189 results found
Sharma R, Lythgoe MP, Slaich B, et al., 2021, Exploring the epigenome in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasias, Cancers, Vol: 13, Pages: 1-18, ISSN: 2072-6694
Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasias are a diverse group of neoplasms with different characteristics in terms of site, biological behaviour and metastatic potential. In comparison to other cancers, they are genetically quiet, harbouring relatively few somatic mutations. It is increasingly becoming evident that epigenetic changes are as relevant, if not more so, as somatic mutations in promoting oncogenesis. Despite significant tumour heterogeneity, it is obvious that DNA methylation, histone and chromatin modifications and microRNA expression profiles are distinctive for GEP-NEN subtypes and may correlate with clinical outcome. This review summarises existing knowledge on epigenetic changes, identifying potential contributions to pathogenesis and oncogenesis. In particular, we focus on epigenetic changes pertaining to well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours, which make up the bulk of NENs. We also highlight both similarities and differences within the subtypes of GEP-NETs and how these relate and compare to other types of cancers. We relate epigenetic understanding to existing treatments and explore how this knowledge may be exploited in the development of novel treatment approaches, such as in theranostics and combining conventional treatment modalities. We consider potential barriers to epigenetic research in GEP-NENs and discuss strategies to optimise research and development of new therapies.
Abdelmalak R, Lythgoe MP, Evans J, et al., 2021, Exploration of Novel Prognostic Markers in Grade 3 Neuroendocrine Neoplasia, CANCERS, Vol: 13
Lo SH, Sharma R, Costentin CE, et al., 2021, Patient preferences for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma treatment: a multicountry stated preference study, Future Oncology, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 1479-6694
The present study aimed to explore patient preferences for attributes of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatments. A stated preference survey was completed by 150 patients with HCC living in Europe. Overall survival (OS) was the most important attribute, closely followed by risk of diarrhea and hypertension, and other adverse event (AE) risks. Patients were willing to trade OS to reduce AE risks. While less important than OS and AEs, patients also preferred shorter waiting times, and one-off administration of selective internal radiation therapy and oral tablets over intravenous infusions. Although patients placed the most value on extending OS, they were willing to forego OS to avoid risk of treatment-related AEs, to maintain their quality of life.
Sharma R, Lo S, Aggio D, et al., 2021, Caring for more than survival: A survey of patient preferences in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, Publisher: ELSEVIER, Pages: S141-S141, ISSN: 0923-7534
Sharma R, Lu H, George J, et al., 2021, Discriminatory changes in circulating lipid and small molecule metabolites in patients with MAFLD associated hepatocellular cancer, Publisher: ELSEVIER, Pages: S490-S490, ISSN: 0168-8278
Hashimoto A, Sarker D, Reebye V, et al., 2021, Up-regulation of C/EBP alpha inhibits suppressive activity of myeloid cells and potentiates antitumor response in mice and cancer patients., CANCER RESEARCH, Vol: 81, ISSN: 0008-5472
Pinato DJ, Cortellini A, Balcells C, et al., 2021, A phase Ib study of pembrolizumab following trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): PETAL, Publisher: ELSEVIER, Pages: S245-S246, ISSN: 0168-8278
Pinato D, Cortellini A, Sukumaran A, et al., 2021, PRIME-HCC: Phase Ib study of neoadjuvant ipilimumab and nivolumab prior to liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma, BMC Cancer, Vol: 21, ISSN: 1471-2407
