Imperial College London

Professor Richard Reynolds, BSc AKC PhD

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Brain Sciences

Professor of Cellular Neurobiology
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 6668r.reynolds

 
 
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Location

 

E414Burlington DanesHammersmith Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

175 results found

James Bates RE, Browne E, Schalks R, Jacobs H, Tan L, Parekh P, Magliozzi R, Calabrese M, Mazarakis ND, Reynolds Ret al., 2022, Lymphotoxin-alpha expression in the meninges causes lymphoid tissue formation and neurodegeneration., Brain

Organised meningeal immune cell infiltrates are suggested to play an important role in cortical grey matter pathology in the multiple sclerosis brain, but the mechanisms involved are as yet unresolved. Lymphotoxin-alpha plays a key role in lymphoid organ development and cellular cytotoxicity in the immune system and its expression is increased in the cerebrospinal fluid of naïve and progressive multiple sclerosis patients and post-mortem meningeal tissue. Here we show that persistently increased levels of lymphotoxin alpha in the cerebral meninges can give rise to lymphoid-like structures and underlying multiple sclerosis-like cortical pathology. Stereotaxic injections of recombinant lymphotoxin-alpha into the rat meninges led to acute meningeal inflammation and subpial demyelination that resolved after 28 days, with demyelination being dependent on prior sub-clinical immunisation with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein. Injection of a lymphotoxin-alpha lentiviral vector into the cortical meningeal space, to produce chronic localised over-expression of the cytokine, induced extensive lymphoid-like immune cell aggregates, maintained over 3 months, including T-cell rich zones containing podoplanin+ fibroblastic reticular stromal cells and B-cell rich zones with a network of follicular dendritic cells, together with expression of lymphoid chemokines and their receptors. Extensive microglial and astroglial activation, subpial demyelination and marked neuronal loss occurred in the underlying cortical parenchyma. Whereas subpial demyelination was partially dependent on prior myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein immunisation, the neuronal loss was present irrespective of immunisation. Conditioned medium from LTα treated microglia was able to induce a reactive phenotype in astrocytes. Our results show that chronic lymphotoxin-alpha overexpression alone is sufficient to induce formation of meningeal lymphoid-like structures and subsequent neurodegeneration, simila

Journal article

Magliozzi R, Fadda G, Brown RA, Bar-Or A, Howell OW, Hametner S, Marastoni D, Poli A, Nicholas R, Calabrese M, Monaco S, Reynolds Ret al., 2022, "Ependymal-in" gradient of thalamic damage in progressive multiple sclerosis., Ann Neurol

Leptomeningeal and perivenular infiltrates are important contributors to cortical grey matter damage and disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). While perivenular inflammation induces vasculocentric lesions, leptomeningeal involvement follows a subpial 'surface-in' gradient. To determine whether similar gradient of damage occurs in deep grey matter nuclei, we examined the dorsomedial thalamic nuclei and CSF samples from 41 post-mortem secondary progressive MS cases compared to 5 non-neurological controls and 12 controls with other neurological diseases. CSF/ependyma-oriented gradient of reduction in NeuN+ neuron density was present in MS thalamic lesions compared to controls, greatest (26%) in subventricular locations at the ependyma/CSF boundary and least with increasing distance (12% at 10mm). Concomitant graded reduction in SMI31+ axon density was observed, greatest (38%) at 2mm from the ependyma/CSF boundary and least at 10mm (13%). Conversely, gradient of MHC-II+ microglia density increased by over 50% at 2 mm at the ependyma/CSF boundary and only by 15% at 10mm and this gradient inversely correlated with the neuronal (R=-0.91,p<0.0001) and axonal (R=-0.79,p<0.0001) thalamic changes. Observed gradients were also detected in normal-appearing thalamus and were associated with: rapid/severe disease progression; presence of leptomeningeal tertiary lymphoid-like structures; large subependymal infiltrates, enriched in CD20+ B cells and occasionally containing CXCL13+CD35+ follicular dendritic cells; and high CSF protein expression of a complex pattern of soluble inflammatory/neurodegeneration factors, including chitinase-3-like-1, TNFR-1, parvalbumin, neurofilament-light-chains and TNF. Substantial "ependymal-in" gradient of pathological cell alterations, accompanied by presence of intrathecal inflammation, compartmentalized either in sub-ependymal lymphoid perivascular infiltrates or in CSF, may play a key role in MS progression. This

Journal article

Jayaraman A, Reynolds R, 2022, Diverse pathways to neuronal necroptosis in Alzheimer's disease, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, ISSN: 0953-816X

