367 results found
Tregoning JS, Stirling DC, Wang Z, et al., 2023, Formulation, inflammation, and RNA sensing impact the immunogenicity of self-amplifying RNA vaccines, Molecular Therapy : Nucleic Acids, Vol: 31, Pages: 29-42, ISSN: 2162-2531
To be effective, RNA vaccines require both in situ translation and the induction of an immune response to recruit cells to the site of immunization. These factors can pull in opposite directions with the inflammation reducing expression of the vaccine antigen. We investigated how formulation affects the acute systemic cytokine response to a self-amplifying RNA (saRNA) vaccine. We compared a cationic polymer (pABOL), a lipid emulsion (nanostructured lipid carrier, NLC), and three lipid nanoparticles (LNP). After immunization, we measured serum cytokines and compared the response to induced antibodies against influenza virus. Formulations that induced a greater cytokine response induced a greater antibody response, with a significant correlation between IP-10, MCP-1, KC, and antigen-specific antibody titers. We then investigated how innate immune sensing and signaling impacted the adaptive immune response to vaccination with LNP-formulated saRNA. Mice that lacked MAVS and are unable to signal through RIG-I-like receptors had an altered cytokine response to saRNA vaccination and had significantly greater antibody responses than wild-type mice. This indicates that the inflammation induced by formulated saRNA vaccines is not solely deleterious in the induction of antibody responses and that targeting specific aspects of RNA vaccine sensing might improve the quality of the response.
Szubert AJ, Pollock KM, Cheeseman HM, et al., 2023, COVAC1 phase 2a expanded safety and immunogenicity study of a self-amplifying RNA vaccine against SARS-CoV-2., EClinicalMedicine, Vol: 56, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 2589-5370
BACKGROUND: Lipid nanoparticle (LNP) encapsulated self-amplifying RNA (saRNA) is well tolerated and immunogenic in SARS-CoV-2 seronegative and seropositive individuals aged 18-75. METHODS: A phase 2a expanded safety and immunogenicity study of a saRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate LNP-nCoVsaRNA, was conducted at participating centres in the UK between 10th August 2020 and 30th July 2021. Participants received 1 μg then 10 μg of LNP-nCoVsaRNA, ∼14 weeks apart. Solicited adverse events (AEs) were collected for one week post-each vaccine, and unsolicited AEs throughout. Binding and neutralisating anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody raised in participant sera was measured by means of an anti-Spike (S) IgG ELISA, and SARS-CoV-2 pseudoneutralisation assay. (The trial is registered: ISRCTN17072692, EudraCT 2020-001646-20). FINDINGS: 216 healthy individuals (median age 51 years) received 1.0 μg followed by 10.0 μg of the vaccine. 28/216 participants were either known to have previous SARS-CoV2 infection and/or were positive for anti-Spike (S) IgG at baseline. Reactogenicity was as expected based on the reactions following licensed COVID-19 vaccines, and there were no serious AEs related to vaccination. 80% of baseline SARS-CoV-2 naïve individuals (147/183) seroconverted two weeks post second immunization, irrespective of age (18-75); 56% (102/183) had detectable neutralising antibodies. Almost all (28/31) SARS-CoV-2 positive individuals had increased S IgG binding antibodies following their first 1.0 μg dose with a ≥0.5log10 increase in 71% (22/31). INTERPRETATION: Encapsulated saRNA was well tolerated and immunogenic in adults aged 18-75 years. Seroconversion rates in antigen naïve were higher than those reported in our dose-ranging study. Further work is required to determine if this difference is related to a longer dosing interval (14 vs. 4 weeks) or dosing with 1.0 μg followed by 10.0 μg. Boosting of S IgG an
Horvath A, Rogers L, Pollakis G, et al., 2023, Systematic comparison of HIV-1 Envelope-specific IgG responses induced by different vaccination regimens: Can we steer IgG recognition towards regions of viral vulnerability?, Frontiers in Immunology, Vol: 13, Pages: 1-16, ISSN: 1664-3224
Immunogens and vaccination regimens can influence patterns of immune-epitope recognition, steering them towards or away from epitopes of potential viral vulnerability. HIV-1 envelope (Env)-specific antibodies targeting variable region 2 (V2) or 3 (V3) correlated with protection during the RV144 trial, however, it was suggested that the immunodominant V3 region might divert antibody responses away from other relevant sites. We mapped IgG responses against linear Env epitopes in five clinical HIV vaccine trials, revealing a specific pattern of Env targeting for each regimen. Notable V2 responses were only induced in trials administering CRF01_AE based immunogens, but targeting of V3 was seen in all trials, with the soluble, trimeric CN54gp140 protein eliciting robust V3 recognition. Strong V3 targeting was linked to greater overall response, increased number of total recognised antigenic regions, and where present, stronger V2 recognition. Hence, strong induction of V3-specific antibodies did not negatively impact the targeting of other linear epitopes in this study, suggesting that the induction of antibodies against V3 and other regions of potential viral vulnerability need not be necessarily mutually exclusive.
