192 results found
Cook CM, Howard JP, Ahmad Y, et al., 2021, Comparing invasive hemodynamic responses in adenosine hyperemia versus physical exercise stress in chronic coronary syndromes., Int J Cardiol
OBJECTIVES: Adenosine hyperemia is an integral component of the physiological assessment of obstructive coronary artery disease in patients with chronic coronary syndrome (CCS). The aim of this study was to compare systemic, coronary and microcirculatory hemodynamics between intravenous (IV) adenosine hyperemia versus physical exercise stress in patients with CCS and coronary stenosis. METHODS: Twenty-three patients (mean age, 60.6 ± 8.1 years) with CCS and single-vessel coronary stenosis underwent cardiac catheterization. Continuous trans-stenotic coronary pressure-flow measurements were performed during: i) IV adenosine hyperemia, and ii) physical exercise using a catheter-table-mounted supine ergometer. Systemic, coronary and microcirculatory hemodynamic responses were compared between IV adenosine and exercise stimuli. RESULTS: Mean stenosis diameter was 74.6% ± 10.4. Median (interquartile range) FFR was 0.54 (0.44-0.72). At adenosine hyperemia versus exercise stress, mean aortic pressure (Pa, 91 ± 16 mmHg vs 99 ± 15 mmHg, p < 0.0001), distal coronary pressure (Pd, 58 ± 21 mmHg vs 69 ± 24 mmHg, p < 0.0001), trans-stenotic pressure ratio (Pd/Pa, 0.63 ± 0.18 vs 0.69 ± 0.19, p < 0.0001), microvascular resistance (MR, 2.9 ± 2.2 mmHg.cm-1.sec-1 vs 4.2 ± 1.7 mmHg.cm-1.sec-1, p = 0.001), heart rate (HR, 80 ± 15 bpm vs 85 ± 21 bpm, p = 0.02) and rate-pressure product (RPP, 7522 ± 2335 vs 9077 ± 3200, p = 0.0001) were all lower. Conversely, coronary flow velocity (APV, 23.7 ± 9.5 cm/s vs 18.5 ± 6.8 cm/s, p = 0.02) was higher. Additionally, temporal changes in Pa, Pd, Pd/Pa
Rajkumar C, Shun-Shin M, Seligman H, et al., 2021, Placebo-controlled efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention for focal and diffuse patterns of stable coronary artery disease, Circulation: Cardiovascular Interventions, Vol: 14, Pages: 809-818, ISSN: 1941-7640
Background Physiological assessment with pressure wire pullback can characterize coronary artery disease (CAD) with a focal or diffuse pattern. However, the clinical relevance of this distinction is unknown. We use data from ORBITA to test if the pattern of CAD predicts the placebo-controlled efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on stress echocardiography ischemia and symptom endpoints.Methods164 patients in ORBITA underwent blinded instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) pullback assessment prior to randomization. Focal disease was defined as 0.03 iFR unit drop within 15mm, rather than over a longer distance. Analyses were performed using regression modelling. ResultsIn the PCI arm (n=85), 48 were focal and 37 were diffuse. In the placebo arm (n=79), 35 were focal and 44 were diffuse. Focal stenoses were associated with significantly lower fractional flow reserve (FFR) and iFR values than diffusely diseased vessels (focal mean FFR and iFR 0.600.15 and 0.650.24, diffuse 0.780.10 and 0.880.08 respectively, p<0.0001). With adjustment for this difference, PCI for focal stenoses resulted in significantly greater reduction in stress echo ischemia than PCI for diffuse disease (p<0.05). The effect of PCI on between-arm pre-randomization-adjusted exercise time was 9.32 seconds (95% CI, -17.1 to 35.7s; p=0.487). When stratified for pattern of disease, there was no detectable difference between focal and diffuse CAD (Pinteraction=0.700). PCI improved Seattle Angina Questionnaire angina frequency score and freedom from angina more than placebo (p=0.034; p=0.0035). However, there was no evidence of interaction between the physiological pattern of CAD and these effects (Pinteraction=0.436; Pinteraction=0.908).ConclusionPCI achieved significantly greater reduction of stress echocardiography ischemia in focal compared to diffuse CAD. However, for symptom endpoints, no such difference was observed.