Journal article

Vanderdonckt P, Aloisi F, Comi G, de Bruyn A, Hartung H-P, Huitinga I, Kuhlmann T, Lucchinetti CF, Metz I, Reynolds R, Lassmann Het al., 2022, Tissue donations for multiple sclerosis research: current state and suggestions for improvement, BRAIN COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 4

Journal article

Cooze BJ, Dickerson M, Loganathan R, Watkins LM, Grounds E, Pearson BR, Bevan RJ, Morgan BP, Magliozzi R, Reynolds R, Neal JW, Howell OWet al., 2022, The association between neurodegeneration and local complement activation in the thalamus to progressive multiple sclerosis outcome, BRAIN PATHOLOGY, ISSN: 1015-6305

Journal article

Tu H, Zhang ZW, Qiu L, Lin Y, Jiang M, Chia S-Y, Wei Y, Ng ASL, Reynolds R, Tan E-K, Zeng Let al., 2022, Increased expression of pathological markers in Parkinson's disease dementia post-mortem brains compared to dementia with Lewy bodies., BMC Neurosci, Vol: 23, Pages: 3-3

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are common age-related neurodegenerative diseases comprising Lewy body spectrum disorders associated with cortical and subcortical Lewy body pathology. Over 30% of PD patients develop PD dementia (PDD), which describes dementia arising in the context of established idiopathic PD. Furthermore, Lewy bodies frequently accompany the amyloid plaque and neurofibrillary tangle pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), where they are observed in the amygdala of approximately 60% of sporadic and familial AD. While PDD and DLB share similar pathological substrates, they differ in the temporal onset of motor and cognitive symptoms; however, protein markers to distinguish them are still lacking. METHODS: Here, we systematically studied a series of AD and PD pathogenesis markers, as well as mitochondria, mitophagy, and neuroinflammation-related indicators, in the substantia nigra (SN), temporal cortex (TC), and caudate and putamen (CP) regions of human post-mortem brain samples from individuals with PDD and DLB and condition-matched controls. RESULTS: We found that p-APPT668 (TC), α-synuclein (CP), and LC3II (CP) are all increased while the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) (CP) is decreased in both PDD and DLB compared to control. Also, the levels of Aβ42 and DD2R, IBA1, and p-LRRK2S935 are all elevated in PDD compared to control. Interestingly, protein levels of p-TauS199/202 in CP and DD2R, DRP1, and VPS35 in TC are all increased in PDD compared to DLB. CONCLUSIONS: Together, our comprehensive and systematic study identified a set of signature proteins that will help to understand the pathology and etiology of PDD and DLB at the molecular level.

Journal article

Bouman P, Pitt D, Reich D, Schneider J, Bennett D, Nagra R, Reynolds R, Corboy J, De Jager Pet al., 2021, Towards a new resource for the MS brain: a cross-brain bank proteomic atlas of non-lesional neocortex, Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, Pages: 333-334, ISSN: 1352-4585

Conference paper

Picon C, Robertas A, Wojewska M, Pezzini F, Magliozzi R, Nicholas R, Reynolds Ret al., 2021, Endosomal sorting complex III is dysregulated in cortical neurons in progressive MS and associated with necroptosis activation, Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, Pages: 52-52, ISSN: 1352-4585

Conference paper

Magliozzi R, Tamanti A, Castellaro M, Nicholas R, Howell O, Bazan D, Pizzini FB, Mainero C, Hametner S, Lassmann H, Reynolds R, Monaco S, Calabrese Met al., 2021, Combined MRI and neuropathology pattern characterization of subpial cortical lesion activity in multiple sclerosis, Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, Pages: 79-80, ISSN: 1352-4585

Conference paper

Jayaraman A, Htike TT, James R, Picon C, Reynolds Ret al., 2021, TNF-mediated neuroinflammation is linked to neuronal necroptosis in Alzheimer's disease hippocampus., Acta Neuropathologica Communications, Vol: 9, Pages: 159-159, ISSN: 2051-5960