Myatt DP, Wharram L, Graham C, et al., 2023, Biophysical characterization of the structure of a SARS-CoV-2 self-amplifying RNA (saRNA) vaccine., Biol Methods Protoc, Vol: 8
The current SARS-Covid-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has led to an acceleration of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) vaccine technology. The development of production processes for these large mRNA molecules, especially self-amplifying mRNA (saRNA), has required concomitant development of analytical characterization techniques. Characterizing the purity, shape and structure of these biomolecules is key to their successful performance as drug products. This article describes the biophysical characterization of the Imperial College London Self-amplifying viral RNA vaccine (IMP-1) developed for SARS-CoV-2. A variety of analytical techniques have been used to characterize the IMP-1 RNA molecule. In this article, we use ultraviolet spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, size-exclusion chromatography small-angle X-ray scattering and circular dichroism to determine key biophysical attributes of IMP-1. Each technique provides important information about the concentration, size, shape, structure and purity of the molecule.
Reiss EIMM, van Haaren MM, van Schooten J, et al., 2022, Fine-mapping the immunodominant antibody epitopes on consensus sequence-based HIV-1 envelope trimer vaccine candidates, NPJ VACCINES, Vol: 7
Lorenzen E, Contreras V, Olsen AW, et al., 2022, Multi-component prime-boost Chlamydia trachomatis vaccination regimes induce antibody and T cell responses and accelerate clearance of infection in a non-human primate model, FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1664-3224
Hu K, Palmieri E, Samnuan K, et al., 2022, Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA), an outer membrane vesicle-based vaccine platform, for efficient viral antigen delivery, JOURNAL OF EXTRACELLULAR VESICLES, Vol: 11
Kitandwe PK, McKay PF, Kaleebu P, et al., 2022, An Overview of Rift Valley Fever Vaccine Development Strategies, VACCINES, Vol: 10
Van Tilbeurgh M, Maisonnasse P, Palgen J-L, et al., 2022, Innate cell markers that predict anti-HIV neutralizing antibody titers in vaccinated macaques, CELL REPORTS MEDICINE, Vol: 3, ISSN: 2666-3791
Day S, Kaur C, Cheeseman H, et al., 2022, Comparison of blood and lymph node cells after intramuscular injection with HIV envelope immunogens, Frontiers in Immunology, Vol: 13, Pages: 1-17, ISSN: 1664-3224
Background:Harnessing CD4+ T cell help in the lymph nodes through rational antigen design could enhance formation of broadly neutralising antibodies (bNAbs) during experimental HIV immunisation. This process has remained hidden due to difficulty with direct study, with clinical studies instead focusing on responses in the blood as a proxy for the secondary lymphoid tissue. Methods:To address this, lymph node cells (LNC) were collected using ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration of axillary lymph nodes from 11 HIV negative participants in an experimental HIV immunogen study (European AIDS Vaccine Initiative EAVI2020_01 study, NCT04046978). Cells from lymph node and blood (PBMC), were collected after intramuscular injection with HIV Env Mosaic immunogens based on HIV Envelope glycoprotein and combined with a liposomal toll-like receptor-4 adjuvant; monophosphoryl lipid A. Simultaneously sampled cells from both blood and lymph node in the same donors were compared for phenotype, function, and antigen-specificity. Results:Unsupervised cluster analysis revealed tissue-specific differences in abundance, distribution, and functional response of LNC compared with PBMC. Monocytes were virtually absent from LNC, which were significantly enriched for CD4+ T cells compared with CD8+ T cells. T follicular helper cells with germinal centre features were enriched in LNC, which contained specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets including CD4+ T cells that responded after a single injection with HIV Env Mosaic immunogens combined with adjuvant. Tissue-specific differences in response to an MHC-II dependent superantigen, staphylococcal enterotoxin B, indicated divergence in antigen presentation function between blood and lymph node. Conclusions:LNC are phenotypically and functionally distinct from PBMC, suggesting that whole blood is only a limited proxy of the T cell lymphatic response to immunisation. HIV-specific CD4+ T cells in the lymph node are rapidly inducible upon experimen