Chamie D, Petraco R, Feres F, 2021, Response by Chamie et al to Letter Regarding Article, "Optical Coherence Tomography Versus Intravascular Ultrasound and Angiography to Guide Percutaneous Coronary Interventions: The iSIGHT Randomized Trial", CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR INTERVENTIONS, Vol: 14, ISSN: 1941-7640
Chamie D, Petraco R, 2021, Stent type identification with optical coherence tomography: novelty in search of clinical application, EUROINTERVENTION, Vol: 17, Pages: 103-104, ISSN: 1774-024X
Zaman S, Seligman H, Lloyd FH, et al., 2021, Aerosolised fluorescein can quantify FFP mask faceseal leakage: a cost-effective adaptation to the existing point of care fit test, CLINICAL MEDICINE, Vol: 21, Pages: E263-E268, ISSN: 1470-2118
Seligman H, Zaman S, Pitcher DS, et al., 2021, Reusable snorkel masks adapted as particulate respirators, PLOS ONE, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1932-6203
Mikhail G, Khawaja SA, Mohan P, et al., 2021, COVID-19 and its impact on the cardiovascular system, Open Heart, Vol: 8, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 2053-3624
Objectives: The clinical impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has varied across countries with varying cardiovascular manifestations. We review the cardiac presentations, in-hospital outcomes and development of cardiovascular complications in the initial cohort of SARS-CoV-2 positive patients at Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, United Kingdom.Methods: We retrospectively analysed 498 COVID-19 positive adult admissions to our institute from 7th March to 7th April 2020. Patient data was collected for baseline demographics, co-morbidities and in-hospital outcomes, especially relating to cardiovascular intervention.Results:Mean age was 67.4±16.1 years and 62.2%(n=310) were male. 64.1%(n=319) of our cohort had underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD) with 53.4%(n=266) having hypertension. 43.2%(n=215) developed acute myocardial injury. Mortality was significantly increased in those patients with myocardial injury (47.4% vs 18.4%,p<0.001). Only 4 COVID-19 patients had invasive coronary angiography,2 underwent percutaneous coronary intervention and 1 required a permanent pacemaker implantation. 7.0%(n=35) of patients had an inpatient echocardiogram. Acute myocardial injury (OR 2.39,1.31-4.40,p=0.005) and history of hypertension (OR 1.88 ,1.01-3.55,p=0.049) approximately doubled the odds of in-hospital mortality in patients admitted with COVID-19 after other variables had been controlled for.Conclusion:Hypertension, pre-existing CVD and acute myocardial injury were associated with increased in-hospital mortality in our cohort of COVID-19 patients. However, only a low number of patients required invasive cardiac intervention.
Chamie D, Costa Jr JR, Damiani LP, et al., 2021, Optical Coherence Tomography Versus Intravascular Ultrasound and Angiography to Guide Percutaneous Coronary Interventions The iSIGHT Randomized Trial, CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR INTERVENTIONS, Vol: 14, ISSN: 1941-7640
Thompson D, Al-Lamee R, Foley M, et al., 2021, Achieving optimal adherence to medical therapy by telehealth: Findings from the ORBITA medication adherence sub-study, Pharmacology Research and Perspectives, Vol: 9, Pages: e00710-e00710, ISSN: 2052-1707
INTRODUCTION: The ORBITA trial of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus a placebo procedure for patients with stable angina was conducted across six sites in the United Kingdom via home monitoring and telephone consultations. Patients underwent detailed assessment of medication adherence which allowed us to measure the efficacy of the implementation of the optimization protocol and interpretation of the main trial endpoints. METHODS: Prescribing data were collected throughout the trial. Self-reported adherence was assessed, and urine samples collected at pre-randomization and at follow-up for direct assessment of adherence using high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC MS/MS). RESULTS: Self-reported adherence was >96% for all drugs in both treatment groups at both stages. The percentage of samples in which drug was detected at pre-randomization and at follow-up in the PCI versus placebo groups respectively was: clopidogrel, 96% versus 90% and 98% versus 94%; atorvastatin, 95% versus 92% and 92% versus 91%; perindopril, 95% versus 97% and 85% versus 100%; bisoprolol, 98% versus 99% and 96% versus 97%; amlodipine, 99% versus 99% and 94% versus 96%; nicorandil, 98% versus 96% and 94% versus 92%; ivabradine, 100% versus 100% and 100% versus 100%; and ranolazine, 100% versus 100% and 100% versus 100%. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence levels were high throughout the study when quantified by self-reporting methods and similarly high proportions of drug were detected by urinary assay. The results indicate successful implementation of the optimization protocol delivered by telephone, an approach that could serve as a model for treatment of chronic conditions, particularly as consultations are increasingly conducted online.