BackgroundAfter liver resection (LR), patients with hepatocellular cancer (HCC) are at high risk of recurrence. There are no approved anti-cancer therapies known to affect such risk, highlighting the acute need for novel systemic therapies to control the probability of disease relapse. Immunotherapy is expanding as a novel treatment option for HCC. Emerging data from cohort 4 of the CA209–040 study, which investigated the safety and preliminary efficacy of nivolumab/ipilimumab co-administration in advanced HCC, suggest that the combination can be delivered safely with an acceptable proportion of reversible grade 3–4 toxicities (27.1%) and a low discontinuation rate (2%) in patients with HCC. Here, we describe the design and rationale of PRIME-HCC, a two-part, multi-centre, phase Ib study to assess safety and bioactivity of the nivolumab/ipilimumab combination prior to LR in early-stage HCC.MethodsThe study involves an initial safety run-in phase (Part 1) to allow for preliminary safety characterisation within the first 6 patients enrolled and a subsequent expansion (Part 2). Ipilimumab will be administered once only on Day 1. Nivolumab will be administered on Day 1 and Day 22 (± 3 days) for a total of two 21-day cycles (i.e. 6 weeks of treatment). The primary objective of the study is to determine the safety and tolerability of the nivolumab/ipilimumab combination prior to LR. The secondary objective is to preliminarily characterize the efficacy of the combination prior to LR, including objective response rate (ORR) and pathologic response rates. Additional exploratory objectives include preliminary evidence of long-term disease control and to identify predictive correlates of response to the nivolumab/ipilimumab combination in HCC.DiscussionThe results of this study will help define the positioning of neoadjuvant nivolumab/ipilimumab combination in the perioperative management of HCC, with potential to improve survival outcom
Sharma R, Aval LM, 2021, Beyond First-Line Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma, FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1664-3224
Win Z, Weiner J, Listanco A, et al., 2021, Systematic evaluation of kinetics and distribution of muscle and lymph node activation measured by F-18-FDG- and C-11-PBR28-PET/CT imaging, and whole blood and muscle transcriptomics after immunization of healthy humans with adjuvanted and unadjuvanted vaccines, Frontiers in Immunology, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-16, ISSN: 1664-3224
Systems vaccinology has been applied to detect signatures of human vaccine induced immunity but its ability, together with high definition in vivo clinical imaging is not established to predict vaccine reactogenicity. Within two European Commission funded high impact programs, BIOVACSAFE and ADITEC, we applied high resolution positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanning using tissue-specific and non-specific radioligands together with transcriptomic analysis of muscle biopsies in a clinical model systematically and prospectively comparing vaccine-induced immune/inflammatory responses. 109 male participants received a single immunization with licensed preparations of either AS04-adjuvanted hepatitis B virus vaccine (AHBVV); MF59C-adjuvanted (ATIV) or unadjuvanted seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine (STIV); or alum-OMV-meningococcal B protein vaccine (4CMenB), followed by a PET/CT scan (n = 54) or an injection site muscle biopsy (n = 45). Characteristic kinetics was observed with a localized intramuscular focus associated with increased tissue glycolysis at the site of immunization detected by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT, peaking after 1–3 days and strongest and most prolonged after 4CMenB, which correlated with clinical experience. Draining lymph node activation peaked between days 3–5 and was most prominent after ATIV. Well defined uptake of the immune cell-binding radioligand 11C-PBR28 was observed in muscle lesions and draining lymph nodes. Kinetics of muscle gene expression module upregulation reflected those seen previously in preclinical models with a very early (~6hrs) upregulation of monocyte-, TLR- and cytokine/chemokine-associated modules after AHBVV, in contrast to a response on day 3 after ATIV, which was bracketed by whole blood responses on day 1 as antigen presenting, inflammatory and innate immune cells trafficked to the site of immunization, and on day 5 associated with activated CD4+ T cells. These observat
Hajiev S, Allara E, Motedayen-Aval L, et al., 2021, Impact of age on sorafenib outcomes in hepatocellular carcinoma: an international cohort study (vol 124, pg 407, 2021), BRITISH JOURNAL OF CANCER, Pages: 2021-2021, ISSN: 0007-0920
Howell J, Samani A, Mannan B, et al., 2021, Impact of NAFLD on clinical outcomes in hepatocellular carcinoma treated with sorafenib: An international cohort study., Publisher: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, ISSN: 0732-183X
Aboagye E, Sharma R, Inglese M, et al., 2020, Monitoring response to transarterial chemoembolization in hepatocellular carcinoma using 18F-Fluorothymidine Positron Emission Tomography, The Journal of Nuclear Medicine, Vol: 61, Pages: 1743-1748, ISSN: 0161-5505