The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying neuronal death and dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain unclear. However, chronic neuroinflammation has been implicated in stimulating or exacerbating neuronal damage. The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily of cytokines are involved in many systemic chronic inflammatory and degenerative conditions and are amongst the key mediators of neuroinflammation. TNF binds to the TNFR1 and TNFR2 receptors to activate diverse cellular responses that can be either neuroprotective or neurodegenerative. In particular, TNF can induce programmed necrosis or necroptosis in an inflammatory environment. Although activation of necroptosis has recently been demonstrated in the AD brain, its significance in AD neuron loss and the role of TNF signaling is unclear. We demonstrate an increase in expression of multiple proteins in the TNF/TNF receptor-1-mediated necroptosis pathway in the AD post-mortem brain, as indicated by the phosphorylation of RIPK3 and MLKL, predominantly observed in the CA1 pyramidal neurons. The density of phosphoRIPK3 + and phosphoMLKL + neurons correlated inversely with total neuron density and showed significant sexual dimorphism within the AD cohort. In addition, apoptotic signaling was not significantly activated in the AD brain compared to the control brain. Exposure of human iPSC-derived glutamatergic neurons to TNF increased necroptotic cell death when apoptosis was inhibited, which was significantly reversed by small molecule inhibitors of RIPK1, RIPK3, and MLKL. In the post-mortem AD brain and in human iPSC neurons, in response to TNF, we show evidence of altered expression of proteins of the ESCRT III complex, which has been recently suggested as an antagonist of necroptosis and a possible mechanism by which cells can survive after necroptosis has been triggered. Taken together, our results suggest that neuronal loss in AD is due to TNF-mediated necroptosis rather than apoptos

Journal article

Chew EGY, Heng YJ, Lian M, Tandiono M, Dempster E, Policicchio S, Mill J, Reynolds R, Foo JNet al., 2021, Interrogating Parkinson's disease associated mutations at single cell resolution, Publisher: WILEY, Pages: S307-S307, ISSN: 0885-3185

Conference paper

Jayaraman A, Htike TT, James R, Picon C, Reynolds Ret al., 2021, TNF-mediated neuroinflammation is linked to neuronal necroptosis in Alzheimer’s disease hippocampus, Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying neuronal death and dysfunction in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) remain unclear. However, chronic neuroinflammation has been implicated in stimulating or exacerbating neuronal damage. The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily of cytokines are involved in many systemic chronic inflammatory and degenerative conditions and are amongst the key mediators of neuroinflammation. TNF binds to the TNFR1 and TNFR2 receptors to activate diverse cellular responses that can be either neuroprotective or neurodegenerative. In particular, TNF can induce programmed necrosis or necroptosis in an inflammatory environment. Although activation of necroptosis has recently been demonstrated in the AD brain, its significance in AD neuron loss and the role of TNF signaling is unclear. We demonstrate an increase in expression of multiple proteins in the TNF/TNF receptor-1-mediated necroptosis pathway in the AD post-mortem brain, as indicated by the phosphorylation of RIPK3 and MLKL, predominantly observed in the CA1 pyramidal neurons. The density of phosphoRIPK3+ and phosphoMLKL+ neurons correlated inversely with total neuron density and showed significant sexual dimorphism within the AD cohort. In addition, apoptotic signaling was not significantly activated in the AD brain compared to the control brain. Exposure of human iPSC-derived glutamatergic neurons to TNF increased necroptotic cell death when apoptosis was inhibited, which was significantly reversed by small molecule inhibitors of RIPK1, RIPK3, and MLKL. In the post-mortem AD brain and in human iPSC neurons to TNF, we show evidence of altered expression of proteins of the ESCRT III complex, which has been recently suggested as an antagonist of necroptosis and a possible mechanism by which cells can survive after necroptosis has been triggered. Taken together, our results suggest that neuronal loss in AD is due to TNF-mediated necroptos

Working paper

Magliozzi R, Pezzini F, Pucci M, Rossi S, Facchiano F, Marastoni D, Montagnana M, Lippi G, Reynolds R, Calabrese Met al., 2021, Changes in Cerebrospinal Fluid Balance of TNF and TNF Receptors in Naive Multiple Sclerosis Patients: Early Involvement in Compartmentalised Intrathecal Inflammation, CELLS, Vol: 10

Journal article

Pienaar IS, Mohammed R, Courtley R, Gledson MR, Reynolds R, Nicholas R, Elson JLet al., 2021, Investigation of the correlation between mildly deleterious mtDNA Variations and the clinical progression of multiple sclerosis, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS AND RELATED DISORDERS, Vol: 53, ISSN: 2211-0348

Journal article

James RE, Farquharson AC, Jacobs HC, Farkas IC, Mazarakis N, Reynolds Ret al., 2021, The Role of Neuronal CXCL13 Chemokine Expression in Multiple Sclerosis Pathology, Publisher: SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, Pages: 104-105, ISSN: 1352-4585

Conference paper

Pardini M, Brown JWL, Magliozzi R, Reynolds R, Chard DTet al., 2021, Surface-in pathology in multiple sclerosis: a new view on pathogenesis?, BRAIN, Vol: 144, Pages: 1646-1654, ISSN: 0006-8950

Journal article

Wang Q, Luo Y, Chaudhuri KR, Reynolds R, Tan E-K, Pettersson Set al., 2021, The role of gut dysbiosis in Parkinson's disease: mechanistic insights and therapeutic options., Brain: a journal of neurology, Vol: 144, Pages: 2571-2593, ISSN: 0006-8950

Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disease in which gastrointestinal symptoms may appear prior to motor symptoms. The gut microbiota of patients with Parkinson's disease shows unique changes, which may be used as early biomarkers of disease. Alteration in gut microbiota composition may be related to the cause or effect of motor or non-motor symptoms, but the specific pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. The gut microbiota and its metabolites have been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease by regulating neuroinflammation, barrier function and neurotransmitter activity. There is bidirectional communication between the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system, and the microbiota-gut-brain axis may provide a pathway for the transmission of α-synuclein. We highlight recent discoveries and alterations of the gut microbiota in Parkinson's disease, and highlight current mechanistic insights on the microbiota-gut-brain axis in disease pathophysiology. We discuss the interactions between production and transmission of α-synuclein and gut inflammation and neuroinflammation. In addition, we also draw attention to diet modification, use of probiotics and prebiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation as potential therapeutic approaches that may lead to a new treatment paradigm for Parkinson's disease.

Journal article

van Olst Y, Rodriguez-Mogeda C, Picon C, Kiljan S, James RE, Kamermans A, van der Pol SMA, Knoop L, Michailidou I, Drost E, Franssen M, Schenk GJ, Geurts JJG, Amor S, Mazarakis ND, van Horssen J, de Vries HE, Reynolds R, Witte MEet al., 2021, Meningeal inflammation in multiple sclerosis induces phenotypic changes in cortical microglia that differentially associate with neurodegeneration, ACTA NEUROPATHOLOGICA, Vol: 141, Pages: 881-899, ISSN: 0001-6322

Journal article

Magliozzi R, Pitteri M, Ziccardi S, Pisani AI, Montibeller L, Marastoni D, Rossi S, Mazziotti V, Guandalini M, Dapor C, Schiavi G, Tamanti A, Nicholas R, Reynolds R, Calabrese Met al., 2021, CSF parvalbumin levels reflect interneuron loss linked with cortical pathology in multiple sclerosis, Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology, Vol: 8, Pages: 534-547, ISSN: 2328-9503

INTRODUCTION AND METHODS: In order to verify whether parvalbumin (PVALB), a protein specifically expressed by GABAergic interneurons, could be a MS-specific marker of grey matter neurodegeneration, we performed neuropathology/molecular analysis of PVALB expression in motor cortex of 40 post-mortem progressive MS cases, with/without meningeal inflammation, and 10 control cases, in combination with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) assessment. Analysis of CSF PVALB and neurofilaments (Nf-L) levels combined with physical/cognitive/3TMRI assessment was performed in 110 naïve MS patients and in 32 controls at time of diagnosis. RESULTS: PVALB gene expression was downregulated in MS (fold change = 3.7 ± 1.2, P < 0.001 compared to controls) reflecting the significant reduction of PVALB+ cell density in cortical lesions, to a greater extent in MS patients with high meningeal inflammation (51.8, P < 0.001). Likewise, post-mortem CSF-PVALB levels were higher in MS compared to controls (fold change = 196 ± 36, P < 0.001) and correlated with decreased PVALB+ cell density (r = -0.64, P < 0.001) and increased MHC-II+ microglia density (r = 0.74, P < 0.01), as well as with early age of onset (r = -0.69, P < 0.05), shorter time to wheelchair (r = -0.49, P < 0.05) and early age of death (r = -0.65, P < 0.01). Increased CSF-PVALB levels were detected in MS patients at diagnosis compared to controls (P = 0.002). Significant correlation was found between CSF-PVALB levels and cortical lesion number on MRI (R = 0.28, P = 0.006) and global cortical thickness (R = -0.46, P < 0.001), better than Nf-L levels. CSF-PVALB levels increased in MS patients with severe cognitive impairment (mean ± SEM:25.2 ± 7.5

Journal article

Elkjaer ML, Nawrocki A, Kacprowski T, Lassen P, Simonsen AH, Marignier R, Sejbaek T, Nielsen HH, Wermuth L, Rashid AY, Hogh P, Sellebjerg F, Reynolds R, Baumbach J, Larsen MR, Illes Zet al., 2021, CSF proteome in multiple sclerosis subtypes related to brain lesion transcriptomes, Scientific Reports, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 2045-2322