Foley M, Rajkumar CA, Shun-Shin M, et al., 2021, Achieving optimal medical therapy: insights from the ORBITA trial., Journal of the American Heart Association, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-20, ISSN: 2047-9980
Background In stable coronary artery disease, medications are used for 2 purposes: cardiovascular risk reduction and symptom improvement. In clinical trials and clinical practice, medication use is often not optimal. The ORBITA (Objective Randomised Blinded Investigation With Optimal Medical Therapy of Angioplasty in Stable Angina) trial was the first placebo-controlled trial of percutaneous coronary intervention. A key component of the ORBITA trial design was the inclusion of a medical optimization phase, aimed at ensuring that all patients were treated with guideline-directed truly optimal medical therapy. In this study, we report the medical therapy that was achieved. Methods and Results After enrollment into the ORBITA trial, all 200 patients entered a 6-week period of intensive medical therapy optimization, with initiation and uptitration of risk reduction and antianginal therapy. At the prerandomization stage, the median number of antianginals established was 3 (interquartile range, 2-4). A total of 195 patients (97.5%) reached the prespecified target of ≥2 antianginals; 136 (68.0%) did not stop any antianginals because of adverse effects, and the median number of antianginals stopped for adverse effects per patient was 0 (interquartile range, 0-1). Amlodipine and bisoprolol were well tolerated (stopped for adverse effects in 4/175 [2.3%] and 9/167 [5.4%], respectively). Ranolazine and ivabradine were also well tolerated (stopped for adverse effects in 1/20 [5.0%] and 1/18 [5.6%], respectively). Isosorbide mononitrate and nicorandil were stopped for adverse effects in 36 of 172 (20.9%) and 32 of 141 (22.7%) of patients, respectively. Statins were well tolerated and taken by 191 of 200 (95.5%) patients. Conclusions In the 12-week ORBITA trial period, medical therapy was successfully optimized and well tolerated, with few drug adverse effects leading to therapy cessation. Truly optimal medical therapy can be achieved in clinical trials, and translating this i
Naderi H, Robinson S, Swaans MJ, et al., 2021, Adapting the role of handheld echocardiography during the COVID-19 pandemic: A practical guide, PERFUSION-UK, ISSN: 0267-6591
Seligman H, Zaman S, Pitcher DS, et al., 2021, Correction: Reusable snorkel masks adapted as particulate respirators., PLoS One, Vol: 16
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0249201.].
Manica JL, Duarte VO, Ribeiro M, et al., 2020, Standardizing Radiation Exposure during Cardiac Catheterization in Children with Congenital Heart Disease: Data from a Multicenter Brazilian Registry, ARQUIVOS BRASILEIROS DE CARDIOLOGIA, Vol: 115, Pages: 1154-1160, ISSN: 0066-782X
Seligman H, Sen S, Nijjer S, et al., 2020, Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic: Deviations from Guidelines and Pragmatic Considerations for Patients and Healthcare Workers, Interventional Cardiology Review, Vol: 15, Pages: e16-e16, ISSN: 1756-1477
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is forcing cardiology departments to rapidly adapt existing clinical guidelines to a new reality and this is especially the case for acute coronary syndrome pathways. In this focused review, the authors discuss how COVID-19 is affecting acute cardiology care and propose pragmatic guideline modifications for the diagnosis and management of acute coronary syndrome patients, particularly around the appropriateness of invasive strategies as well as length of hospital stay. The authors also discuss the use of personal protective equipment for healthcare workers in cardiology. Based on shared global experiences and growing peer-reviewed literature, it is possible to put in place modified acute coronary syndrome treatment pathways to offer safe pragmatic decisions to patients and staff.