Elliott T, Cheeseman HM, Evans AB, et al., 2022, Enhanced immune responses following heterologous vaccination with self-amplifying RNA and mRNA COVID-19 vaccines, PLoS Pathogens, Vol: 18, Pages: 1-20, ISSN: 1553-7366
The optimal vaccination strategy to boost responses in the context of pre-existing immune memory to the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein is an important question for global public health. To address this, we explored the SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular immune responses to a novel self-amplifying RNA (saRNA) vaccine followed by a UK authorised mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2) in individuals with and without previous COVID-19, and compared these responses with those who received an authorised vaccine alone. 35 subjects receiving saRNA (saRNA group) as part of the COVAC1 clinical trial and an additional 40 participants receiving an authorised SARS-CoV-2 vaccine only (non-saRNA group) were recruited. Antibody responses were measured by ELISA and a pseudoneutralisation assay for wildtype, Delta and Omicron variants. Cellular responses were measured by IFN-ƴ ELISpot and an activation induced marker (AIM) assay. Approximately 50% in each group had previous COVID-19 prior to vaccination, confirmed by PCR or antibody positivity on ELISA. All of those who received saRNA subsequently received a full course of an authorised vaccine. The majority (83%) of those receiving saRNA who were COVID-19 naïve at baseline seroconverted following the second dose, and those with previous COVID-19 had an increase in antibody titres two weeks following saRNA vaccination (median 27-fold), however titres were lower when compared to mRNA vaccination. Two weeks following the 2nd authorised mRNA vaccine dose, binding and neutralising antibody titres were significantly higher in the saRNA participants with previous COVID-19, compared to non-saRNA, or COVID-19 naive saRNA participants. Cellular responses were again highest in this group, with a higher proportion of spike specific CD8+ than CD4+ T cells when compared to those receiving the mRNA vaccine only. These findings suggest an immunological benefit of increased antigen exposure, both from natural infection and vaccination, particularly e
McKay PF, Zhou J, Frise R, et al., 2022, Polymer formulated self-amplifying RNA vaccine is partially protective against influenza virus infection in ferrets, Oxford Open Immunology, Vol: 3, ISSN: 2633-6960
COVID-19 has demonstrated the power of RNA vaccines as part of a pandemic response toolkit. Another virus with pandemic potential is influenza. Further development of RNA vaccines in advance of a future influenza pandemic will save time and lives. As RNA vaccines require formulation to enter cells and induce antigen expression, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a recently developed bioreducible cationic polymer, pABOL for the delivery of a self-amplifying RNA (saRNA) vaccine for seasonal influenza virus in mice and ferrets. Mice and ferrets were immunized with pABOL formulated saRNA vaccines expressing either haemagglutinin (HA) from H1N1 or H3N2 influenza virus in a prime boost regime. Antibody responses, both binding and functional were measured in serum after immunization. Animals were then challenged with a matched influenza virus either directly by intranasal inoculation or in a contact transmission model. While highly immunogenic in mice, pABOL-formulated saRNA led to variable responses in ferrets. Animals that responded to the vaccine with higher levels of influenza virus-specific neutralizing antibodies were more protected against influenza virus infection. pABOL-formulated saRNA is immunogenic in ferrets, but further optimization of RNA vaccine formulation and constructs is required to increase the quality and quantity of the antibody response to the vaccine.
