Imperial College London

DrRaffaelePalladino

Faculty of MedicineSchool of Public Health

Research Associate
 
 
 
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Contact

 

r.palladino Website

 
 
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Location

 

309Reynolds BuildingCharing Cross Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
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147 results found

Valdecantos RL, Palladino R, Lo Vecchio A, Montella E, Triassi M, Nardone Aet al., 2022, Organisational and Structural Drivers of Childhood Immunisation in the European Region: A Systematic Review, Vaccines, Vol: 10, Pages: 1390-1390

<jats:p>Despite the implementation of widespread vaccination programs, the European Health Systems continue to experience care challenges attributable to organizational and structural issues. This study aimed to review the available data on aspects within the organizational and structural domains that might impact vaccination coverage. We searched a comprehensive range of databases from 1 January 2007 to 6 July 2021 for studies that reported quantitative or qualitative research on interventions to raise childhood vaccine coverage. Outcome assessments comprised organizational and structural factors that contribute to vaccine concern among pediatric parents, as well as data reported influencing the willingness to vaccinate. To analyze the risk of bias, the Ottawa, JBI’s (Joanna Briggs Institute) critical appraisal tool, and Amstar quality assessment were used accordingly. The inclusion criteria were met by 205 studies across 21 articles. The majority of the studies were conducted in the United Kingdom (6), the European Union (3), and Italy (3). A range of interventions studied in primary healthcare settings has been revealed to improve vaccination coverage rates including parental engagement and personalization, mandatory vaccination policies, program redesign, supply chain design, administering multiple/combination vaccines, improved vaccination timing and intervals, parental education and reminders, surveillance tools and Supplemental Immunisation Activity (SIA), and information model.</jats:p>

Journal article

Hone T, Macinko J, Trajman A, Palladino R, Medina Coeli C, Saraceni V, Rasella D, Durovni B, Millett Cet al., 2022, Expansion of primary healthcare and emergency hospital admissions among the urban poor in Rio de Janeiro Brazil: a cohort analysis, Lancet Regional Health Americas, ISSN: 2667-193X

Background:Robust evidence on the relationship between primary care and emergency admissions is lacking in low- and middle-income countries. This study evaluates how the phased roll out of the family health strategy (FHS) to the urban poor in Rio de Janeiro Brazil affected emergency hospital admissions and readmissions from ambulatory-care sensitives conditions (ACSCs).Methods:A cohort of 1.2 million adults in Rio de Janeiro city were followed for five years (Jan 2012 to Dec 2016). The association between FHS use and the likelihood of emergency hospital admissions and 30-day readmissions were evaluated using multi-level Poisson regression models with inverse probability treatment weighting and regression adjustment (IPTW-RA) for socioeconomic and household characteristics. Inequalities in associations were examined across groups of causes and by key socioeconomic groups. Results:Records from 2,551,934 primary care consultations and 15,627 admissions were analysed. In IPTW-RA analyses, each additional FHS consultation was associated with a 3% lower rate of ACSC admission (RR: 0.97; 95%CI: 0.95, 0.98), a 63% lower rate of 30-day readmissions from any non-birth cause (RR: 0.37; 95%CI: 0.30, 0.46), and an 57% lower rate of 30-day readmissions from ACSCs (RR: 0.43; 95%CI: 0.33, 0.55). Individuals who were older, had the lowest educational attainment, were unemployed, and had higher incomes had larger reductions in ACSC admissions associated with FHS use.Interpretation:Investment in primary care is important for reducing emergency hospital admissions and their associated costs in LMICs. Funding DFID/MRC/Wellcome Trust/ESRC

Journal article

Palladino R, Mercogliano M, Fiorilla C, Frangiosa A, Iodice S, Zamparelli SS, Montella E, Triassi M, Zamparelli ASet al., 2022, Association between COVID-19 and Sick Leave for Healthcare Workers in a Large Academic Hospital in Southern Italy: An Observational Study, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH, Vol: 19

Journal article

Moccia M, Affinito G, Ronga B, Giordana R, Fumo M, Lanzillo R, Petracca M, Carotenuto A, Triassi M, Morra VB, Palladino Ret al., 2022, Emergency medical care for multiple sclerosis: A five-year population study in the Campania Region (South Italy), EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY, Vol: 29, Pages: 144-144, ISSN: 1351-5101

Journal article

Moccia M, Loperto I, Santoni L, Masera S, Affinito G, Carotenuto A, Lanzillo R, Triassi M, Morra VB, Palladino Ret al., 2022, Healthcare resource utilization and costs for extended interval dosing of natalizumab in multiple sclerosis, Publisher: FUTURE MEDICINE LTD, Pages: 109-116, ISSN: 1758-2024

Conference paper

Palladino R, More A, Greenfield G, Anokye N, Piggot E, Willis T, Edward G, Majeed F, Kong WMet al., 2022, Evaluation of the North West London Diabetes Foot Care Transformation Project: a mixed-methods evaluation, International Journal of Integrated Care, Vol: 22, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 1568-4156

