MethodsGBD 2019 estimated attributable mortality, years of life lost (YLLs), years of life lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 87 risk factors and combinations of risk factors, at the global level, regionally, and for 204 countries and territories. GBD uses a hierarchical list of risk factors so that specific risk factors (eg, sodium intake), and related aggregates (eg, diet quality), are both evaluated. This method has six analytical steps. (1) We included 560 risk–outcome pairs that met criteria for convincing or probable evidence on the basis of research studies. 12 risk–outcome pairs included in GBD 2017 no longer met inclusion criteria and 47 risk–outcome pairs for risks already included in GBD 2017 were added based on new evidence. (2) Relative risks were estimated as a function of exposure based on published systematic reviews, 81 systematic reviews done for GBD 2019, and meta-regression. (3) Levels of exposure in each age-sex-location-year included in the study were estimated based on all available data sources using spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression, DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian meta-regression method, or alternative methods. (4) We determined, from published trials or cohort studies, the level of exposure associated with minimum risk, called the theoretical minimum risk exposure level. (5) Attributable deaths, YLLs, YLDs, and DALYs were computed by multiplying population attributable fractions (PAFs) by the relevant outcome quant

Journal article

Vos T, Lim SS, Abbafati C, Abbas KM, Abbasi M, Abbasifard M, Abbasi-Kangevari M, Abbastabar H, Abd-Allah F, Abdelalim A, Abdollahi M, Abdollahpour I, Abolhassani H, Aboyans V, Abrams EM, Abreu LG, Abrigo MRM, Abu-Raddad LJ, Abushouk AI, Acebedo A, Ackerman IN, Adabi M, Adamu AA, Adebayo OM, Adekanmbi V, Adelson JD, Adetokunboh OO, Adham D, Afshari M, Afshin A, Agardh EE, Agarwal G, Agesa KM, Aghaali M, Aghamir SMK, Agrawal A, Ahmad T, Ahmadi A, Ahmadi M, Ahmadieh H, Ahmadpour E, Akalu TY, Akinyemi RO, Akinyemiju T, Akombi B, Al-Aly Z, Alam K, Alam N, Alam S, Alam T, Alanzi TM, Albertson SB, Alcalde-Rabanal JE, Alema NM, Ali M, Ali S, Alicandro G, Alijanzadeh M, Alinia C, Alipour V, Aljunid SM, Alla F, Allebeck P, Almasi-Hashiani A, Alonso J, Al-Raddadi RM, Altirkawi KA, Alvis-Guzman N, Alvis-Zakzuk NJ, Amini S, Amini-Rarani M, Aminorroaya A, Amiri F, Amit AML, Amugsi DA, Amul GGH, Anderlini D, Andrei CL, Andrei T, Anjomshoa M, Ansari F, Ansari I, Ansari-Moghaddam A, Antonio CAT, Antony CM, Antriyandarti E, Anvari D, Anwer R, Arabloo J, Arab-Zozani M, Aravkin AY, Ariani F, Ärnlöv J, Aryal KK, Arzani A, Asadi-Aliabadi M, Asadi-Pooya AA, Asghari B, Ashbaugh C, Atnafu DD, Atre SR, Ausloos F, Ausloos M, Ayala Quintanilla BP, Ayano G, Ayanore MA, Aynalem YA, Azari S, Azarian G, Azene ZN, Babaee E, Badawi A, Bagherzadeh M, Bakhshaei MH, Bakhtiari A, Balakrishnan S, Balalla S, Balassyano S, Banach M, Banik PC, Bannick MS, Bante AB, Baraki AG, Barboza MA, Barker-Collo SL, Barthelemy CM, Barua L, Barzegar A, Basu S, Baune BT, Bayati M, Bazmandegan G, Bedi N, Beghi E, Béjot Y, Bello AK, Bender RG, Bennett DA, Bennitt FB, Bensenor IM, Benziger CP, Berhe K, Bernabe E, Bertolacci GJ, Bhageerathy R, Bhala N, Bhandari D, Bhardwaj P, Bhattacharyya K, Bhutta ZA, Bibi S, Biehl MH, Bikbov B, Bin Sayeed MS, Biondi A, Birihane BM, Bisanzio D, Bisignano C, Biswas RK, Bohlouli S, Bohluli M, Bolla SRR, Boloor A, Boon-Dooley AS, Borges G, Borzì AM, Bourne R, Brady OJ, Brauer M, Brayne C, Breet al., 2020, Global burden of 369 diseases and injuries in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, The Lancet, Vol: 396, Pages: 1204-1222, ISSN: 0140-6736

