Imperial College London

Dr Rachel Gibson

Faculty of MedicineSchool of Public Health

Honorary Research Associate
 
 
 
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Contact

 

rachel.gibson13

 
 
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150Norfolk PlaceSt Mary's Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

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38 results found

Panchbhaya A, Baldwin C, Gibson R, 2022, Improving the Dietary Intake of Health Care Workers through Workplace Dietary Interventions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, ADVANCES IN NUTRITION, Vol: 13, Pages: 595-620, ISSN: 2161-8313

Journal article

Aljuraiban GS, Gibson R, Al-Freeh L, Al-Musharaf S, Shivappa N, Hébert JR, Oude Griep LM, Chan Qet al., 2022, Associations Among Plant-Based Dietary Indexes, the Dietary Inflammatory Index, and Inflammatory Potential in Female College Students In Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study., J Acad Nutr Diet, Vol: 122, Pages: 771-785.e8, ISSN: 2212-2672

BACKGROUND: Saudi Arabian diets are transitioning to more Western dietary patterns that have been associated with higher levels of inflammation. Emerging evidence suggests plant-based diets are related to lower levels of inflammation; however, the definition of plant-based diets varies. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify the extent to which an overall Plant-Based Diet Index (PDI), Healthy-PDI (hPDI), and Unhealthy-PDI (uPDI) vs Energy-Adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index correlate with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study carried out at King Saud University. Data on dietary intake, anthropometrics, and hs-CRP were collected. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Female students aged 19 to 35 years (n = 401) were recruited from King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between February and May 2019. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome was hs-CRP level. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Pearson correlation and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to examine the associations between hs-CRP, each PDI, and Energy-Adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index (E-DII). RESULTS: E-DII and uPDI scores had a moderate and a small positive correlation with hs-CRP levels (r = 0.46 and 0.22, respectively), whereas PDI and hPDI scores had a small and a moderate inverse correlation with hs-CRP levels (r = -0.13 and -0.31, respectively). A 1-standard deviation higher E-DII score was directly associated with a 1.05 mg/L higher hs-CRP level (95% confidence interval 0.72 to 1.38; P < 0.0001) after adjusting for body mass index. Overall PDI score was not associated with hs-CRP levels. A 6-point higher hPDI and uPDI score were associated with a 0.13 mg/L lower hs-CRP (95% confidence interval -0.08 to -0.28) and a 0.15 mg/L higher hs-CRP (95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.31), respectively, after adjusting for lifestyle and dietary factors; however, results attenuated and were no longer s

Journal article

Chan Q, Wren G, Lau CH, Ebbels T, Gibson R, Loo RL, Aljuraiban G, Posma J, Dyer A, Steffen L, Rodriguez B, Appel L, Daviglus M, Elliott P, Stamler J, Holmes E, Van Horn Let al., 2022, Blood pressure interactions with the DASH dietary pattern, sodium, and potassium: The International Study of Macro-/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP), The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

BackgroundAdherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet enhances potassium intake and reduces sodium intake and blood pressure (BP), but the underlying metabolic pathways are unclear.ObjectiveAmong free-living populations, delineate metabolic signatures associated with the DASH diet adherence, 24-hr urinary sodium and potassium excretions and the potential metabolic pathways involved.Design24-hr urinary metabolic profiling by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to characterize the metabolic signatures associated with the DASH dietary pattern score (DASH score) and 24-hr excretion of sodium and potassium among participants in the United States (n=2,164) and United Kingdom (n= 496) enrolled in the International Study of Macro- and Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP). Multiple linear regression and cross-tabulation analyses were used to investigate the DASH-BP relation and its modulation by sodium and potassium. Potential pathways associated with DASH adherence, sodium and potassium excretion, and BP were identified using mediation analyses and metabolic reaction networks.ResultsAdherence to DASH diet was associated with urinary potassium excretion (correlation coefficient, r = 0.42, P<0.0001). In multivariable regression analyses, a five-point higher DASH score (range 7 to 35) was associated with a lower systolic BP by 1.35 mmHg (95% confidence interval: -1.95, -0.80, P=1.2 × 10−5); control of the model for potassium but not sodium attenuated the DASH-BP relation. Two common metabolites (hippurate and citrate) mediated the potassium-BP and DASH-BP relationships, while five metabolites (succinate, alanine, S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide, 4-hydroxyhippurate, phenylacetylglutamine) were found specific to the DASH-BP relation.ConclusionsGreater adherence to DASH diet is associated with lower BP and higher potassium intake across levels of sodium intake. The DASH diet recommends greater intake of fruits, veget