Introduction: Diabetes foot ulceration (DFU) presents an enormous burden to those living with diabetes and to the local health systems and economies. There is an increasing interest in implementing integrated care models to enhance the quality of care for people living with diabetes and related complications and the value of co-production approaches to achieve sustainable change. This paper aims to describe the evaluation methodology for the North West London (NWL) Diabetes Foot Care Transformation project. Description: A mixed methods design including: i) a quasi-experimental quantitative analysis assessing the impact of the implementation of the local secondary care multi-disciplinary diabetes foot team clinics on service utilisation and clinical outcomes (amputations and number of healed patients); ii) a phenomenological, qualitative study to explore patient and staff experience; and iii) a within-trial cost-effectiveness analysis (pre and post 2017) to evaluate the programme cost-effectiveness.Discussion and Conclusion: Demonstrating the impact of multidisciplinary, integrated care models and the value of co-production approaches is important for health providers and commissioners trying to improve health outcome. Evaluation is also needed to identify strategies to overcome barriers which might have reduced the impact of the programme and key elements for improvement.

Journal article

Palladino R, Alfano R, Moccia M, Barone-Adesi F, Majeed A, Triassi M, Millett Cet al., 2022, Association Between Institutional Affiliations of Academic Editors and Authors in Medical Journals, JOURNAL OF GENERAL INTERNAL MEDICINE, Vol: 37, Pages: 2911-2913, ISSN: 0884-8734

Journal article

Affinito G, Santoni L, Montella E, Masera S, Morra B, Triassi M, Palladino R, Moccia Met al., 2022, NATALIZUMAB UTILIZATION IN TERMS OF DOSING INTERVAL AND COSTS: A 2015-2019 POPULATION-BASED STUDY, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, Pages: S49-S49, ISSN: 1098-3015

Conference paper

Cirillo M, Cavallo P, Palladino R, Terradura-Vagnarelli O, Zulli E, Villa R, Veneziano R, Laurenzi Met al., 2021, Relationship of the Intake of Water and Other Beverages With Renal Endpoints: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Data-Observational, Population-Based Study, JOURNAL OF RENAL NUTRITION, Vol: 32, Pages: 68-77, ISSN: 1051-2276

Journal article

Montuori P, Loperto I, Paolo C, Castrianni D, Nubi R, De Rosa E, Palladino R, Triassi Met al., 2021, Bodybuilding, dietary supplements and hormones use: behaviour and determinant analysis in young bodybuilders, BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vol: 13, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 2052-1847

BackgroundAmong athletes, bodybuilders are more predisposed to the use of dietary supplements (DS) and hormones (H) to increase in adaptations to physical training and performance. The purpose of the study was to identify social, psychological, and organisational factors that are associated with the use of food supplements and hormones in young bodybuilders of the metropolitan area of Naples.Methods107 athletes, practicing bodybuilding, were consecutively recruited in 30 gyms, randomly selected in the metropolitan area of Naples. Athletes were administered an anonymous questionnaire. The questionnaire consists of 5 sections (socio-demographic, frequency and reasons for bodybuilding, knowledge, attitudes and behaviours). Descriptive statistics were performed using T-test and Chi-square statistics. A score was created for knowledge, attitudes, behaviours. Multivariable logistic regression models were employed to assess association between each score and the use of DS and H. Statistical analyses were carried out using STATA 15.Results81.31% of the subjects reported to use DS while 35.51% H. Females are less likely to practise bodybuilding frequently than males (OR 0.18 (95% CI 0.05–0.69), p = 0.01). Subjects who have attended high school or university have a lower probability of taking DS (OR 0.17 (95% CI 0.04–0.65), p = 0.01). H users also use supplements more frequently (OR 61.21 (95% CI 3.99–939.31), p < 0.001). Those who scored higher on knowledge scores are more likely to take DS (OR 1.53 (95% CI 1.11–2.12), p < 0.001). Attitudes are correlated with the use of DS; those who scored higher were less likely to use DS (OR 0.77 (95% CI 0.30–0.98), p = 0.03). People who use DS are 30 times more likely to use H at the same time (OR 30.25 (95% CI 2.51–365.24), p < 0.001). Subjects who have a higher score for knowledge and attitudes are less like

Journal article

Lavorgna L, Iaffaldano P, Abbadessa G, Lanzillo R, Esposito S, Ippolito D, Sparaco M, Cepparulo S, Lus G, Viterbo R, Clerico M, Trojsi F, Ragonese P, Borriello G, Signoriello E, Palladino R, Moccia M, Brigo F, Troiano M, Tedeschi G, Bonavita Set al., 2021, Disability assessment using Google Maps (vol 17, pg 1, 2021), NEUROLOGICAL SCIENCES, Vol: 43, Pages: 1481-1481, ISSN: 1590-1874