BackgroundIn an era of shifting global agendas and expanded emphasis on non-communicable diseases and injuries along with communicable diseases, sound evidence on trends by cause at the national level is essential. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) provides a systematic scientific assessment of published, publicly available, and contributed data on incidence, prevalence, and mortality for a mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive list of diseases and injuries.MethodsGBD estimates incidence, prevalence, mortality, years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) due to 369 diseases and injuries, for two sexes, and for 204 countries and territories. Input data were extracted from censuses, household surveys, civil registration and vital statistics, disease registries, health service use, air pollution monitors, satellite imaging, disease notifications, and other sources. Cause-specific death rates and cause fractions were calculated using the Cause of Death Ensemble model and spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression. Cause-specific deaths were adjusted to match the total all-cause deaths calculated as part of the GBD population, fertility, and mortality estimates. Deaths were multiplied by standard life expectancy at each age to calculate YLLs. A Bayesian meta-regression modelling tool, DisMod-MR 2.1, was used to ensure consistency between incidence, prevalence, remission, excess mortality, and cause-specific mortality for most causes. Prevalence estimates were multiplied by disability weights for mutually exclusive sequelae of diseases and injuries to calculate YLDs. We considered results in the context of the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator of income per capita, years of schooling, and fertility rate in females younger than 25 years. Uncertainty intervals (UIs) were generated for every metric using the 25th and 975th ordered 1000 draw values of

Journal article

Wang H, Abbas KM, Abbasifard M, Abbasi-Kangevari M, Abbastabar H, Abd-Allah F, Abdelalim A, Abolhassani H, Abreu LG, Abrigo MRM, Abushouk AI, Adabi M, Adair T, Adebayo OM, Adedeji IA, Adekanmbi V, Adeoye AM, Adetokunboh OO, Advani SM, Afshin A, Aghaali M, Agrawal A, Ahmadi K, Ahmadieh H, Ahmed MB, Al-Aly Z, Alam K, Alam T, Alanezi FM, Alanzi TM, Alcalde-Rabanal JE, Ali M, Alicandro G, Alijanzadeh M, Alinia C, Alipour V, Alizade H, Aljunid SM, Allebeck P, Almadi MAH, Almasi-Hashiani A, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Altirkawi KA, Alumran AK, Alvis-Guzman N, Amini-Rarani M, Aminorroaya A, Amit AML, Ancuceanu R, Andrei CL, Androudi S, Angus C, Anjomshoa M, Ansari F, Ansari I, Ansari-Moghaddam A, Antonio CAT, Antony CM, Anvari D, Appiah SCY, Arabloo J, Arab-Zozani M, Aravkin AY, Aremu O, Ärnlöv J, Aryal KK, Asadi-Pooya AA, Asgari S, Asghari Jafarabadi M, Atteraya MS, Ausloos M, Avila-Burgos L, Avokpaho EFGA, Ayala Quintanilla BP, Ayano G, Ayanore MA, Azarian G, Babaee E, Badiye AD, Bagli E, Bahrami MA, Bakhtiari A, Balassyano S, Banach M, Banik PC, Barker-Collo SL, Bärnighausen TW, Barzegar A, Basu S, Baune BT, Bayati M, Bazmandegan G, Bedi N, Bell ML, Bennett DA, Bensenor IM, Berhe K, Berman AE, Bertolacci GJ, Bhageerathy R, Bhala N, Bhattacharyya K, Bhutta ZA, Bijani A, Biondi A, Bisanzio D, Bisignano C, Biswas RK, Bjørge T, Bohlouli S, Bohluli M, Bolla SRR, Borzì AM, Borzouei S, Brady OJ, Braithwaite D, Brauer M, Briko AN, Briko NI, Bumgarner BR, Burugina Nagaraja S, Butt ZA, Caetano dos Santos FL, Cai T, Callender CSKH, Cámera LLAA, Campos-Nonato IR, Cárdenas R, Carreras G, Carrero JJ, Carvalho F, Castaldelli-Maia JM, Castelpietra G, Castro F, Catalá-López F, Cederroth CR, Cerin E, Chattu VK, Chin KL, Chu D-T, Ciobanu LG, Cirillo M, Comfort H, Costa VM, Cowden RG, Cromwell EA, Croneberger AJ, Cunningham M, Dahlawi SMA, Damiani G, D'Amico E, Dandona L, Dandona R, Dargan PI, Darwesh AM, Daryani A, Das Gupta R, das Neves J, Davletov K, De Leo D, Denova-Gutiérrez E, Deribe K, Derveniset al., 2020, Global age-sex-specific fertility, mortality, healthy life expectancy (HALE), and population estimates in 204 countries and territories, 1950–2019: a comprehensive demographic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, The Lancet, Vol: 396, Pages: 1160-1203, ISSN: 0140-6736