To identify markers in the CSF of multiple sclerosis (MS) subtypes, we used a two-step proteomic approach: (i) Discovery proteomics compared 169 pooled CSF from MS subtypes and inflammatory/degenerative CNS diseases (NMO spectrum and Alzheimer disease) and healthy controls. (ii) Next, 299 proteins selected by comprehensive statistics were quantified in 170 individual CSF samples. (iii) Genes of the identified proteins were also screened among transcripts in 73 MS brain lesions compared to 25 control brains. F-test based feature selection resulted in 8 proteins differentiating the MS subtypes, and secondary progressive (SP)MS was the most different also from controls. Genes of 7 out these 8 proteins were present in MS brain lesions: GOLM was significantly differentially expressed in active, chronic active, inactive and remyelinating lesions, FRZB in active and chronic active lesions, and SELENBP1 in inactive lesions. Volcano maps of normalized proteins in the different disease groups also indicated the highest amount of altered proteins in SPMS. Apolipoprotein C-I, apolipoprotein A-II, augurin, receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase gamma, and trypsin-1 were upregulated in the CSF of MS subtypes compared to controls. This CSF profile and associated brain lesion spectrum highlight non-inflammatory mechanisms in differentiating CNS diseases and MS subtypes and the uniqueness of SPMS.

Journal article

Picon C, Jayaraman A, James R, Beck C, Gallego P, Witte ME, van Horssen J, Mazarakis ND, Reynolds Ret al., 2021, Neuron-specific activation of necroptosis signaling in multiple sclerosis cortical grey matter, Acta Neuropathologica, Vol: 141, Pages: 585-604, ISSN: 0001-6322

Sustained exposure to pro-inflammatory cytokines in the leptomeninges is thought to play a major role in the pathogenetic mechanisms leading to cortical pathology in multiple sclerosis (MS). Although the molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration in the grey matter remain unclear, several lines of evidence suggest a prominent role for tumour necrosis factor (TNF). Using cortical grey matter tissue blocks from post-mortem brains from 28 secondary progressive MS subjects and ten non-neurological controls, we describe an increase in expression of multiple steps in the TNF/TNF receptor 1 signaling pathway leading to necroptosis, including the key proteins TNFR1, FADD, RIPK1, RIPK3 and MLKL. Activation of this pathway was indicated by the phosphorylation of RIPK3 and MLKL and the formation of protein oligomers characteristic of necrosomes. In contrast, caspase-8 dependent apoptotic signaling was decreased. Upregulation of necroptotic signaling occurred predominantly in macroneurons in cortical layers II–III, with little expression in other cell types. The presence of activated necroptotic proteins in neurons was increased in MS cases with prominent meningeal inflammation, with a 30-fold increase in phosphoMLKL+ neurons in layers I–III. The density of phosphoMLKL+ neurons correlated inversely with age at death, age at progression and disease duration. In vivo induction of chronically elevated TNF and INFγ levels in the CSF in a rat model via lentiviral transduction in the meninges, triggered inflammation and neurodegeneration in the underlying cortical grey matter that was associated with increased neuronal expression of TNFR1 and activated necroptotic signaling proteins. Exposure of cultured primary rat cortical neurons to TNF induced necroptosis when apoptosis was inhibited. Our data suggest that neurons in the MS cortex are dying via TNF/TNFR1 stimulated necroptosis rather than apoptosis, possibly initiated in part by chronic meni

Journal article

Elkjaer ML, Frisch T, Tonazzolli A, Röttger R, Reynolds R, Baumbach J, Illes Zet al., 2021, Unbiased examination of genome-wide human endogenous retrovirus transcripts in MS brain lesions., Multiple Sclerosis Journal, ISSN: 1352-4585

BACKGROUND: Human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) expression in multiple sclerosis (MS) brain lesions may contribute to chronic inflammation, but expression of genome-wide HERVs in different MS lesions is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We examined the HERV expression landscape in different MS lesions compared to control brains. METHODS: Transcripts from 71 MS brain samples and 25 control WM were obtained by next-generation RNA sequencing and mapped against HERV transcripts across the human genome. Differential expression of mapped HERV-W and HERV-H reads between MS lesion types and controls was analysed. RESULTS: Out of 6.38 billion high-quality paired end reads, 174 million reads (2.73%) mapped to HERV transcripts. There was no difference in HERVs expression level between MS and control brains, but HERV-W transcripts were significantly reduced in chronic active lesions. Of the four HERV-W transcripts exclusively present in MS, ERV3633503 located on chromosome 7q21.13 close to the MS genetic risk locus had the highest number of reads. In the HERV-H family, 75% of transcripts located to nearby 7q21-22 were overrepresented in MS, and ERV3643914 was expressed more than 16 times in MS compared to control brains. CONCLUSION: Novel HERV-W and HERV-H transcripts located at chromosome 7 regions were uniquely expressed in MS lesions, indicating their potential role in brain lesion evolution.