Journal article

Ward JL, Azzopardi PS, Francis KL, Santelli JS, Skirbekk V, Sawyer SM, Kassebaum NJ, Mokdad AH, Hay SI, Abd-Allah F, Abdoli A, Abdollahi M, Abedi A, Abolhassani H, Abreu LG, Abrigo MRM, Abu-Gharbieh E, Abushouk AI, Adebayo OM, Adekanmbi V, Adham D, Advani SM, Afshari K, Agrawal A, Ahmad T, Ahmadi K, Ahmed AE, Aji B, Akombi-Inyang B, Alahdab F, Al-Aly Z, Alam K, Alanezi FM, Alanzi TM, Alcalde-Rabanal JE, Alemu BW, Al-Hajj S, Alhassan RK, Ali S, Alicandro G, Alijanzadeh M, Aljunid SM, Almasi-Hashiani A, Almasri NA, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Alonso J, Al-Raddadi RM, Altirkawi KA, Alvis-Guzman N, Amare AT, Amini S, Aminorroaya A, Amit AML, Amugsi DA, Ancuceanu R, Anderlini D, Andrei CL, Androudi S, Ansari F, Ansari I, Antonio CAT, Anvari D, Anwer R, Appiah SCY, Arabloo J, Arab-Zozani M, Ärnlöv J, Asaad M, Asadi-Aliabadi M, Asadi-Pooya AA, Atout MMW, Ausloos M, Avenyo EK, Avila-Burgos L, Ayala Quintanilla BP, Ayano G, Aynalem YA, Azari S, Azene ZN, Bakhshaei MH, Bakkannavar SM, Banach M, Banik PC, Barboza MA, Barker-Collo SL, Bärnighausen TW, Basu S, Baune BT, Bayati M, Bedi N, Beghi E, Bekuma TT, Bell AW, Bell ML, Benjet C, Bensenor IM, Berhe AK, Berhe K, Berman AE, Bhagavathula AS, Bhardwaj N, Bhardwaj P, Bhattacharyya K, Bhattarai S, Bhutta ZA, Bijani A, Bikbov B, Biondi A, Birhanu TTM, Biswas RK, Bohlouli S, Bolla SR, Boloor A, Borschmann R, Boufous S, Bragazzi NL, Braithwaite D, Breitborde NJK, Brenner H, Britton GB, Burns RA, Burugina Nagaraja S, Butt ZA, Caetano dos Santos FL, Cámera LA, Campos-Nonato IR, Campuzano Rincon JC, Cárdenas R, Carreras G, Carrero JJ, Carvalho F, Castaldelli-Maia JM, Castañeda-Orjuela CA, Castelpietra G, Catalá-López F, Cerin E, Chandan JS, Chang H-Y, Chang J-C, Charan J, Chattu VK, Chaturvedi S, Choi J-YJ, Chowdhury MAK, Christopher DJ, Chu D-T, Chung MT, Chung S-C, Cicuttini FM, Constantin TV, Costa VM, Dahlawi SMA, Dai H, Dai X, Damiani G, Dandona L, Dandona R, Daneshpajouhnejad P, Darwesh AM, Dávila-Cervantes CA, Davletov K, De la Hoz FP, De Let al., 2021, Global, regional, and national mortality among young people aged 10–24 years, 1950–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, The Lancet, Vol: 398, Pages: 1593-1618, ISSN: 0140-6736

BackgroundDocumentation of patterns and long-term trends in mortality in young people, which reflect huge changes in demographic and social determinants of adolescent health, enables identification of global investment priorities for this age group. We aimed to analyse data on the number of deaths, years of life lost, and mortality rates by sex and age group in people aged 10–24 years in 204 countries and territories from 1950 to 2019 by use of estimates from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019.MethodsWe report trends in estimated total numbers of deaths and mortality rate per 100 000 population in young people aged 10–24 years by age group (10–14 years, 15–19 years, and 20–24 years) and sex in 204 countries and territories between 1950 and 2019 for all causes, and between 1980 and 2019 by cause of death. We analyse variation in outcomes by region, age group, and sex, and compare annual rate of change in mortality in young people aged 10–24 years with that in children aged 0–9 years from 1990 to 2019. We then analyse the association between mortality in people aged 10–24 years and socioeconomic development using the GBD Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite measure based on average national educational attainment in people older than 15 years, total fertility rate in people younger than 25 years, and income per capita. We assess the association between SDI and all-cause mortality in 2019, and analyse the ratio of observed to expected mortality by SDI using the most recent available data release (2017).FindingsIn 2019 there were 1·49 million deaths (95% uncertainty interval 1·39–1·59) worldwide in people aged 10–24 years, of which 61% occurred in males. 32·7% of all adolescent deaths were due to transport injuries, unintentional injuries, or interpersonal violence and conflict; 32·1% were due to communicable, nutritional, or mater