Herrera C, Cottrell ML, Prybylski J, et al., 2022, The ex vivo pharmacology of HIV-1 antiretrovirals differs between macaques and humans, iScience, Vol: 25, ISSN: 2589-0042
Non-human primates (NHP) are widely used for the pre-clinical assessment of antiretrovirals (ARVs) for HIV treatment and prevention. However, the utility of these models is questionable given the differences in ARV pharmacology between humans and macaques. Here, we report a model based on ex vivo ARV exposure and the challenge of mucosal tissue explants to define pharmacological differences between NHPs and humans. For colorectal and cervicovaginal explants in both species, high concentrations of tenofovir (TFV) and maraviroc were predictive of anti-viral efficacy. However, their combinations resulted in increased inhibitory potency in NHP when compared to human explants. In NHPs, higher TFV concentrations were measured in colorectal versus cervicovaginal explants (p = 0.042). In humans, this relationship was inverted with lower levels in colorectal tissue (p = 0.027). TFV-resistance caused greater loss of viral fitness for HIV-1 than SIV. This, tissue explants provide an important bridge to refine and appropriately interpret NHP studies.
Zhou J, Sukhova K, McKay PF, et al., 2022, Omicron breakthrough infections in vaccinated or previously infected hamsters
<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>The second and third years of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic have been marked by the repeated emergence and replacement of ‘variants’ with genetic and phenotypic distance from the ancestral strains, the most recent examples being Delta and Omicron. Here we describe a hamster contact exposure challenge model to assess protection conferred by vaccination or prior infection against re-infection. We found that 2-doses of self-amplifying RNA vaccine based on the ancestral spike ameliorated weight loss following Delta infection and decreased viral loads, but had minimal effect on Omicron/BA.1 infection. Prior infection with ancestral or Alpha variant was partially protective against Omicron/BA.1 infection, whereas all animals previously infected with Delta and exposed to Omicron became infected, although shed less virus. We further tested whether prior infection with Omicron/BA.1 protected from re-infection with Delta or Omicron/BA.2. Omicron/BA.1 was protective against Omicron/BA.2, but not Delta reinfection, again showing Delta and Omicron have a very large antigenic distance. Indeed, cross-neutralisation assays with human antisera from otherwise immunonaïve individuals (unvaccinated and no known prior infection), confirmed a large antigenic distance between Delta and Omicron. Prior vaccination followed by Omicron or Delta breakthrough infection led to a higher degree of cross-reactivity to all tested variants. To conclude, cohorts whose only immune experience of COVID is Omicron/BA.1 infection may be particularly vulnerable to future circulation of Delta or Delta-like derivatives. In contrast, repeated exposure to antigenically distinct spikes, via infection and or vaccination drives a more cross-reactive immune response, both in hamsters and people.</jats:p><jats:sec><jats:title>One Sentence Summary</jats:title><jats:p>Infection with the Delta and Omicron SARS-CoV-2 vari
Hannah S, Chinyenze K, Shattock R, et al., 2022, HIV vaccines in 2022: where to from here?, J Int AIDS Soc, Vol: 25
Frise R, Baillon L, Zhou J, et al., 2022, A self-amplifying RNA vaccine protects against SARS-CoV-2 (D614G) and Alpha variant of concern (B.1.1.7) in a transmission-challenge hamster model, VACCINE, Vol: 40, Pages: 2848-2855, ISSN: 0264-410X
Gallinaro A, Pirillo MF, Aldon Y, et al., 2022, Persistent immunogenicity of integrase defective lentiviral vectors delivering membrane-tethered native-like HIV-1 envelope trimers, NPJ VACCINES, Vol: 7
Samnuan K, Blakney A, McKay P, et al., 2022, Design-of-experiments in vitro transcription yield optimization of self-amplifying RNA [version 1; peer review: 1 approved with reservations], F1000Research, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2046-1402
Background: Self-amplifying RNA (saRNA) vaccines are able to induce a higher antigen-specific immune response with a more cost-effective and rapid production process compared to plasmid DNA vaccines. saRNAs are synthesized through in vitro transcription (IVT); however, this process has mainly been optimized for relatively short mRNAs. Methods: Here, we optimized the IVT process for long saRNAs, approximately 9.4 kb, through a design of experiment (DoE) approach to produce a maximal RNA yield and validated the optimal IVT method on various sizes of RNA. Results: We found that magnesium has the highest impact on RNA yield with acetate ions enabling a higher yield than chloride ions. In addition, the interaction between magnesium and nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs) is highly essential for IVT. Further addition of sodium acetate (NaOAc) during IVT provided no added benefit in RNA yield. Moreover, pyrophosphatase was not essential for productive IVT. The optimal IVT method can be used to synthesize different lengths of RNA. Conclusions: These findings emphasize the ability to synthesize high quality and quantity of saRNA through IVT and that the optimal amount of each component is essential for their interactions to produce a high RNA yield.