Accurate disease monitoring is essential following transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) due to potential for profound adverse event and large variation in survival outcome. Post-treatment changes on conventional imaging can confound determination of residual/recurrent disease, magnifying the clinical challenge. Based on increased expression of thymidylate synthase (TYMS), thymidine kinase-1 (TK-1) and SLC29A1 (Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1, ENT1) in HCC compared with liver tissue, we conducted a proof of concept study evaluating the efficacy of 18F-fluorothymidine (18F-FLT)-PET to assess response to TACE. As previous PET studies in HCC have been hampered by high background liver signal, we investigated if a temporal-intensity voxel-clustering (“Kinetic Spatial Filtering”) (KSF) improved lesion detection. Methods: A tissue microarray (TMA) was built from 36 HCC samples and matched surrounding cirrhotic tissue and was stained for thymidine kinase-1 (TK-1). A prospective study was conducted; eighteen patients with a diagnosis of HCC by American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases criteria (AALSD) who were eligible to treatment with TACE were enrolled. Patients underwent baseline conventional imaging and dynamic 18F-FLT-PET/KSF followed by TACE. Repeat imaging was performed 6-8 weeks post TACE. PET parameters were compared with modified-Response Evaluation in Solid Tumours (mRECIST) enhancement-based criteria. Results: Cancer Genome Atlas analysis revealed increased RNA expression of TYMS, TK-1 and SLC29A1 in HCC. TK-1 protein expression was significantly higher in HCC (p<0.05). The sensitivity of 18F-FLT-PET for baseline HCC detection was 73% (SUVmax of 9.7 ± 3.0; tumour to liver ratio of 1.2 ± 0.3). Application of KSF did not improve lesion detection. Lesion response following TACE by mRECIST criteria was 58% (14 patients with 24 lesions). A 30% reduction in mean 18F-FLT-PET uptake was o
Schuette K, Schinner R, Fabritius MP, et al., 2020, Impact of Extrahepatic Metastases on Overall Survival in Patients with Advanced Liver Dominant Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Subanalysis of the SORAMIC Trial, LIVER CANCER, Vol: 9, Pages: 771-786, ISSN: 2235-1795
Hajiev S, Allara E, Motedayen-Aval L, et al., 2020, Impact of age on sorafenib outcomes in hepatocellular carcinoma: an international cohort study, BRITISH JOURNAL OF CANCER, Vol: 124, Pages: 407-413, ISSN: 0007-0920
Motedayen Aval L, Pease JE, Sharma R, et al., 2020, Challenges and opportunities in the clinical development of STING agonists for cancer immunotherapy, Journal of Clinical Medicine, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2077-0383
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have revolutionised cancer therapy. However, they have been effective in only a small subset of patients and a principal mechanism underlying immune-refractoriness is a 'cold' tumour microenvironment, that is, lack of a T-cell-rich, spontaneously inflamed phenotype. As such, there is a demand to develop strategies to transform the tumour milieu of non-responsive patients to one supporting T-cell-based inflammation. The cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate synthase-stimulator of interferon genes (cGAS-STING) pathway is a fundamental regulator of innate immune sensing of cancer, with potential to enhance tumour rejection through the induction of a pro-inflammatory response dominated by Type I interferons. Recognition of these positive immune-modulatory properties has rapidly elevated the STING pathway as a putative target for immunotherapy, leading to a myriad of preclinical and clinical studies assessing natural and synthetic cyclic dinucleotides and non-nucleotidyl STING agonists. Despite pre-clinical evidence of efficacy, clinical translation has resulted into disappointingly modest efficacy. Poor pharmacokinetic and physiochemical properties of cyclic dinucleotides are key barriers to the development of STING agonists, most of which require intra-tumoral dosing. Development of systemically administered non-nucleotidyl STING agonists, or conjugation with liposomes, polymers and hydrogels may overcome pharmacokinetic limitations and improve drug delivery. In this review, we summarise the body of evidence supporting a synergistic role of STING agonists with currently approved ICI therapies and discuss whether, despite the numerous obstacles encountered to date, the clinical development of STING agonist as novel anti-cancer therapeutics may still hold the promise of broadening the reach of cancer immunotherapy.