Journal article

Micah AE, Cogswell IE, Cunningham B, Ezoe S, Harle AC, Maddison ER, McCracken D, Nomura S, Simpson KE, Stutzman HN, Tsakalos G, Wallace LE, Zhao Y, Zende RR, Abbafati C, Abdelmasseh M, Abedi A, Abegaz KH, Abhilash ES, Abolhassani H, Abrigo MRM, Adhikari TB, Afzal S, Ahinkorah BO, Ahmadi S, Ahmed H, Ahmed MB, Ahmed Rashid T, Ajami M, Aji B, Akalu Y, Akunna CJ, Al Hamad H, Alam K, Alanezi FM, Alanzi TM, Alemayehu Y, Alhassan RK, Alinia C, Aljunid SM, Almustanyir SA, Alvis-Guzman N, Alvis-Zakzuk NJ, Amini S, Amini-Rarani M, Amu H, Ancuceanu R, Andrei CL, Andrei T, Angell B, Anjomshoa M, Antonio CAT, Antony CM, Aqeel M, Arabloo J, Arab-Zozani M, Aripov T, Arrigo A, Ashraf T, Atnafu DD, Ausloos M, Avila-Burgos L, Awan AT, Ayano G, Ayanore MA, Azari S, Azhar GS, Babalola TK, Bahrami MA, Baig AA, Banach M, Barati N, Bärnighausen TW, Barrow A, Basu S, Baune BT, Bayati M, Benzian H, Berman AE, Bhagavathula AS, Bhardwaj N, Bhardwaj P, Bhaskar S, Bibi S, Bijani A, Bodolica V, Bragazzi NL, Braithwaite D, Breitborde NJK, Breusov AV, Briko NI, Busse R, Cahuana-Hurtado L, Callander EJ, Cámera LA, Castañeda-Orjuela CA, Catalá-López F, Charan J, Chatterjee S, Chattu SK, Chattu VK, Chen S, Cicero AFG, Dadras O, Dahlawi SMA, Dai X, Dalal K, Dandona L, Dandona R, Davitoiu DV, De Neve J-W, de Sá-Junior AR, Denova-Gutiérrez E, Dhamnetiya D, Dharmaratne SD, Doshmangir L, Dube J, Ehsani-Chimeh E, El Sayed Zaki M, El Tantawi M, Eskandarieh S, Farzadfar F, Ferede TY, Fischer F, Foigt NA, Freitas A, Friedman SD, Fukumoto T, Fullman N, Gaal PA, Gad MM, Garcia-Gordillo MA, Garg T, Ghafourifard M, Ghashghaee A, Gholamian A, Gholamrezanezhad A, Ghozali G, Gilani SA, Glăvan I-R, Glushkova EV, Goharinezhad S, Golechha M, Goli S, Guha A, Gupta VB, Gupta VK, Haakenstad A, Haider MR, Hailu A, Hamidi S, Hanif A, Harapan H, Hartono RK, Hasaballah AI, Hassan S, Hassanein MH, Hayat K, Hegazy MI, Heidari G, Hendrie D, Heredia-Pi I, Herteliu C, Hezam K, Holla R, Hossain SJ, Hosseinzadeh M, Hostiuc S, Huda Tet al., 2021, Tracking development assistance for health and for COVID-19: a review of development assistance, government, out-of-pocket, and other private spending on health for 204 countries and territories, 1990–2050, The Lancet, Vol: 398, Pages: 1317-1343, ISSN: 0140-6736

BackgroundThe rapid spread of COVID-19 renewed the focus on how health systems across the globe are financed, especially during public health emergencies. Development assistance is an important source of health financing in many low-income countries, yet little is known about how much of this funding was disbursed for COVID-19. We aimed to put development assistance for health for COVID-19 in the context of broader trends in global health financing, and to estimate total health spending from 1995 to 2050 and development assistance for COVID-19 in 2020.MethodsWe estimated domestic health spending and development assistance for health to generate total health-sector spending estimates for 204 countries and territories. We leveraged data from the WHO Global Health Expenditure Database to produce estimates of domestic health spending. To generate estimates for development assistance for health, we relied on project-level disbursement data from the major international development agencies' online databases and annual financial statements and reports for information on income sources. To adjust our estimates for 2020 to include disbursements related to COVID-19, we extracted project data on commitments and disbursements from a broader set of databases (because not all of the data sources used to estimate the historical series extend to 2020), including the UN Office of Humanitarian Assistance Financial Tracking Service and the International Aid Transparency Initiative. We reported all the historic and future spending estimates in inflation-adjusted 2020 US$, 2020 US$ per capita, purchasing-power parity-adjusted US$ per capita, and as a proportion of gross domestic product. We used various models to generate future health spending to 2050.FindingsIn 2019, health spending globally reached $8·8 trillion (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 8·7–8·8) or $1132 (1119–1143) per person. Spending on health varied within and across income groups and geogra

Journal article

Capasso N, Palladino R, Montella E, Pennino F, Lanzillo R, Carotenuto A, Petracca M, Iodice R, Iovino A, Aruta F, Pastore V, Buonomo AR, Zappulo E, Gentile I, Triassi M, Morra VB, Moccia Met al., 2021, Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in multiple sclerosis: The hidden part of the iceberg, 25th World Congress of Neurology (WCN), Publisher: ELSEVIER, ISSN: 0022-510X

Conference paper

Palladino R, Marrie RA, Majeed A, Chataway Jet al., 2021, Management of vascular risk in people with multiple sclerosis in England: a population-based matched cohort study, MS Conference, Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, Pages: 219-219, ISSN: 1352-4585

Conference paper

Petracca M, Palladino R, Droby A, Graziano N, Wang K, Kurz D, Riley C, Howard J, Klineova S, Lublin F, Inglese Met al., 2021, Impact of demographics, socioeconomic status and comorbidities on disability outcomes in African-American and Caucasian patients with multiple sclerosis, Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, Pages: 254-255, ISSN: 1352-4585