Nijjer SS, Petraco R, Sen S, 2020, Optimal management of acute coronary syndromes in the era of COVID-19, HEART, Vol: 106, Pages: 1609-1616, ISSN: 1355-6037
Warisawa T, Cook CM, Rajkumar C, et al., 2020, Safety of Revascularization Deferral of Left Main Stenosis Based on Instantaneous Wave-Free Ratio Evaluation, JACC-CARDIOVASCULAR INTERVENTIONS, Vol: 13, Pages: 1655-1664, ISSN: 1936-8798
Stegehuis VE, Wijntjens GWM, Nijjer SS, et al., 2020, Objective Identification of Intermediate Lesions Inducing Myocardial Ischemia Using Sequential Intracoronary Pressure and Flow Measurements, JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2047-9980
Guimaraes RB, Falcao B, Costa RA, et al., 2020, Acute Coronary Syndromes in the Current Context of the Covid-19 Pandemic, ARQUIVOS BRASILEIROS DE CARDIOLOGIA, Vol: 114, Pages: 1067-1071, ISSN: 0066-782X
Cook CM, Howard JP, Ahmad Y, et al., 2020, How Do Fractional Flow Reserve, Whole-Cycle PdPa, and Instantaneous Wave-Free Ratio Correlate With Exercise Coronary Flow Velocity During Exercise-Induced Angina?, CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR INTERVENTIONS, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1941-7640
Wijntjens GWM, van Uffelen EL, Echavarria-Pinto M, et al., 2020, Individual Lesion-Level Meta-Analysis Comparing Various Doses of Intracoronary Bolus Injection of Adenosine With Intravenous Administration of Adenosine for Fractional Flow Reserve Assessment, CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR INTERVENTIONS, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1941-7640
Ahmad Y, Vendrik J, Eftekhari A, et al., 2019, Determining the Predominant Lesion in Patients With Severe Aortic Stenosis and Coronary Stenoses: A Multicenter Study Using Intracoronary Pressure and Flow, Circulation: Cardiovascular Interventions, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1941-7640
Background:Patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) often have coronary artery disease. Both the aortic valve and the coronary disease influence the blood flow to the myocardium and its ability to respond to stress; leading to exertional symptoms. In this study, we aim to quantify the effect of severe AS on the coronary microcirculation and determine if this is influenced by any concomitant coronary disease. We then compare this to the effect of coronary stenoses on the coronary microcirculation.Methods:Group 1: 55 patients with severe AS and intermediate coronary stenoses treated with transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) were included. Group 2: 85 patients with intermediate coronary stenoses and no AS treated with percutaneous coronary intervention were included. Coronary pressure and flow were measured at rest and during hyperemia in both groups, before and after TAVI (group 1) and before and after percutaneous coronary intervention (group 2).Results:Microvascular resistance over the wave-free period of diastole increased significantly post-TAVI (pre-TAVI, 2.71±1.4 mm Hg·cm·s−1 versus post-TAVI 3.04±1.6 mm Hg·cm·s−1 [P=0.03]). Microvascular reserve over the wave-free period of diastole significantly improved post-TAVI (pre-TAVI 1.88±1.0 versus post-TAVI 2.09±0.8 [P=0.003]); this was independent of the severity of the underlying coronary stenosis. The change in microvascular resistance post-TAVI was equivalent to that produced by stenting a coronary lesion with an instantaneous wave-free ratio of ≤0.74.Conclusions:TAVI improves microcirculatory function regardless of the severity of underlying coronary disease. TAVI for severe AS produces a coronary hemodynamic improvement equivalent to the hemodynamic benefit of stenting coronary stenoses with instantaneous wave-free ratio values <0.74. Future trials of physiology-guided revascularization in severe AS may consider us
Al-Lamee R, Shun-Shin M, Howard J, et al., 2019, Dobutamine stress echocardiography ischemia as a predictor of the placebo-controlled efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention in stable coronary artery disease: the stress echo-stratified analysis of ORBITA, Circulation, Vol: 140, Pages: 1971-1980, ISSN: 0009-7322
BackgroundDobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) is widely used to test for ischemia in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). In this analysis we studied the ability of pre-randomization stress echo score to predict the placebo-controlled efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) within the ORBITA trial. MethodsOne hundred and eighty-three patients underwent DSE before randomization. The stress echo score is broadly the number of segments abnormal at peak stress, with akinetic segments counting double and dyskinetic segments counting triple. The ability of pre-randomization stress echo to predict the placebo-controlled effect of PCI on response variables was tested using regression modelling.ResultsAt pre-randomization, the stress echo score was 1.561.77 in the PCI arm (n=98) and 1.611.73 in the placebo arm (n=85). There was a detectable interaction between pre-randomization stress echo score and the effect of PCI on angina frequency score with a larger placebo-controlled effect in patients with the highest stress echo score (pinteraction=0.031). With our sample size we were unable to detect an interaction between stress echo score and any other patient-reported response variables: freedom from angina (pinteraction=0.116), physical limitation (pinteraction=0.461), quality of life (pinteraction=0.689), EQ-5D-5L quality of life score (pinteraction=0.789) or between stress echo score and physician-assessed Canadian Cardiovascular Society angina class (pinteraction=0.693), and treadmill exercise time (pinteraction=0.426). ConclusionsThe degree of ischemia assessed by DSE predicts the placebo-controlled efficacy of PCI on patient-reported angina frequency. The greater the downstream stress echo abnormality caused by a stenosis, the greater the reduction in symptoms from PCI.