Lythgoe M, Julve M, Pinato D, et al., 2020, "Regorafenib therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma in a HIV-1 infected patient: a case report", Liver Cancer International, Vol: 1, Pages: 51-54, ISSN: 2642-3561
Sarker D, Plummer R, Meyer T, et al., 2020, MTL-CEBPA, a small activating RNA therapeutic upregulating C/EBP-α, in patients with advanced liver cancer: a first-in-human, multicenter, open-label, phase I trial, Clinical Cancer Research, Vol: 26, Pages: 3936-3946, ISSN: 1078-0432
PURPOSE: Transcription factor C/EBP-α (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha) acts as a master regulator of hepatic and myeloid functions and multiple oncogenic processes. MTL-CEBPA is a first-in-class small activating RNA oligonucleotide drug that upregulates C/EBP-α. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a phase I, open-label, dose-escalation trial of MTL-CEBPA in adults with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with cirrhosis, or resulting from nonalcoholic steatohepatitis or with liver metastases. Patients received intravenous MTL-CEBPA once a week for 3 weeks followed by a rest period of 1 week per treatment cycle in the dose-escalation phase (3+3 design). RESULTS: Thirty-eight participants have been treated across six dose levels (28-160 mg/m2) and three dosing schedules. Thirty-four patients were evaluable for safety endpoints at 28 days. MTL-CEBPA treatment-related adverse events were not associated with dose, and no maximum dose was reached across the three schedules evaluated. Grade 3 treatment-related adverse events occurred in nine (24%) patients. In 24 patients with HCC evaluable for efficacy, an objective tumor response was achieved in one patient [4%; partial response (PR) for over 2 years] and stable disease (SD) in 12 (50%). After discontinuation of MTL-CEBPA, seven patients were treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs); three patients had a complete response with one further PR and two with SD. CONCLUSIONS: MTL-CEBPA is the first saRNA in clinical trials and demonstrates an acceptable safety profile and potential synergistic efficacy with TKIs in HCC. These encouraging phase I data validate targeting of C/EBP-α and have prompted MTL-CEBPA + sorafenib combination studies in HCC.
Sharma R, Pinato DJ, 2020, Management of Hepatocellular CAncer in the time of SARS-CoV-2, Liver International, Vol: 40, Pages: 1823-1825, ISSN: 1478-3223
As COVID-19 the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 continues to have a profound impact on global health, there have been a number of guidelines recently published addressing the management of patients with liver disease during the COVID-19 pandemic including the recently published EASL-ESCMID Position Paper, guidelines issued by the International Liver Cancer Association and the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (1-3). All publications present a sound discussion regarding the challenges face by both patients and clinicians alike in the management of chronic liver disease in the setting of this ongoing pandemic.
Stickel F, Lutz P, Buch S, et al., 2020, Genetic variation in HSD17B13 reduces the risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in alcohol misusers, Hepatology, Vol: 72, Pages: 88-102, ISSN: 0270-9139
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Carriage of rs738409:G in patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) is associated with an increased risk for developing alcohol-related cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, rs72613567:TA in hydroxysteroid 17-beta dehydrogenase 13 (HSD17B13) was shown to be associated with a reduced risk for developing alcohol-related liver disease and to attenuate the risk associated with PNPLA3 rs738409:G. This study explores the risk-associations between these two genetic variants and the development of alcohol-related cirrhosis and HCC. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Variants in HSD17B13 and PNPLA3 were genotyped in 6,171 participants, including: 1,031 with alcohol-related cirrhosis and HCC; 1,653 with alcohol-related cirrhosis without HCC; 2,588 alcohol misusers with no liver disease; and 899 healthy controls. Genetic associations with the risks for alcohol-related cirrhosis and HCC were determined using logistic regression analysis. Carriage of HSD17B13 rs72613567:TA was associated with a lower risk for both cirrhosis (OR 0.79 [95% CI 0.72-0.88], p=8.13×10-6) and HCC (OR 0.77 [95% CI 0.68-0.89], p=2.27×10-4), while carriage of PNPLA3 rs738409:G was associated with an increased risk for developing cirrhosis (OR 1.70 [95% CI 1.54-1.88], p=1.52x10-26) and HCC (OR 1.77 [95% CI 1.58-1.98], p=2.31×10-23). These associations remained significant after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, type II diabetes mellitus and country. Carriage of HSD17B13 rs72613567:TA attenuated the risk for developing cirrhosis associated with PNPLA3 rs738409:G in both men and women but the protective effect against the subsequent development of HCC was only observed in men (p=1.72×10-4; ORallelic, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.64-0.87). CONCLUSIONS: Carriage of variants in PNPLA3 and HSD17B13 differentially affect the risk for developing advanced alcohol-related liver disease. A genotypic/phenotypic risk score might facilitate earlier diagnosis of
Evans J, Wang WM, Newsom-Davis T, et al., 2020, 141 - Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy for metastatic bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumours: A single ENETS Centre of Excellence experience (vol 127, pg S59, 2019), LUNG CANCER, Vol: 145, Pages: 227-227, ISSN: 0169-5002
Han G, Berhane S, Toyoda H, et al., 2020, Prediction of survival among patients receiving transarterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma: a response-based approach, Hepatology, Vol: 72, Pages: 198-212, ISSN: 0270-9139
The heterogeneity of intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the widespread use of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) outside recommended guidelines have encouraged the development of scoring systems that predict patient survival. The aim of this study was to build and validate statistical models that offer individualized patient survival prediction using response to TACE as a variable. Clinically relevant baseline parameters were collected for 4,621 patients with HCC treated with TACE at 19 centers in 11 countries. In some of the centers, radiological response (as assessed by modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [mRECIST]) was also accrued. The data set was divided into a training set, an internal validation set, and two external validation sets. A new pre-TACE model ("Pre-TACE-Predict") and a post-TACE model ("Post-TACE-Predict") that included response were built. The performance of the models in predicting overall survival (OS) was compared with existing ones. Median OS was 19.9 months. The factors influencing survival were tumor number and size, alpha-fetoprotein, albumin, bilirubin, vascular invasion, etiology, and response as assessed by mRECIST. The proposed models showed superior predictive accuracy compared to existing models (the HAP score and its various modifications) and allowed for patient stratification into four distinct risk categories whose median OS ranged from 7 months to more than 4 years. Conclusion: A TACE-specific and extensively validated model based on routinely available clinical features and response after first TACE permitted patient-level prognostication.
Sharma R, Hajiev S, Aval LM, et al., 2020, An international cohort study investigating the impact of age on clinical outcome in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma treated with sorafenib., Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Clinical-Oncology (ASCO), Publisher: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, ISSN: 0732-183X
Sharma R, Valls PO, Inglese M, et al., 2020, [18F]Fluciclatide PET as a biomarker of response to combination therapy of pazopanib and paclitaxel in platinum-resistant/refractory ovarian cancer, European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Vol: 47, Pages: 1239-1251, ISSN: 0340-6997
BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis is a driver of platinum resistance in ovarian cancer. We assessed the effect of combination pazopanib and paclitaxel followed by maintenance pazopanib in patients with platinum-resistant/refractory ovarian cancer. Integrins αvβ3 and αvβ5 are both upregulated in tumor-associated vasculature. [18F]Fluciclatide is a novel PET tracer that has high affinity for integrins αvβ3/5, and was used to assess the anti-angiogenic effect of pazopanib. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted an open-label, phase Ib study in patients with platinum-resistant/refractory ovarian cancer. Patients received 1 week of single-agent pazopanib (800 mg daily) followed by combination therapy with weekly paclitaxel (80 mg/m2). Following completion of 18 weeks of combination therapy, patients continued with single-agent pazopanib until disease progression. Dynamic [18F]fluciclatide-PET imaging was conducted at baseline and after 1 week of pazopanib. Response (RECIST 1.1), toxicities, and survival outcomes were recorded. Circulating markers of angiogenesis were assessed with therapy. RESULTS: Fourteen patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Complete and partial responses were seen in seven patients (54%). Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 10.63 months, and overall survival (OS) was 18.5 months. Baseline [18F]fluciclatide uptake was predictive of long PFS. Elevated baseline circulating angiopoietin and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) were predictive of greater reduction in SUV60,mean following pazopanib. Kinetic modeling of PET data indicated a reduction in K1 and Ki following pazopanib indicating reduced radioligand delivery and retention. CONCLUSIONS: Combination therapy followed by maintenance pazopanib is effective and tolerable in platinum-resistant/refractory ovarian cancer. [18F]Fluciclatide-PET uptake parameters predict clinical outcome with pazopanib therapy indicating an anti
Pinato DJ, Guerra N, Fessas P, et al., 2020, Immune-based therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma, Oncogene, Vol: 39, Pages: 3620-3637, ISSN: 0950-9232
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most frequent cause of cancer-related death. The immune-rich contexture of the HCC microenvironment makes this tumour an appealing target for immune-based therapies. Here, we discuss how the functional characteristics of the liver microenvironment can potentially be harnessed for the treatment of HCC. We will review the evidence supporting a therapeutic role for vaccines, cell-based therapies and immune-checkpoint inhibitors and discuss the potential for patient stratification in an attempt to overcome the series of failures that has characterised drug development in this disease area.
Pinato DJ, Vallipuram A, Evans JS, et al., 2020, Programmed cell death ligands expression drives immune tolerogenesis across the diverse subtypes of neuroendocrine tumours, Neuroendocrinology: international journal for basic and clinical studies on neuroendocrine relationships, Vol: 111, Pages: 465-474, ISSN: 0028-3835
INTRODUCTION: A comprehensive characterisation of the tumour microenvironment is lacking in neuroendocrine tumours (NETs), where programmed cell death-1 receptor-ligand (PD-1/PD-L1) inhibitors are undergoing efficacy testing. OBJECTIVE: We investigated drivers of cancer-related immunosuppression across NETs of various sites and grade using multi-parameter immunohistochemistry and targeted transcriptomic profiling. METHODS: Tissue microarrays (n=102) were stained for PD-L1 & 2, Indoleamine-deoxygenase-1 (IDO-1) and evaluated in relationship to functional characteristics of tumor-infiltrating T-lymphocytes (TILs) and biomarkers of hypoxia/angiogenesis. PD-L1 expression was tested in circulating tumour cell (CTCs, n=12) to evaluate its relationship with metastatic dissemination. RESULTS: PD-L1 expression was highest in lung NETs (n=30, p=0.007), whereas PD-L2 was highest in pNETs (n=53, p<0.001) with no correlation with grade or hypoxia/angiogenesis. PD-L1+ NETs (n=26, 25%) had greater CD4+/FOXP3+ and CD8+/PD1+ TILs (p<0.001) and necrosis (p=0.02). CD4+/FOXP3+ infiltrate was highest PD-L1/IDO-1 co-expressing tumours (p=0.006). Grade 3 well-differentiated NETs had lower CD4+/FOXP3+ and CD8+/PD1+ TILs density (p<0.001) and Nanostring immune-profiling revealed enrichment of macrophage-related transcripts in cases with poorer prognosis. We identified PD-L1(+) CTC subpopulations in 75% of evaluated patients (n=12). CONCLUSIONS: PD-L1 expression correlates with T-cell exhaustion independent of tumour hypoxia and is enhanced in a subpopulation of CTCs, suggesting its relevance to the progression of NETs. These findings support a potential therapeutic role for PD-L1 inhibitors in a subset of NETs.