Conference paper

Moccia M, Affinito G, Santoni L, Cardillo A, Carotenuto A, Lanzillo R, Triassi M, Brescia Morra V, Palladino Ret al., 2021, Dimethyl fumarate and fingolimod utilization and costs for multiple sclerosis: a population-based study in the Campania Region of Italy, Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, Pages: 663-663, ISSN: 1352-4585

Conference paper

Palladino R, Affinito G, Triassi M, 2021, The impact of COVID-19 on School of Medicine students' performance: an interrupted time series study, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, ISSN: 1101-1262

Conference paper

Moccia M, Affinito G, Capacchione A, Lanzillo R, Carotenuto A, Montella E, Triassi M, Morra VB, Palladino Ret al., 2021, Interferon beta for the treatment of multiple sclerosis in the Campania Region of Italy: merging the real-life to routinely collected healthcare data, 37th Congress of the European-Committee-for-Treatment-and-Research-in-Multiple-Sclerosis (ECTRIMS), Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, Pages: 707-708, ISSN: 1352-4585

Conference paper

Moccia M, Affinito G, Capacchione A, Lanzillo R, Carotenuto A, Montella E, Triassi M, Morra VB, Palladino Ret al., 2021, Interferon beta for the treatment of multiple sclerosis in the Campania Region of Italy: Merging the real-life to routinely collected healthcare data, PLoS One, Vol: 16, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 1932-6203

BackgroundWe aim to overcome limitations of previous clinical and population-based studies by merging a clinical registry to routinely-collected healthcare data, and to specifically describe differences in clinical outcomes, healthcare resource utilization and costs between interferon beta formulations for multiple sclerosis (MS).MethodsWe included 850 patients with MS treated with interferon beta formulations, from 2015 to 2019, seen at the MS Clinical Care and Research Centre (Federico II University of Naples, Italy) and with linkage to routinely-collected healthcare data (prescription data, hospital admissions, outpatient services). We extracted and computed clinical outcomes (relapses, 6-month EDSS progression using a roving EDSS as reference), persistence (time spent on a specific interferon beta formulation), adherence (medication possession ratio (MPR)), healthcare resource utilization and costs (annualized hospitalization rate (AHR), costs for hospital admissions and DMTs). To evaluate differences between interferon beta formulations, we used linear regression (adherence), Poisson regression (AHR), mixed-effect regression (costs), and Cox-regression models (time varying variables); covariates were age, sex, treatment duration, baseline EDSS and adherence.ResultsLooking at clinical outcomes, rates of relapses and EDSS progression were lower than studies run on previous cohorts; there was no differences in relapse risk between interferon beta formulations. Risk of discontinuation was higher for Betaferon®/Extavia® (HR = 3.28; 95%CI = 2.11, 5.12; p<0.01). Adherence was lower for Betaferon®/Extavia® (Coeff = -0.05; 95%CI = -0.10, -0.01; p = 0.02), and Avonex® (Coeff = -0.06; 95%CI = -0.11, -0.02; p<0.01), when compared with Rebif® and Plegridy® (Coeff = 0.08; 95%CI = 0.01, 0.16; p = 0.02). AHR and costs for MS hospital admissions were higher for Betaferon®/Extavia® (IRR = 2.38; 95%CI = 1.01, 5.55; p = 0.04; Coeff = 14.95

Journal article

Palladino R, Chataway J, Majeed A, Marrie RAet al., 2021, Interface of multiple sclerosis, depression, vascular disease, and mortality a population-based matched cohort study, Neurology, Vol: 97, Pages: E1322-E1333, ISSN: 0028-3878

Background and Objectives To assess whether the association among depression, vascular disease, and mortality differs in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) compared with age-, sex-, and general practice–matched controls.Methods We conducted a population-based retrospective matched cohort study between January 1, 1987, and September 30, 2018, that included people with MS and matched controls without MS from England, stratified by depression status. We used time-varying Cox proportional hazard regression models to test the association among MS, depression, and time to incident vascular disease and mortality. Analyses were also stratified by sex.Results We identified 12,251 people with MS and 72,572 matched controls. At baseline, 21% of people with MS and 9% of controls had depression. Compared with matched controls without depression, people with MS had an increased risk of incident vascular disease regardless of whether they had comorbid depression. The 10-year hazard of all-cause mortality was 1.75-fold greater in controls with depression (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.59–1.91), 3.88-fold greater in people with MS without depression (95% CI 3.66–4.10), and 5.43-fold greater in people with MS and depression (95% CI 4.88–5.96). Overall, the interaction between MS status and depression was synergistic, with 14% of the observed effect attributable to the interaction. Sex-stratified analyses confirmed differences in hazard ratios.Discussion Depression is associated with increased risks of incident vascular disease and mortality in people with MS, and the effects of depression and MS on all-cause mortality are synergistic. Further studies should evaluate whether effectively treating depression is associated with a reduced risk of vascular disease and mortality.