BackgroundAccurate and up-to-date assessment of demographic metrics is crucial for understanding a wide range of social, economic, and public health issues that affect populations worldwide. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 produced updated and comprehensive demographic assessments of the key indicators of fertility, mortality, migration, and population for 204 countries and territories and selected subnational locations from 1950 to 2019.Methods8078 country-years of vital registration and sample registration data, 938 surveys, 349 censuses, and 238 other sources were identified and used to estimate age-specific fertility. Spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression (ST-GPR) was used to generate age-specific fertility rates for 5-year age groups between ages 15 and 49 years. With extensions to age groups 10–14 and 50–54 years, the total fertility rate (TFR) was then aggregated using the estimated age-specific fertility between ages 10 and 54 years. 7417 sources were used for under-5 mortality estimation and 7355 for adult mortality. ST-GPR was used to synthesise data sources after correction for known biases. Adult mortality was measured as the probability of death between ages 15 and 60 years based on vital registration, sample registration, and sibling histories, and was also estimated using ST-GPR. HIV-free life tables were then estimated using estimates of under-5 and adult mortality rates using a relational model life table system created for GBD, which closely tracks observed age-specific mortality rates from complete vital registration when available. Independent estimates of HIV-specific mortality generated by an epidemiological analysis of HIV prevalence surveys and antenatal clinic serosurveillance and other sources were incorporated into the estimates in countries with large epidemics. Annual and single-year age estimates of net migration and population for each country and territory were generated usin

Journal article

Micah AE, Su Y, Global Burden of Disease Health Financing Collaborator Network, Rawaf S, Rawaf DLet al., 2020, Health sector spending and spending on HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria, and development assistance for health: progress towards Sustainable Development Goal 3, The Lancet, Vol: 396, Pages: 693-724, ISSN: 0140-6736

Background Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3 aims to “ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages”. While a substantial effort has been made to quantify progress towards SDG3, less research has focused on tracking spending towards this goal. We used spending estimates to measure progress in financing the priority areas of SDG3, examine the association between outcomes and financing, and identify where resource gains are most needed to achieve the SDG3 indicators for which data are available.Methods We estimated domestic health spending, disaggregated by source (government, out-of-pocket, and prepaid private) from 1995 to 2017 for 195 countries and territories. For disease-specific health spending, we estimated spending for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis for 135 low-income and middle-income countries, and malaria in 106 malaria-endemic countries, from 2000 to 2017. We also estimated development assistance for health (DAH)from 1990 to 2019, by source, disbursing development agency, recipient, and health focus area, including DAH for pandemic preparedness. Finally, we estimated future health spending for 195 countries and territories from 2018 until 2030. We report all spending estimates in inflation-adjusted 2019 US$, unless otherwise stated.Findings Since the development and implementation of the SDGs in 2015, global health spending has increased, reaching $7·9 trillion (95% uncertainty interval 7·8–8·0) in 2017 and is expected to increase to $11·0 trillion (10·7–11·2) by 2030. In 2017, in low-income and middle-income countries spending on HIV/AIDS was $20·2 billion (17·0–25·0) and on tuberculosis it was $10·9 billion (10·3–11·8), and in malaria-endemic countries spending on malaria was $5·1 billion (

Journal article

Buonomo A, Brescia Morra V, Zappulo E, Lanzillo R, Gentile I, Montella E, Triassi M, Palladino R, Moccia Met al., 2020, COVID-19 prevention and multiple sclerosis management: The SAFE pathway for the post-peak, Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders, Vol: 44, Pages: 1-3, ISSN: 2211-0348

BackgroundWe hereby report on our experience from Naples (South Italy), where the peak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has already passed.MethodsAssuming that COVID-19 will be circulating until vaccination and/or herd immunity is achieved (possibly not earlier than 2021), we have developed a protocol for the long-term management of multiple sclerosis (MS).ResultsWe have defined a pathway for the access to the MS Centre with logistic, preventative and clinical recommendations, and have also included 14-day self-isolation and COVID-19 testing before some disease modifying treatments.DiscussionOverall, we believe our experience could be helpful for MS management in the upcoming months.