Hu K, McKay PF, Samnuan K, et al., 2022, Presentation of antigen on extracellular vesicles using transmembrane domains from viral glycoproteins for enhanced immunogenicity, Journal of Extracellular Vesicles, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2001-3078
A vaccine antigen, when launched as DNA or RNA, can be presented in various forms, including intracellular, secreted, membrane-bound, or on extracellular vesicles (EVs). Whether an antigen in one or more of these forms is superior in immune induction remains unclear. In this study, we used GFP as a model antigen and first compared the EV-loading efficiency of transmembrane domains (TMs) from various viral glycoproteins, and then investigated whether EV-bound GFP (EV-GFP) would enhance immune induction. Our data showed that GFP fused to viral TMs was successfully loaded onto the surface of EVs. In addition, GFP-bound EVs were predominantly associated with the exosome marker CD81. Immunogenicity study with EV-GFP-producing plasmids in mice demonstrated that antigen-specific IgG and IgA were significantly increased in EV-GFP groups, compared to soluble and intracellular GFP groups. Similarly, GFP-specific T cell response-related cytokines produced by antigen-stimulated splenocytes were also enhanced in mice immunized with EV-GFP constructs. Immunogenicity study with purified soluble GFP and GFP EVs further confirmed the immune enhancement property of EV-GFP in mice. In vitro uptake assays indicated that EV-GFP was more efficiently taken up than soluble GFP by mouse splenocytes and such uptake was B cell preferential. Taken together, our data indicate that viral TMs can efficiently load antigens onto the EV surface, and that EV-bound antigen enhances both humoral and cell-mediated antigen-specific responses.
Mann JFS, McKay PF, Klein K, et al., 2022, Blocking T-cell egress with FTY720 extends DNA vaccine expression but reduces immunogenicity, Immunology, Vol: 165, Pages: 301-311, ISSN: 0019-2805
Optimal immunogenicity from nucleic acid vaccines requires a balance of antigen expression that effectively engages the host immune system without generating a cellular response that rapidly destroys cells producing the antigen and thereby limiting vaccine antigen expression. We investigated the role of the cellular response on the expression and antigenicity of DNA vaccines using a plasmid DNA construct expressing luciferase. Repeated intramuscular administration led to diminished luciferase expression, suggesting a role for immune-mediated clearance of expression. To investigate the role of cell trafficking, we used the sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor (S1PR) modulator, FTY720 (Fingolimod), which traps lymphocytes within the lymphoid tissues. When lymphocyte trafficking was blocked with FTY720, DNA transgene expression was maintained at a constant level for a significantly extended time period. Both continuous and staggered administration of FTY720 prolonged transgene expression. However, blocking lymphocyte egress during primary transgene administration did not result in an increase of transgene expression during secondary administration. Interestingly, there was a disconnect between transgene expression and immunogenicity, as increasing expression by this approach did not enhance the overall immune response. Furthermore, when FTY720 was administered alongside a DNA vaccine expressing the HIV gp140 envelope antigen, there was a significant reduction in both antigen-specific antibody and T-cell responses. This indicates that the developing antigen-specific cellular response clears DNA vaccine expression but requires access to the site of expression in order to develop an effective immune response.