Journal article

Abbadessa G, Miele G, Di Pietro A, Sparaco M, Palladino R, Armetta I, D'Elia G, Trojsi F, Signoriello E, Lus G, Lavorgna L, Bonavita Set al., 2021, Multiple sclerosis and genetic polymorphisms in fibrinogen-mediated hemostatic pathways: a case-control study, NEUROLOGICAL SCIENCES, Vol: 43, Pages: 2601-2609, ISSN: 1590-1874

Journal article

Paulson KR, Kamath AM, Alam T, Bienhoff K, Abady GG, Abbas J, Abbasi-Kangevari M, Abbastabar H, Abd-Allah F, Abd-Elsalam SM, Abdoli A, Abedi A, Abolhassani H, Abreu LG, Abu-Gharbieh E, Abu-Rmeileh NME, Abushouk AI, Adamu AL, Adebayo OM, Adegbosin AE, Adekanmbi V, Adetokunboh OO, Adeyinka DA, Adsuar JC, Afshari K, Aghaali M, Agudelo-Botero M, Ahinkorah BO, Ahmad T, Ahmadi K, Ahmed MB, Aji B, Akalu Y, Akinyemi OO, Aklilu A, Al-Aly Z, Alam K, Alanezi FM, Alanzi TM, Alcalde-Rabanal JE, Al-Eyadhy A, Ali T, Alicandro G, Alif SM, Alipour V, Alizade H, Aljunid SM, Almasi-Hashiani A, Almasri NA, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Alonso J, Al-Raddadi RM, Altirkawi KA, Alumran AK, Alvis-Guzman N, Alvis-Zakzuk NJ, Ameyaw EK, Amini S, Amini-Rarani M, Amit AML, Amugsi DA, Ancuceanu R, Anderlini D, Andrei CL, Ansari F, Ansari-Moghaddam A, Antonio CAT, Antriyandarti E, Anvari D, Anwer R, Aqeel M, Arabloo J, Arab-Zozani M, Aripov T, Ärnlöv J, Artanti KD, Arzani A, Asaad M, Asadi-Aliabadi M, Asadi-Pooya AA, Asghari Jafarabadi M, Athari SS, Athari SM, Atnafu DD, Atreya A, Atteraya MS, Ausloos M, Awan AT, Ayala Quintanilla BP, Ayano G, Ayanore MA, Aynalem YA, Azari S, Azarian G, Azene ZN, B DB, Babaee E, Badiye AD, Baig AA, Banach M, Banik PC, Barker-Collo SL, Barqawi HJ, Bassat Q, Basu S, Baune BT, Bayati M, Bedi N, Beghi E, Beghi M, Bell ML, Bendak S, Bennett DA, Bensenor IM, Berhe K, Berman AE, Bezabih YM, Bhagavathula AS, Bhandari D, Bhardwaj N, Bhardwaj P, Bhattacharyya K, Bhattarai S, Bhutta ZA, Bikbov B, Biondi A, Birihane BM, Biswas RK, Bohlouli S, Bragazzi NL, Breusov AV, Brunoni AR, Burkart K, Burugina Nagaraja S, Busse R, Butt ZA, Caetano dos Santos FL, Cahuana-Hurtado L, Camargos P, Cámera LA, Cárdenas R, Carreras G, Carrero JJ, Carvalho F, Castaldelli-Maia JM, Castañeda-Orjuela CA, Castelpietra G, Cerin E, Chang J-C, Chanie WF, Charan J, Chatterjee S, Chattu SK, Chattu VK, Chaturvedi S, Chen S, Cho DY, Choi J-YJ, Chu D-T, Ciobanu LG, Cirillo M, Conde J, Costa VM, Couto RAS, Dachew BA, Dahlaet al., 2021, Global, regional, and national progress towards Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 for neonatal and child health: all-cause and cause-specific mortality findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, The Lancet, Vol: 398, Pages: 870-905, ISSN: 0140-6736

BackgroundSustainable Development Goal 3.2 has targeted elimination of preventable child mortality, reduction of neonatal death to less than 12 per 1000 livebirths, and reduction of death of children younger than 5 years to less than 25 per 1000 livebirths, for each country by 2030. To understand current rates, recent trends, and potential trajectories of child mortality for the next decade, we present the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 findings for all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality in children younger than 5 years of age, with multiple scenarios for child mortality in 2030 that include the consideration of potential effects of COVID-19, and a novel framework for quantifying optimal child survival.MethodsWe completed all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality analyses from 204 countries and territories for detailed age groups separately, with aggregated mortality probabilities per 1000 livebirths computed for neonatal mortality rate (NMR) and under-5 mortality rate (U5MR). Scenarios for 2030 represent different potential trajectories, notably including potential effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the potential impact of improvements preferentially targeting neonatal survival. Optimal child survival metrics were developed by age, sex, and cause of death across all GBD location-years. The first metric is a global optimum and is based on the lowest observed mortality, and the second is a survival potential frontier that is based on stochastic frontier analysis of observed mortality and Healthcare Access and Quality Index.FindingsGlobal U5MR decreased from 71·2 deaths per 1000 livebirths (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 68·3–74·0) in 2000 to 37·1 (33·2–41·7) in 2019 while global NMR correspondingly declined more slowly from 28·0 deaths per 1000 live births (26·8–29·5) in 2000 to 17·9 (16·3–19·8) in 2019.