Journal article

Gallego-Delgado P, James R, Browne E, Meng J, Umashankar S, Tan L, Picon C, Mazarakis ND, Faisal AA, Howell OW, Reynolds Ret al., 2020, Neuroinflammation in the normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) of the multiple sclerosis brain causes abnormalities at the nodes of Ranvier., PLoS Biology, Vol: 18, Pages: 1-36, ISSN: 1544-9173

Changes to the structure of nodes of Ranvier in the normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) of multiple sclerosis (MS) brains are associated with chronic inflammation. We show that the paranodal domains in MS NAWM are longer on average than control, with Kv1.2 channels dislocated into the paranode. These pathological features are reproduced in a model of chronic meningeal inflammation generated by the injection of lentiviral vectors for the lymphotoxin-α (LTα) and interferon-γ (IFNγ) genes. We show that tumour necrosis factor (TNF), IFNγ, and glutamate can provoke paranodal elongation in cerebellar slice cultures, which could be reversed by an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blocker. When these changes were inserted into a computational model to simulate axonal conduction, a rapid decrease in velocity was observed, reaching conduction failure in small diameter axons. We suggest that glial cells activated by pro-inflammatory cytokines can produce high levels of glutamate, which triggers paranodal pathology, contributing to axonal damage and conduction deficits.

Journal article

Wang J, Jelcic I, Muhlenbruch L, Haunerdinger V, Toussaint NC, Zhao Y, Cruciani C, Faigle W, Naghavian R, Foege M, Binder TMC, Eiermann T, Opitz L, Fuentes-Font L, Reynolds R, Kwok WW, Nguyen JT, Lee J-H, Lutterotti A, Munz C, Rammensee H-G, Hauri-Hohl M, Sospedra M, Stevanovic S, Martin Ret al., 2020, HLA-DR15 molecules jointly shape an autoreactive T cell repertoire in multiple sclerosis, Cell, Vol: 183, Pages: 1264-1281.e20, ISSN: 0092-8674

The HLA-DR15 haplotype is the strongest genetic risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS), but our understanding of how it contributes to MS is limited. Because autoreactive CD4+ T cells and B cells as antigen-presenting cells are involved in MS pathogenesis, we characterized the immunopeptidomes of the two HLA-DR15 allomorphs DR2a and DR2b of human primary B cells and monocytes, thymus, and MS brain tissue. Self-peptides from HLA-DR molecules, particularly from DR2a and DR2b themselves, are abundant on B cells and thymic antigen-presenting cells. Furthermore, we identified autoreactive CD4+ T cell clones that can cross-react with HLA-DR-derived self-peptides (HLA-DR-SPs), peptides from MS-associated foreign agents (Epstein-Barr virus and Akkermansia muciniphila), and autoantigens presented by DR2a and DR2b. Thus, both HLA-DR15 allomorphs jointly shape an autoreactive T cell repertoire by serving as antigen-presenting structures and epitope sources and by presenting the same foreign peptides and autoantigens to autoreactive CD4+ T cells in MS.

Journal article

Monaco S, Nicholas R, Reynolds R, Magliozzi Ret al., 2020, Intrathecal inflammation in progressive multiple sclerosis, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Vol: 21, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 1422-0067

Progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) are associated with chronic demyelination, axonal loss, neurodegeneration, cortical and deep gray matter damage, and atrophy. These changes are strictly associated with compartmentalized sustained inflammation within the brain parenchyma, the leptomeninges, and the cerebrospinal fluid. In progressive MS, molecular mechanisms underlying active demyelination differ from processes that drive neurodegeneration at cortical and subcortical locations. The widespread pattern of neurodegeneration is consistent with mechanisms associated with the inflammatory molecular load of the cerebrospinal fluid. This is at variance with gray matter demyelination that typically occurs at focal subpial sites, in the proximity of ectopic meningeal lymphoid follicles. Accordingly, it is possible that variations in the extent and location of neurodegeneration may be accounted for by individual differences in CSF flow, and by the composition of soluble inflammatory factors and their clearance. In addition, “double hit” damage may occur at sites allowing a bidirectional exchange between interstitial fluid and CSF, such as the Virchow–Robin spaces and the periventricular ependymal barrier. An important aspect of CSF inflammation and deep gray matter damage in MS involves dysfunction of the blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier and inflammation in the choroid plexus. Here, we provide a comprehensive review on the role of intrathecal inflammation compartmentalized to CNS and non-neural tissues in progressive MS.