Pollock KM, Cheeseman HM, Szubert AJ, et al., 2022, Safety and immunogenicity of a self-amplifying RNA vaccine against COVID-19: COVAC1, a phase I, dose-ranging trial, EClinicalMedicine, Vol: 44, ISSN: 2589-5370
Background: Lipid nanoparticle (LNP) encapsulated self-amplifying RNA (saRNA) is a novel technology formulated as a low dose vaccine against COVID-19. Methods: A phase I first-in-human dose-ranging trial of a saRNA COVID-19 vaccine candidate LNP-nCoVsaRNA, was conducted at Imperial Clinical Research Facility, and participating centres in London, UK, between 19th June to 28th October 2020. Participants received two intramuscular (IM) injections of LNP-nCoVsaRNA at six different dose levels, 0.1-10.0μg, given four weeks apart. An open-label dose escalation was followed by a dose evaluation. Solicited adverse events (AEs) were collected for one week from enrolment, with follow-up at regular intervals (1-8 weeks). The binding and neutralisation capacity of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody raised in participant sera was measured by means of an anti-Spike (S) IgG ELISA, immunoblot, SARS-CoV-2 pseudoneutralisation and wild type neutralisation assays. (The trial is registered: ISRCTN17072692, EudraCT 2020-001646-20). Findings: 192 healthy individuals with no history or serological evidence of COVID-19, aged 18-45 years were enrolled. The vaccine was well tolerated with no serious adverse events related to vaccination. Seroconversion at week six whether measured by ELISA or immunoblot was related to dose (both p<0.001), ranging from 8% (3/39; 0.1μg) to 61% (14/23; 10.0μg) in ELISA and 46% (18/39; 0.3μg) to 87% (20/23; 5.0μg and 10.0μg) in a post-hoc immunoblot assay. Geometric mean (GM) anti-S IgG concentrations ranged from 74 (95% CI, 45-119) at 0.1μg to 1023 (468-2236) ng/mL at 5.0μg (p<0.001) and was not higher at 10.0μg. Neutralisation of SARS-CoV-2 by participant sera was measurable in 15% (6/39; 0.1μg) to 48% (11/23; 5.0μg) depending on dose level received. Interpretation: Encapsulated saRNA is safe for clinical development, is immunogenic at low dose levels but failed to induce 100% seroconversion. Modifications to optimis
Herrera C, Veazey R, Lemke MM, et al., 2022, Ex vivo evaluation of mucosal responses to vaccination with ALVAC and AIDSVAX of non-human primates, Vaccines, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2076-393X
Non-human primates (NHPs) remain the most relevant challenge model for the evaluation of HIV vaccine candidates; however, discrepancies with clinical trial results have emphasized the need to further refine the NHP model. Furthermore, classical evaluation of vaccine candidates is based on endpoints measured systemically. We assessed the mucosal responses elicited upon vaccination with ALVAC and AIDSVAX using ex vivo Rhesus macaque mucosal tissue explant models. Following booster immunization with ALVAC/AIDSVAX, anti-gp120 HIV-1CM244-specific IgG and IgA were detected in culture supernatant cervicovaginal and colorectal tissue explants, as well as systemically. Despite protection from ex vivo viral challenge, no neutralization was observed with tissue explant culture supernatants. Priming with ALVAC induced distinct cytokine profiles in cervical and rectal tissue. However, ALVAC/AIDSVAX boosts resulted in similar modulations in both mucosal tissues with a statistically significant decrease in cytokines linked to inflammatory responses and lymphocyte differentiation. With ALVAC/AIDSVAX boosts, significant correlations were observed between cytokine levels and specific IgA in cervical explants and specific IgG and IgA in rectal tissue. The cytokine secretome revealed differences between vaccination with ALVAC and ALVAC/AIDSVAX not previously observed in mucosal tissues and distinct from the systemic response, which could represent a biosignature of the vaccine combination.