Journal article

Palladino R, Bollon J, Ragazzoni L, Barone-Adesi Fet al., 2021, Effect of timing of implementation of the lockdown on the number of deaths for COVID-19 in four European countries, Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, Vol: 15, Pages: e40-e42, ISSN: 1935-7893

Journal article

Cirillo M, Bilancio G, Cavallo P, Palladino R, Zulli E, Villa R, Veneziano R, Laurenzi Met al., 2021, Urinary Potassium and Kidney Function Decline in the Population-Observational Study, NUTRIENTS, Vol: 13

Journal article

Affinito G, Arpaia P, Barone-Adesi F, Fontana L, Palladino R, Triassi Met al., 2021, A Cardiovascular Risk Score for Use in Occupational Medicine, JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE, Vol: 10

Journal article

Reitsma MB, Kendrick PJ, Ababneh E, Abbafati C, Abbasi-Kangevari M, Abdoli A, Abedi A, Abhilash ES, Abila DB, Aboyans V, Abu-Rmeileh NME, Adebayo OM, Advani SM, Aghaali M, Ahinkorah BO, Ahmad S, Ahmadi K, Ahmed H, Aji B, Akunna CJ, Al-Aly Z, Alanzi TM, Alhabib KF, Ali L, Alif SM, Alipour V, Aljunid SM, Alla F, Allebeck P, Alvis-Guzman N, Amin TT, Amini S, Amu H, Amul GGH, Ancuceanu R, Anderson JA, Ansari-Moghaddam A, Antonio CAT, Antony B, Anvari D, Arabloo J, Arian ND, Arora M, Asaad M, Ausloos M, Awan AT, Ayano G, Aynalem GL, Azari S, B DB, Badiye AD, Baig AA, Bakhshaei MH, Banach M, Banik PC, Barker-Collo SL, Bärnighausen TW, Barqawi HJ, Basu S, Bayati M, Bazargan-Hejazi S, Behzadifar M, Bekuma TT, Bennett DA, Bensenor IM, Berfield KSS, Bhagavathula AS, Bhardwaj N, Bhardwaj P, Bhattacharyya K, Bibi S, Bijani A, Bintoro BS, Biondi A, Birara S, Braithwaite D, Brenner H, Brunoni AR, Burkart K, Butt ZA, Caetano dos Santos FL, Cámera LA, Car J, Cárdenas R, Carreras G, Carrero JJ, Castaldelli-Maia JM, Cattaruzza MSS, Chang J-C, Chen S, Chu D-T, Chung S-C, Cirillo M, Costa VM, Couto RAS, Dadras O, Dai X, Damasceno AAM, Damiani G, Dandona L, Dandona R, Daneshpajouhnejad P, Darega Gela J, Davletov K, Derbew Molla M, Dessie GA, Desta AA, Dharmaratne SD, Dianatinasab M, Diaz D, Do HT, Douiri A, Duncan BB, Duraes AR, Eagan AW, Ebrahimi Kalan M, Edvardsson K, Elbarazi I, El Tantawi M, Esmaeilnejad S, Fadhil I, Faraon EJA, Farinha CSES, Farwati M, Farzadfar F, Fazlzadeh M, Feigin VL, Feldman R, Fernandez Prendes C, Ferrara P, Filip I, Filippidis F, Fischer F, Flor LS, Foigt NA, Folayan MO, Foroutan M, Gad MM, Gaidhane AM, Gallus S, Geberemariyam BS, Ghafourifard M, Ghajar A, Ghashghaee A, Giampaoli S, Gill PS, Glozah FN, Gnedovskaya EV, Golechha M, Gopalani SV, Gorini G, Goudarzi H, Goulart AC, Greaves F, Guha A, Guo Y, Gupta B, Gupta RD, Gupta R, Gupta T, Gupta V, Hafezi-Nejad N, Haider MR, Hamadeh RR, Hankey GJ, Hargono A, Hartono RK, Hassankhani H, Hay SI, Heidari G, Hertelet al., 2021, Spatial, temporal, and demographic patterns in prevalence of smoking tobacco use and attributable disease burden in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, The Lancet, Vol: 397, Pages: 2337-2360, ISSN: 0140-6736