Journal article

Frisch T, Elkjaer ML, Reynolds R, Michel TM, Kacprowski T, Burton M, Kruse TA, Thomassen M, Baumbach J, Illes Zet al., 2020, Multiple sclerosis atlas: a molecular map of brain lesion stages in progressive multiple sclerosis, Network and Systems Medicine, Vol: 3, Pages: 122-129, ISSN: 2690-5949

Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disorder of the central nervous system with an untreatable late progressive phase. Molecular maps of different stages of brain lesion evolution in patients with progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS) are missing but critical for understanding disease development and to identify novel targets to halt progression. Materials and Methods: The MS Atlas database comprises comprehensive high-quality transcriptomic profiles of 98 white matter (WM) brain samples of different lesion types (normal-appearing WM [NAWM], active, chronic active, inactive, remyelinating) from ten progressive MS patients and 25 WM areas from five non-neurological diseased cases. Results: We introduce the first MS brain lesion atlas (msatlas.dk), developed to address the current challenges of understanding mechanisms driving the fate on a lesion basis. The MS Atlas gives means for testing research hypotheses, validating biomarkers and drug targets. It comes with a user-friendly web interface, and it fosters bioinformatic methods for de novo network enrichment to extract mechanistic markers for specific lesion types and pathway-based lesion type comparison. We describe examples of how the MS Atlas can be used to extract systems medicine signatures and demonstrate the interface of MS Atlas. Conclusion: This compendium of mechanistic PMS WM lesion profiles is an invaluable resource to fuel future MS research and a new basis for treatment development.

Journal article

Magliozzi R, Scalfari A, Pisani AI, Ziccardi S, Marastoni D, Pizzini FB, Bajrami A, Tamanti A, Guandalini M, Bonomi S, Rossi S, Mazziotti V, Castellaro M, Montemezzi S, Rasia S, Capra R, Pitteri M, Romualdi C, Reynolds R, Calabrese Met al., 2020, TheCSFProfile linked to cortical damage predicts multiple sclerosis activity, Annals of Neurology, ISSN: 0364-5134

ObjectiveIntrathecal inflammation correlates with the grey matter damage since the early stages of multiple sclerosis (MS), but whether the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) profile can help to identify patients at risk of disease activity is still unclear.MethodsWe evaluated the association between CSF levels of 18 cytokines, previously found to be associated to grey matter damage, and the disease activity, among 99 patients with relapsing‐remitting MS, who underwent blinded clinical and 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluations for 4 years. Groups with evidence of disease activity (EDA) or no evidence of disease activity (NEDA; occurrence of relapses, new white matter lesions, and Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] change) were identified. Cortical lesions and the annualized cortical thinning were also evaluated.ResultsForty‐one patients experienced EDA and, compared to the NEDA group, had at diagnosis higher CSF levels of CXCL13, CXCL12, IFNγ, TNF, sCD163, LIGHT, and APRIL (p < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, CXCL13 (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.35; p = 0.0002), LIGHT (HR = 1.22; p = 0.005) and APRIL (HR = 1.78; p = 0.0001) were the CSF molecules more strongly associated with the risk of EDA. The model, including CSF variables, predicted more accurately the occurrence of disease activity than the model with only clinical/MRI parameters (C‐index at 4 years = 71% vs 44%). Finally, higher CSF levels of CXCL13 (β = 4.7*10−4; p < 0.001), TNF (β = 3.1*10−3; p = 0.004), LIGHT (β = 2.6*10−4; p = 0.003), sCD163 (β = 4.3*10−3; p = 0.009), and TWEAK (β = 3.4*10−3; p = 0.024) were associated with more severe cortical thinning.InterpretationA specific CSF profile, mainly characterized by elevated levels of B‐cell r

Journal article

Reali C, Magliozzi R, Roncaroli F, Nicholas R, Howell OW, Reynolds Ret al., 2020, B cell rich meningeal inflammation associates with increased spinal cord pathology in multiple sclerosis, Brain Pathology, Vol: 30, Pages: 779-793, ISSN: 1015-6305

Increased inflammation in the cerebral meninges is associated with extensive subpial cortical grey matter pathology in the forebrain and a more severe disease course in a substantial proportion of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) cases. It is not known whether this relationship extends to spinal cord pathology. We assessed the contribution of meningeal and parenchymal immune infiltrates to spinal cord pathology in SPMS cases characterised by the presence (F+) or absence (F‐) of lymphoid‐like structures in the forebrain meninges. Transverse cryosections of cervical, thoracic and lumbar cord of 22 SPMS and 5 control cases were analysed for CD20+ B cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, microglia/macrophages (IBA‐1+), demyelination (myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein+) and axon density (neurofilament‐H+). Lymphoid‐like structures containing follicular dendritic cell networks and dividing B cells were seen in the spinal meninges of three out of 11 F+SPMS cases. CD4+ and CD20+ cell counts were increased in F+SPMS compared to F‐SPMS and controls, whilst axon loss was greatest in motor and sensory tracts of the F+SPMS cases (p<0.01). The density of CD20+ B cells of the spinal leptomeninges correlated with: CD4+ T cells and total B and T cells of the meninges; with the density of white matter perivascular CD20+ and CD4+ lymphocytes (p<0.05); with white matter lesion area (p<0.05); and the extent of axon loss (p<0.05) in F+SPMS cases only. We show that the presence of lymphoid‐like structures in the forebrain is associated with a profound spinal cord pathology, and local B cell rich meningeal inflammation associates with the extent of cord pathology. Our work supports a principal role for B cells in sustaining inflammation and tissue injury throughout the CNS in the progressive disease stage.