Howard JP, Cook CM, van de Hoef TP, et al., 2019, Artificial Intelligence for Aortic Pressure Waveform Analysis During Coronary Angiography Machine Learning for Patient Safety, JACC-CARDIOVASCULAR INTERVENTIONS, Vol: 12, Pages: 2093-2101, ISSN: 1936-8798
Kim CH, Koo B-K, Dehbi H-M, et al., 2019, Sex Differences in Instantaneous Wave-Free Ratio or Fractional Flow Reserve-Guided Revascularization Strategy, JACC-CARDIOVASCULAR INTERVENTIONS, Vol: 12, Pages: 2035-2046, ISSN: 1936-8798
Lee JM, Choi KH, Koo B-K, et al., 2019, Comparison of Major Adverse Cardiac Events Between Instantaneous Wave-Free Ratio and Fractional Flow Reserve-Guided Strategy in Patients With or Without Type 2 Diabetes: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial, JAMA CARDIOLOGY, Vol: 4, Pages: 857-864, ISSN: 2380-6583
van der Hoeven NW, Janssens GN, de Waard GA, et al., 2019, Temporal Changes in Coronary Hyperemic and Resting Hemodynamic Indices in Nonculprit Vessels of Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction., JAMA Cardiol
Importance: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of nonculprit vessels among patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is associated with improved clinical outcome compared with culprit vessel-only PCI. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) and coronary flow reserve are hyperemic indices used to guide revascularization. Recently, instantaneous wave-free ratio was introduced as a nonhyperemic alternative to FFR. Whether these indices can be used in the acute setting of STEMI continues to be investigated. Objective: To assess the value of hemodynamic indices in nonculprit vessels of patients with STEMI from the index event to 1-month follow-up. Design, Setting, and Participants: This substudy of the Reducing Micro Vascular Dysfunction in Revascularized STEMI Patients by Off-target Properties of Ticagrelor (REDUCE-MVI) randomized clinical trial enrolled 98 patients with STEMI who had an angiographic intermediate stenosis in at least 1 nonculprit vessel. Patient enrollment was between May 1, 2015, and September 19, 2017. After successful primary PCI, nonculprit intracoronary hemodynamic measurements were performed and repeated at 1-month follow-up. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was performed from 2 to 7 days and 1 month after primary PCI. Main Outcomes and Measures: The value of nonculprit instantaneous wave-free ratio, FFR, coronary flow reserve, hyperemic index of microcirculatory resistance, and resting microcirculatory resistance from the index event to 1-month follow-up. Results: Of 73 patients with STEMI included in the final analysis, 59 (80.8%) were male, with a mean (SD) age of 60.8 (9.9) years. Instantaneous wave-free ratio (SD) did not change significantly (0.93 [0.07] vs 0.94 [0.06]; P = .12) and there was no change in resting distal pressure/aortic pressure (mean [SD], 0.94 [0.06] vs 0.95 [0.06]; P = .25) from the acute moment to 1-month follow-up. The FFR decreased (mean [SD], 0.88 [0.07] vs 0.86 [0.09];
Cook CM, Ahmad Y, Howard JP, et al., 2019, Association Between Physiological Stenosis Severity and Angina-Limited Exercise Time in Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease, JAMA CARDIOLOGY, Vol: 4, Pages: 569-574, ISSN: 2380-6583
Warisawa T, Cook CM, Howard JP, et al., 2019, Physiological pattern of disease assessed by pressure-wire pullback has an influence on fractional flow reserve/instantaneous wave-free ratio discordance, Circulation: Cardiovascular Interventions, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1941-7640
BACKGROUND: Fractional flow reserve (FFR) and instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) disagree on the hemodynamic significance of a coronary lesion in ≈20% of cases. It is unknown whether the physiological pattern of disease is an influencing factor for this. This study assessed whether the physiological pattern of coronary artery disease influences discordance between FFR and iFR measurement. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three-hundred and sixty intermediate coronary lesions (345 patients; mean age, 64.4±10.3 years; 76% men) with combined FFR, iFR, and iFR pressure-wire pullback were included for analysis from an international multicenter registry. Cut points for hemodynamic significance were FFR ≤0.80 and iFR ≤0.89, respectively. Lesions were classified into FFR+/iFR+ (n=154; 42.7%), FFR-/iFR+ (n=38; 10.6%), FFR+/iFR- (n=41; 11.4%), and FFR-/iFR- (n=127; 35.3%) groups. The physiological pattern of disease was classified according to the iFR pullback recordings as predominantly physiologically focal (n=171; 47.5%) or predominantly physiologically diffuse (n=189; 52.5%). Median FFR and iFR were 0.80 (interquartile range, 0.75-0.85) and 0.89 (interquartile range, 0.86-0.92), respectively. FFR disagreed with iFR in 22% (79 of 360). The physiological pattern of disease was the only influencing factor relating to FFR/iFR discordance: predominantly physiologically focal was significantly associated with FFR+/iFR- (58.5% [24 of 41]), and predominantly physiologically diffuse was significantly associated with FFR-/iFR+ (81.6% [31 of 38]; P<0.001 for pattern of disease between FFR+/iFR- and FFR-/iFR+ groups). CONCLUSIONS: The physiological pattern of coronary artery disease was an important influencing factor for FFR/iFR discordance.