BackgroundEnding the global tobacco epidemic is a defining challenge in global health. Timely and comprehensive estimates of the prevalence of smoking tobacco use and attributable disease burden are needed to guide tobacco control efforts nationally and globally.MethodsWe estimated the prevalence of smoking tobacco use and attributable disease burden for 204 countries and territories, by age and sex, from 1990 to 2019 as part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study. We modelled multiple smoking-related indicators from 3625 nationally representative surveys. We completed systematic reviews and did Bayesian meta-regressions for 36 causally linked health outcomes to estimate non-linear dose-response risk curves for current and former smokers. We used a direct estimation approach to estimate attributable burden, providing more comprehensive estimates of the health effects of smoking than previously available.FindingsGlobally in 2019, 1·14 billion (95% uncertainty interval 1·13–1·16) individuals were current smokers, who consumed 7·41 trillion (7·11–7·74) cigarette-equivalents of tobacco in 2019. Although prevalence of smoking had decreased significantly since 1990 among both males (27·5% [26·5–28·5] reduction) and females (37·7% [35·4–39·9] reduction) aged 15 years and older, population growth has led to a significant increase in the total number of smokers from 0·99 billion (0·98–1·00) in 1990. Globally in 2019, smoking tobacco use accounted for 7·69 million (7·16–8·20) deaths and 200 million (185–214) disability-adjusted life-years, and was the leading risk factor for death among males (20·2% [19·3–21·1] of male deaths). 6·68 million [86·9%] of 7·69 million deaths attributable to smoking tobacco use were among current smokers.Int

Journal article

Lavorgna L, Iaffaldano P, Abbadessa G, Lanzillo R, Esposito S, Ippolito D, Sparaco M, Cepparulo S, Lus G, Viterbo R, Clerico M, Trojsi F, Raganose P, Borriello G, Signoriello E, Palladino R, Moccia M, Brigo F, Troiano M, Tedeschi G, Bonavita Set al., 2021, Disability assessment using Google Maps, NEUROLOGICAL SCIENCES, Vol: 43, Pages: 1007-1014, ISSN: 1590-1874

Journal article

Palladino R, Daniele C, Damiano DA, Marta DV, Marco F, Giuseppina S, Francesco B-Aet al., 2021, A quantitative benefit-risk analysis of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vac-cine among people under 60 in Italy, Vaccines, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2076-393X

The Oxford-AstraZeneca ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 is a vaccine against the COVID-19 infection that was granted a conditional marketing authorization by the European Commission in January 2021. However, following a report from the Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) of European Medicines Agency, which reported an association with thrombo-embolic events (TEE), in particular disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST), many European countries either limited it to individuals older than 55–60 years or suspended its use. We used publicly available data to carry out a quantitative benefit–risk analysis of the vaccine among people under 60 in Italy. Specifically, we used data from PRAC, Eudravigilance and ECDC to estimate the excess number of deaths for TEE, DIC and CVST expected in vaccine users, stratified by age groups. We then used data from the National Institute of Health to calculate age-specific COVID-19 mortality rates in Italy. Preventable deaths were calculated assuming a 72% vaccine efficacy over an eight-month period. Finally, the benefit–risk ratio of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination was calculated as the ratio of preventable COVID-19 deaths to vaccine-related deaths, using Monte-Carlo simulations. We found that among subjects aged 20–29 years the benefit–risk (B-R) ratio was not clearly favorable (0.70; 95% Uncertainty Interval (UI): 0.27–2.11). However, in the other age groups the benefits of vaccination largely exceeded the risks (for age 30–49, B-R ratio: 22.9: 95%UI: 10.1–186.4). For age 50–59, B-R ratio: 1577.1: 95%UI: 1176.9–2121.5). Although many countries have limited the use of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine, the benefits of using this vaccine clearly outweigh the risks in people older than 30 years. Study limitations included risk of underreporting and that we did not provide age-specific estimates. The use of this vaccine should be a strategic and

Journal article

Ricigliano VAG, Tonietto M, Palladino R, Poirion E, De Luca A, Branzoli F, Bera G, Maillart E, Stankoff B, Bodini Bet al., 2021, Thalamic energy dysfunction is associated with thalamo-cortical tract damage in multiple sclerosis: a diffusion spectroscopy study, Multiple Sclerosis Journal, Vol: 27, Pages: 528-538, ISSN: 1352-4585

Background:Diffusion-weighted 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (DW-MRS) allows to quantify creatine-phosphocreatine brain diffusivity (ADC(tCr)), whose reduction in multiple sclerosis (MS) has been proposed as a proxy of energy dysfunction.Objective:To investigate whether thalamic ADC(tCr) changes are associated with thalamo-cortical tract damage in MS.Methods:Twenty patients with MS and 13 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled in a DW-MRS and DW imaging (DWI) study. From DW-MRS, ADC(tCr) and total N-acetyl-aspartate diffusivity (ADC(tNAA)) were extracted in the thalami. Three thalamo-cortical tracts and one non-thalamic control tract were reconstructed from DWI. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean (MD), axial (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD), reflecting microstructural integrity, were extracted for each tract. Associations between thalamic ADC(tCr) and tract metrics were assessed using linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, thalamic volume, thalamic ADC(tNAA), and tract-specific lesion load.Results:Lower thalamic ADC(tCr) was associated with higher MD and RD of thalamo-cortical projections in MS (MD: p = 0.029; RD: p = 0.017), but not in HC (MD: p = 0.625, interaction term between thalamic ADC(tCr) and group = 0.019; RD: p = 0.320, interaction term = 0.05). Thalamic ADC(tCr) was not associated with microstructural changes of the control tract.Conclusion:Reduced thalamic ADC(tCr) correlates with thalamo-cortical tract damage in MS, showing that pathologic changes in thalamic energy metabolism are associated with structural degeneration of connected fibers.

Journal article

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