Journal article

Leeming ER, Mompeo O, Turk P, Bowyer RCE, Louca P, Johnson AJ, Spector TD, Le Roy C, Gibson Ret al., 2022, Characterisation, procedures and heritability of acute dietary intake in the Twins UK cohort: an observational study, NUTRITION JOURNAL, Vol: 21

Journal article

Mazidi M, Leeming ER, Merino J, Nguyen LH, Selvachandran S, Pujal JC, Maher T, Kade K, Murray B, Graham MS, Sudre CH, Wolf J, Hu C, Drew DA, Steves CJ, Ourselin S, Gardner C, Spector TD, Chan AT, Franks PW, Gibson R, Berry SEet al., 2021, Diet and lifestyle behaviour disruption related to the pandemic was varied and bidirectional among US and UK adults participating in the ZOE COVID Study, NATURE FOOD, Vol: 2, Pages: 957-+

Journal article

Merino J, Joshi AD, Nguyen LH, Leeming ER, Mazidi M, Drew DA, Gibson R, Graham MS, Lo C-H, Capdevila J, Murray B, Hu C, Selvachandran S, Hammers A, Bhupathiraju SN, Sharma S, Sudre C, Astley CM, Chavarro JE, Kwon S, Ma W, Menni C, Willett WC, Ourselin S, Steves CJ, Wolf J, Franks PW, Spector TD, Berry S, Chan ATet al., 2021, Diet quality and risk and severity of COVID-19: a prospective cohort study, GUT, Vol: 70, Pages: 2096-2104, ISSN: 0017-5749

Journal article

Gibson R, Oliver N, McGowan B, Vetter C, Palla L, D'Annibale M, Linley J, Lorencatto F, Guess Net al., 2021, Towards targeted dietary support for shift workers with type 2 diabetes (Shift-Diabetes study): A mixed-methods case study protocol, DIABETIC MEDICINE, Vol: 39, ISSN: 0742-3071

Journal article

Louca P, Nogal A, Mompeo O, Christofidou P, Gibson R, Spector TD, Berry SE, Valdes AM, Mangino M, Menni Cet al., 2021, Body mass index mediates the effect of the DASH diet on hypertension: Common metabolites underlying the association, JOURNAL OF HUMAN NUTRITION AND DIETETICS, Vol: 35, Pages: 214-222, ISSN: 0952-3871

Journal article

Mompeo O, Berry SE, Spector TD, Menni C, Mangino M, Gibson Ret al., 2021, Differential associations between a priori diet quality scores and markers of cardiovascular health in women: cross-sectional analyses from TwinsUK., Br J Nutr, Vol: 126, Pages: 1017-1027

CVD is the leading cause of death worldwide and, after dementia, is the second biggest cause of death for women. In England, it accounts for one in four of all deaths. Lifestyle modifications represent the primary route both to reduce CVD risk factors and prevent CVD outcomes. Diet constitutes one of the key modifiable risk factors in the aetiology of CVD. We investigated the relationship between nine main dietary indices and a comprehensive range of CVD risk factors in 2590 women from TwinsUK. After adjustment for multiple testing, we found that the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet was inversely correlated with some of the most common CVD risk factors (BMI, visceral fat (VF), TAG, insulin, homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) and atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) risk) with PFDR ranging from 6·28 × 10-7 to 5·63 × 10-4. Similar association patterns were detected across most of the dietary indices analysed. In our post hoc investigation, to determine if any specific food groups were driving associations between the DASH score and markers of cardiometabolic risk, we found that increased BMI, VF, HOMA2-IR, ASCVD risk, insulin and TAG levels were directly correlated with red meat consumption (PFDR ranging from 4·65 × 10-9 to 7·98 × 10-3) and inversely correlated with whole-grain cereal consumption (PFDR ranging from 1·26 × 10-6 to 8·28 × 10-3). Our findings revealed that the DASH diet is associated with a more favourable CVD risk profile, suggesting that this diet may be a candidate dietary pattern to supplement current UK dietary recommendations for CVD prevention.