Sliepen K, Schermer E, Bontjer I, et al., 2021, Interplay of diverse adjuvants and nanoparticle presentation of native-like HIV-1 envelope trimers (vol 6, 134, 2021), NPJ VACCINES, Vol: 6
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Feinberg MB, Russell ND, Shattock RJ, et al., 2021, The importance of partnerships in accelerating HIV vaccine research and development, JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL AIDS SOCIETY, Vol: 24
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- Citations: 1
Blakney AK, McKay PF, Hu K, et al., 2021, Polymeric and lipid nanoparticles for delivery of self-amplifying RNA vaccines, Journal of Controlled Release, Vol: 338, Pages: 201-210, ISSN: 0168-3659
Self-amplifying RNA (saRNA) is a next-generation vaccine platform, but like all nucleic acids, requires a delivery vehicle to promote cellular uptake and protect the saRNA from degradation. To date, delivery platforms for saRNA have included lipid nanoparticles (LNP), polyplexes and cationic nanoemulsions; of these LNP are the most clinically advanced with the recent FDA approval of COVID-19 based-modified mRNA vaccines. While the effect of RNA on vaccine immunogenicity is well studied, the role of biomaterials in saRNA vaccine effectiveness is under investigated. Here, we tested saRNA formulated with either pABOL, a bioreducible polymer, or LNP, and characterized the protein expression and vaccine immunogenicity of both platforms. We observed that pABOL-formulated saRNA resulted in a higher magnitude of protein expression, but that the LNP formulations were overall more immunogenic. Furthermore, we observed that both the helper phospholipid and route of administration (intramuscular versus intranasal) of LNP impacted the vaccine immunogenicity of two model antigens (influenza hemagglutinin and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein). We observed that LNP administered intramuscularly, but not pABOL or LNP administered intranasally, resulted in increased acute interleukin-6 expression after vaccination. Overall, these results indicate that delivery systems and routes of administration may fulfill different delivery niches within the field of saRNA genetic medicines.
Gallinaro A, Pirillo MF, Aldon Y, et al., 2021, Persistent Immunogenicity of Integrase Defective Lentiviral Vectors delivering membrane tethered Native-Like HIV-1 Envelope Trimers
<jats:title>ABSTRACT</jats:title><jats:p>Integrase Defective Lentiviral Vectors (IDLVs) represent an attractive vaccine platform for delivering HIV-1 antigens, given their ability to induce specific and persistent immune responses in both mice and non-human primates (NHPs). Recent advances in HIV-1 immunogen design demonstrated that native-like HIV-1 Envelope (Env) trimers that mimic the structure of virion-associated Env induce neutralization breadth in rabbits and macaques. Here, we describe the development of an IDLV-based HIV-1 vaccine expressing either soluble ConSOSL.UFO.664 or membrane-tethered ConSOSL.UFO.750 native-like Env immunogens with enhanced bNAb epitopes exposure. We show that IDLV can be pseudotyped with properly folded membrane-tethered native-like UFO.750 trimers. After a single IDLV injection in BALB/c mice, IDLV-UFO.750 induced a faster humoral kinetic as well as higher levels of anti-Env IgG compared to IDLV-UFO.664. IDLV-UFO.750 vaccinated cynomolgus macaques developed unusually long-lasting anti-Env IgG antibodies, as underlined by their remarkable half-life both after priming and boost with IDLV. After boosting with recombinant ConM SOSIP.v7 protein, two animals developed neutralization activity against the autologous tier 1B ConS virus mediated by V1/V2 and V3 glycan sites responses. By combining the possibility to display stabilized trimeric Env on the vector particles with the ability to induce sustained humoral responses, IDLVs represent an appropriate strategy for delivering rationally designed antigens to progress towards an effective HIV-1 vaccine.</jats:p>
Herrera C, Harman S, Aldon Y, et al., 2021, The entry inhibitor DS003 (BMS-599793): a BMS-806 analogue, provides superior activity as a pre-exposure prophylaxis candidate, AIDS, Vol: 35, Pages: 1907-1917, ISSN: 0269-9370
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Peter AS, Roth E, Schulz SR, et al., 2021, A pair of noncompeting neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies protecting from disease in a SARS-CoV-2 infection model, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 52, Pages: 770-783, ISSN: 0014-2980
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 18
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