Seligman H, Shun-Shin M, Vasireddy A, et al., 2019, Fractional flow reserve derived from microcatheters versus standard pressure wires: a stenosis-level meta-analysis, Open Heart, Vol: 6, ISSN: 2053-3624
Aims: To determine the agreement between sensor-tipped microcatheter (MC) and pressure wire (PW) derived Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR). Methods and results: Studies comparing FFR obtained from MC (FFRMC, Navvus Microcatheter System, ACIST Medical Systems, Minnesota, USA) versus standard PW (FFRPW) were identified and a meta-analysis of numerical and categorical agreement was performed. The relative levels of drift and device failure of MC and PW systems from each study were assessed. Six studies with 440 lesions (413 patients) were included. The mean overall bias between FFRMC and FFRPW was -0.029 (FFRMC lower). Bias and variance were greater for lesions with lower FFRPW (p <0.001). Using a cut-off of 0.80, 18% of lesions were re-classified by FFRMC versus FFRPW (with 15% being false-positives). The difference in reported drift between FFRPW and FFRMC was small. Device failure was more common with MC than PW (7.1% versus 2%). Conclusion: FFRMC systematically overestimates lesion severity, with increased bias in more severe lesions. Using FFRMC changes revascularisation guidance in approximately 1 out of every 5 cases. Pressure wire drift was similar between systems. Device failure was higher with MC.
Sen S, Ahmad Y, Dehbi H-M, et al., 2019, Clinical events after deferral of LAD revascularization following physiological coronary assessment, Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Vol: 73, Pages: 444-453, ISSN: 0735-1097
BACKGROUND: Physicians are not always comfortable deferring treatment of a stenosis in the left anterior descending (LAD) artery because of the perception that there is a high risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). The authors describe, using the DEFINE-FLAIR (Functional Lesion Assessment of Intermediate Stenosis to Guide Revascularisation) trial, MACE rates when LAD lesions are deferred, guided by physiological assessment using fractional flow reserve (FFR) or the instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to establish the safety of deferring treatment in the LAD using FFR or iFR within the DEFINE-FLAIR trial. METHODS: MACE rates at 1 year were compared between groups (iFR and FFR) in patients whose physiological assessment led to LAD lesions being deferred. MACE was defined as a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), and unplanned revascularization at 1 year. Patients, and staff performing follow-up, were blinded to whether the decision was made with FFR or iFR. Outcomes were adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: A total of 872 patients had lesions deferred in the LAD (421 guided by FFR, 451 guided by iFR). The event rate with iFR was significantly lower than with FFR (2.44% vs. 5.26%; adjusted HR: 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.22 to 0.95; p = 0.04). This was driven by significantly lower unplanned revascularization with iFR and numerically lower MI (unplanned revascularization: 2.22% iFR vs. 4.99% FFR; adjusted HR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.21 to 0.93; p = 0.03; MI: 0.44% iFR vs. 2.14% FFR; adjusted HR: 0.23; 95% CI: 0.05 to 1.07; p = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: iFR-guided deferral appears to be safe for patients with LAD lesions. Patients in whom iFR-guided deferral was performed had statistically significantly lower event rates than those with FFR-guided deferral.
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