Journal article

Gage MC, Harrington D, Brierley GV, Freathy RM, Gabriel BM, Gibson R, McNeilly AD, Meek CL, Roberts LDet al., 2021, Challenges and solutions for diabetes early career researchers in the COVID-19 recovery: Perspectives of the Diabetes UK Innovators in Diabetes, DIABETIC MEDICINE, Vol: 39, ISSN: 0742-3071

Journal article

Asnicar F, Leeming ER, Dimidi E, Mazidi M, Franks PW, Al Khatib H, Valdes AM, Davies R, Bakker E, Francis L, Chan A, Gibson R, Hadjigeorgiou G, Wolf J, Spector TD, Segata N, Berry SEet al., 2021, Blue poo: impact of gut transit time on the gut microbiome using a novel marker, GUT, Vol: 70, Pages: 1665-1674, ISSN: 0017-5749

Journal article

Vu T-HT, Van Horn L, Daviglus ML, Chan Q, Dyer AR, Zhong VW, Gibson R, Elliott P, Stamler Jet al., 2021, Association between egg intake and blood pressure in the USA: the INTERnational study on MAcro/micronutrients and blood Pressure (INTERMAP)., Public Health Nutrition, Vol: 24, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 1368-9800

OBJECTIVES: To investigate associations of egg intake with blood pressure (BP) and the role of dietary variables and other macro- and micro-nutrients in the association. DESIGN: We used cross-sectional data for the USA as part of the INTERnational study on MAcro/micronutrients and blood Pressure (INTERMAP). INTERMAP was surveyed between 1996 and 1999, including four 24-h dietary recalls, two 24-h urine collections and eight measurements of systolic BP and diastolic BP (SBP, DBP). Average egg intake (g/d) was calculated. Multivariable linear regression models were used to estimate the association between egg intake (per each 50 g/d or per quintile) and BP. The roles of dietary variables and other macro- and micro-nutrients in this association were also investigated. SETTING: In the USA. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 2195 US INTERMAP men and women aged 40-59 years. RESULTS: Participants were 50 % female, 54 % non-Hispanic White and 16 % non-Hispanic Black. Mean egg intake (sd) in men and women was 30·4(29·8) and 21·6(20·5) g/d, respectively. Adjusting for demographics, socio-economics, lifestyle and urinary Na:K excretion ratios, we found non-linear associations with BP in non-obese women (P-quadratic terms: 0·004 for SBP and 0·035 for DBP).The associations remained after adjusting for dietary variables, macro/micro nutrients or minerals. Dietary cholesterol was highly correlated with egg intake and may factor in the association. No association was found in obese women and in obese or non-obese men. CONCLUSION: Egg intake was non-linearly associated with SBP and DBP in non-obese women, but not in obese women or men. Underlying mechanisms require additional study regarding the role of obesity and sex.

Journal article

D'Annibale M, Hornzee N, Whelan M, Guess N, Hall W, Gibson Ret al., 2021, Eating on the night shift: A need for evidence-based dietary guidelines?, NUTRITION BULLETIN, Vol: 46, Pages: 339-349, ISSN: 1471-9827

Journal article

Xu Y, Le Sayec M, Roberts C, Hein S, Rodriguez-Mateos A, Gibson Ret al., 2021, Dietary Assessment Methods to Estimate (Poly)phenol Intake in Epidemiological Studies: A Systematic Review, ADVANCES IN NUTRITION, Vol: 12, Pages: 1781-1801, ISSN: 2161-8313

Journal article

Menni C, Louca P, Berry SE, Vijay A, Astbury S, Leeming ER, Gibson R, Asnicar F, Piccinno G, Wolf J, Davies R, Mangino M, Segata N, Spector TD, Valdes AMet al., 2021, High intake of vegetables is linked to lower white blood cell profile and the effect is mediated by the gut microbiome, BMC MEDICINE, Vol: 19, ISSN: 1741-7015

Journal article

Leeming ER, Louca P, Gibson R, Menni C, Spector TD, Le Roy CIet al., 2021, The complexities of the diet-microbiome relationship: advances and perspectives, GENOME MEDICINE, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1756-994X