Journal article

Martin NA, Hyrlov KH, Elkjaer ML, Thygesen EK, Wlodarczyk A, Elbaek KJ, Aboo C, Okarmus J, Benedikz E, Reynolds R, Hegedus Z, Stensballe A, Svenningsen ÅF, Owens T, Illes Zet al., 2020, Absence of miRNA-146a Differentially Alters Microglia Function and Proteome, Frontiers in Immunology, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1664-3224

Background: MiR-146a is an important regulator of innate inflammatory responses and is also implicated in cell death and survival. Methods: By sorting CNS resident cells, microglia were the main cellular source of miR-146a. Therefore, we investigated microglia function and phenotype in miR-146a knock-out (KO) mice, analyzed the proteome of KO and wild-type (WT) microglia by LC-MS/MS, and examined miR-146a expression in different brain lesions of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Results: When stimulated with LPS or myelin in vitro, microglia from KO mice expressed higher levels of IL-1β, TNF, IL-6, IL-10, CCL3, and CCL2 compared to WT. Stimulation increased migration and phagocytosis of WT but not KO microglia. CD11c+ microglia were induced by cuprizone (CPZ) in the WT mice but less in the KO. The proteome of ex vivo microglia was not different in miR-146a KO compared to WT mice, but CPZ treatment induced differential and reduced protein responses in the KO: GOT1, COX5b, CRYL1, and cystatin-C were specifically changed in KO microglia. We explored discriminative features of microglia proteomes: sparse Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis showed the best discrimination when control and CPZ-treated conditions were compared. Cluster of ten proteins separated WT and miR-146a KO microglia after CPZ: among them were sensomes allowing to perceive the environment, Atp1a3 that belongs to the signature of CD11c+ microglia, and proteins related to inflammatory responses (S100A9, Ppm1g). Finally, we examined the expression of miR-146a and its validated target genes in different brain lesions of MS patients. MiR-146 was upregulated in all lesion types, and the highest expression was in active lesions. Nineteen of 88 validated target genes were significantly changed in active lesions, while none were changed in NAWM. Conclusion: Our data indicated that microglia is the major source of miR-146a in the CNS. The absence of miR-146a differentially affected microglia f

Journal article

James RE, Schalks R, Browne E, Eleftheriadou I, Munoz CP, Mazarakis ND, Reynolds Ret al., 2020, Persistent elevation of intrathecal pro-inflammatory cytokines leads to multiple sclerosis-like cortical demyelination and neurodegeneration., Acta Neuropathologica Communications, Vol: 8, Pages: 66-66, ISSN: 2051-5960

Analysis of isolated meninges and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of post-mortem MS cases has shown increased gene and protein expression for the pro-inflammatory cytokines: tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interferon-γ (IFNγ). Here we tested the hypothesis that persistent production of these cytokines in the meningeal compartment and diffusion into underlying GM can drive chronic MS-like GM pathology. Lentiviral transfer vectors were injected into the sagittal sulcus of DA rats to deliver continuous expression of TNF + IFNγ transgenes in the meninges and the resulting neuropathology analysed after 1 and 2 months. Injection of TNF + IFNγ viral vectors, with or without prior MOG immunisation, induced extensive immune cell infiltration (CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, CD79a + B-cells and macrophages) in the meninges by 28 dpi, which remained at 2 months. Control GFP viral vector did not induce infiltration. Subpial demyelination was seen underlying these infiltrates, which was partly dependant on prior myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) immunisation. A significant decrease in neuronal numbers was seen at 28 and 56 days in cortical layers II-V that was independent of MOG immunisation. RNA analysis at 28 dpi showed an increase in expression of necroptotic pathway genes, including RIP3, MLKL, cIAP2 and Nox2. PhosphoRIP3+ and phosphoMLKL+ neurons were present in TNF + IFNγ vector injected animals, indicating activation of necroptosis. Our results suggest that persistent expression of TNF in the presence of IFNγ is a potent inducer of meningeal inflammation and can activate TNF signalling pathways in cortical cells leading to neuronal death and subpial demyelination and thus may contribute to clinical progression in MS.

Journal article

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