Journal article

Moccia M, Loperto I, Lanzillo R, Capacchione A, Carotenuto A, Triassi M, Morra VB, Palladino Ret al., 2020, Persistence, adherence, healthcare resource utilisation and costs for interferon Beta in multiple sclerosis: a population-based study in the Campania region (southern Italy), BMC Health Services Research, Vol: 20, Pages: 1-8, ISSN: 1472-6963

BackgroundTo differentiate five formulations of Interferon Beta for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) in clinical practice, by analysing persistence, adherence, healthcare resource utilisation and costs at population level.MethodsIn this population-based study, we included individuals with MS living in the Campania Region of Italy from 2015 to 2017, on treatment with intramuscular Interferon Beta-1a (Avonex® = 618), subcutaneous pegylated Interferon Beta-1a (Plegridy® = 259), subcutaneous Interferon Beta-1a (Rebif® = 1220), and subcutaneous Interferon Beta-1b (Betaferon® = 348; and Extavia® = 69). We recorded healthcare resource utilisation from administrative databases (hospital discharges, drug prescriptions, MS-related outpatients), and derived costs from the Regional formulary. We classified hospital admissions into MS-related and non-MS-related. Persistence (time to switch to other disease modifying treatments (DMTs)), and adherence (medication possession ratio (MPR) = medication supply obtained/medication supply expected during follow-up period) were calculated.ResultsPatients treated with Rebif® were younger, when compared with other Interferon Beta formulations (p < 0.01). The probability of switching to other DMTs was 60% higher for Betaferon®, 90% higher for Extavia®, and 110% higher for Plegridy®, when compared with Rebif® (p < 0.01). Plegridy® presented with 7% higher adherence (p < 0.01), and Betaferon® with 3% lower adherence (p = 0.03), when compared with Rebif®. The probability of MS-related hospital admissions was 40% higher in Avonex® (p = 0.03), 400% higher in Betaferon® (p < 0.01), and 60% higher in Plegridy® (p = 0.04), resulting into higher non-DMT-related costs, when compared with Re

Journal article

Crookes C, Palladino R, Seferidi P, Hirve R, Siskou O, Filippidis Fet al., 2020, The impact of the economic crisis on household health expenditure in Greece: an interrupted time series analysis, BMJ Open, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 2044-6055

Objectives and setting The 2008 financial crisis had a particularly severe impact onGreece. To contain spending, the government capped public health expenditure andintroduced increased cost-sharing. The Greek case is important for studying theimpact of recessions on health systems. This study analysed changes in householdhealth expenditure in Greece over the economic crisis and explored whether theimpact differed across socioeconomic groups.Participants We used data from the Greek Household Budget Survey for the years2004 and 2008-2017. The dataset comprised 51,654 households, with a total of128,111 members.Design We compared pre- and post-crisis trends in Greek household out-of-pocketpayments for healthcare from 2004-2017 using an interrupted time series analysis.This study explored spending in Euros and as a share of total household purchases.Results Our results indicated that the population level trend in household healthspending was reversed after the crisis began (pre-crisis trend:€0.040 decrease perquarter (95% CI: -0.785 to -0.022), post-crisis trend:€0.315 increase per quarter(95% CI: -0.004 to 0.635)). We also found that spending on inpatient services andpharmaceuticals has been increasing since the start of the crisis, whereas outpatientservices expenditure has been decreasing. Across all households, out-of-pocketpayments incurred a greater financial burden after the crisis relative to pre-existingtrends, but the poorest households incurred a disproportionately higher burden.Conclusions This was the first study to use an interrupted time series analysis toassess the impact of the economic crisis on household health expenditure in Greece.Our findings suggest that there was an erosion of financial protection for Greekhouseholds as a consequence of the economic crisis. This effect was particularlypronounced amongst poorer households, which is indicative of a regressivefinancing system.

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