Craig Z, Swain J, Batman E, et al., 2020, NET-02 trial protocol: a multicentre, randomised, parallel group, open-label, phase II, single-stage selection trial of liposomal irinotecan (nal-IRI) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)/folinic acid or docetaxel as second-line therapy in patients with progressive poorly differentiated extrapulmonary neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC)., BMJ Open, Vol: 10, Pages: e034527-e034527, ISSN: 2044-6055
INTRODUCTION: Poorly differentiated (PD), extrapulmonary (EP), neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) are rare but aggressive neuroendocrine neoplasms. First-line treatment for advanced disease is an etoposide and platinum-based chemotherapy combination. There is no established second-line treatment for patients with PD-EP-NEC, and this is an area of unmet need. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: NET-02 is a UK, multicentre, randomised (1:1), parallel group, open-label, phase II, single-stage selection trial of liposomal irinotecan (nal-IRI)/5-fluorouracil (5-FU)/folinic acid or docetaxel as second-line therapy in patients with progressive PD-EP-NEC. One hundred and two eligible participants will be randomised to receive either nal-IRI/5-FU/folinic acid or docetaxel. The primary objective is to determine the 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) rate. The secondary objectives of this study are to determine PFS, overall survival, objective response rate, toxicity, quality of life and whether neuron-specific enolase is predictive of treatment response. If either treatment is found to have a 6-month PFS rate of at least 25%, that treatment will be considered for a phase III trial. If both treatments meet this target, prespecified selection criteria will be applied to establish which treatment to take forward. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has ethical approval from the Greater Manchester Central Research Ethics Committee (reference no. 18/NW/0031) and clinical trial authorisation from the Medicine and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and uploaded to the European Union Clinical Trials Register. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: ISRCTN10996604, NCT03837977, EudraCT Number: 2017-002453-11.
Ross PJ, Ma YT, Palmer DH, et al., 2020, Real-world experience of regorafenib in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: A multicenter United Kingdom study, Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium of the American-Society-of-Clinical-Oncology, Publisher: AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY, ISSN: 0732-183X
Bayet J, Hoogenboom T, Sharma R, et al., 2020, MACHINE-LEARNING ON LIVER ULTRASOUND TO STRATIFY MULTIPLE DISEASES VIA BLOOD-VESSELS AND PERFUSION CHARACTERISTICS, IEEE 17th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 1351-1354, ISSN: 1945-7928
Sharma R, Wang WM, Yusuf S, et al., 2019, 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT parameters predict response to peptide receptor radionuclide therapy in neuroendocrine tumours, Radiotherapy and Oncology, Vol: 141, Pages: 108-115, ISSN: 0167-8140
PURPOSE: [177Lu]DOTATATE prolongs progression free survival (PFS) in metastatic neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). However, objective response rate is low. This, coupled with long duration of therapy and expense suggest need for better selection. We aim to assess whether baseline [68Ga]DOTATATE-PET/CT parameters, and whether response assessment by PET accurately predicts clinical outcome to [177Lu]DOTATATE. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Retrospective study of patients receiving [177Lu]DOTATATE was conducted. Patients were followed 3-monthly until disease progression. Four [68Ga]DOTATATE-PET parameters (single lesion SUVmax, tumour to spleen and liver SUV ratios, and SUVmax-av using up to five target lesions in multiple organ sites) were determined at baseline and follow-up. The association between these PET parameters either at baseline, or any changes following treatment, and PET response criteria (PERCIST and modified PERCIST) to predict PFS were determined. Patients were followed 3-monthly until disease progression. Response was determined using RECIST 1.1. Baseline SSTR2 expression was assessed and compared with PET parameters. RESULTS: 55 patients with metastatic NETs were identified predominantly small bowel (N = 18) and pancreatic (N = 8) in origin. 16 were low grade, 15 intermediate and 3 high grade. Response to PRRT (N = 47): partial response (PR) 28%, stable disease (SD) 60% progressive disease (PD) 13%. Response to PRRT predicted PFS: PR 71.8 months (95%CI: not achieved), SD 29.1 months (95%CI: 15.2-43.1), and PD 9.7 months (95%CI: 0-21.02). Baseline, single lesion SUVmax predicted both response and PFS with SUV cut-off of 13.0 giving high sensitivity and specificity. Tumoural SUVmax correlated with SSTR2 expression, Spearman's rho - 0.69, p < 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline single lesion SUVmax and SUVmax-av predicts response to [177Lu]DOTATATE. Objective response following PRRT defines a subset of patients with markedly improved PFSBaseline SUVmax 13.0 defines a thre
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