Journal article

Aljuraiban G, Chan Q, Gibson R, Stamler J, Daviglus ML, Dyer AR, Miura K, Wu Y, Ueshima H, Zhao L, Van Horn L, Elliott P, Oude Griep LMet al., 2021, Association between plant-based diets and blood pressure in the INTERMAP study, BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, Vol: 3, Pages: 133-142, ISSN: 2516-5542

Background Plant-based diets are associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular diseases; however, little is known how the healthiness of the diet may be associated with blood pressure (BP). We aimed to modify three plant -based diet indices: overall plant-based diet index (PDI), healthy PDI (hPDI), and unhealthy PDI (uPDI) according to country-specific dietary guidelines to enable use across populations with diverse dietary patterns – and assessed their associations with BP.Design We used cross-sectional data including 4,680 men and women ages 40–59y in Japan, China, the United Kingdom, and the United States from the INTERnational study on MAcro/micronutrients and blood Pressure (INTERMAP). During four visits, eight BP measurements, and four 24-h dietary recalls were collected. Multivariable regression coefficients were estimated, pooled, weighted, and adjusted extensively for lifestyle/dietary confounders.Results Modified PDI was not associated with BP. Consumption of hPDI higher by 1SD was inversely associated with systolic (-0.82 mm Hg;95% CI:-1.32,-0.49) and diastolic BP (-0.49 mm Hg; 95% CI:-0.91, -0.28). In contrast, consumption of an uPDI was directly associated with systolic (0.77 mm Hg;95% CI:0.30,1.20). Significant associations between hPDI with BP were attenuated with separate adjustment for vegetables and whole grains; associations between uPDI and BP were attenuated after adjustment for refined grains, sugar-sweetened beverages, and meat.Conclusion An hPDI is associated with lower BP while a uPDI is adversely related to BP. Plant-based diets rich in vegetables and whole grains and limited in refined grains, sugar-sweetened beverages, and total meat may contribute to these associations. In addition to current guidelines, the nutritional quality of consumed plant foods is as important as limiting animal-based components.

Journal article

Dominguez-Fernandez M, Xu Y, Yang PYT, Alotaibi W, Gibson R, Hall WL, Barron L, Ludwig IA, Cid C, Rodriguez-Mateos Aet al., 2021, Quantitative assessment of dietary (Poly)phenol intake: a high-throughput targeted metabolomics method for blood and urine samples, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol: 69, Pages: 537-554, ISSN: 0021-8561

Many studies have associated the consumption of (poly)phenol-rich diets with health benefits. However, accurate high-throughput quantitative methods for estimating exposure covering a broad spectrum of (poly)phenols are lacking. We have developed and validated a high-throughput method for the simultaneous quantification of 119 (poly)phenol metabolites in plasma and urine using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, with a very fast sample treatment and a single run time of 16 min. This method is highly sensitive, precise, accurate, and shows good linearity for all compounds (R2 > 0.992). This novel method will allow a quantitative assessment of habitual (poly)phenol intake in large epidemiological studies as well as clinical studies investigating the health benefits of dietary (poly)phenols.

Journal article

Asnicar F, Berry SE, Valdes AM, Nguyen LH, Piccinno G, Drew DA, Leeming E, Gibson R, Le Roy C, Al Khatib H, Francis L, Mazidi M, Mompeo O, Valles-Colomer M, Tett A, Beghini F, Dubois L, Bazzani D, Thomas AM, Mirzayi C, Khleborodova A, Oh S, Hine R, Bonnett C, Capdevila J, Danzanvilliers S, Giordano F, Geistlinger L, Waldron L, Davies R, Hadjigeorgiou G, Wolf J, Ordovas JM, Gardner C, Franks PW, Chan AT, Huttenhower C, Spector TD, Segata Net al., 2021, Microbiome connections with host metabolism and habitual diet from 1,098 deeply phenotyped individuals, NATURE MEDICINE, Vol: 27, Pages: 321-+, ISSN: 1078-8956

Journal article

Louca P, Murray B, Klaser K, Graham MS, Mazidi M, Leeming ER, Thompson E, Bowyer R, Drew DA, Nguyen LH, Merino J, Gomez M, Mompeo O, Costeira R, Sudre CH, Gibson R, Steves CJ, Wolf J, Franks PW, Ourselin S, Chan AT, Berry SE, Valdes AM, Calder PC, Spector TD, Menni Cet al., 2021, Modest effects of dietary supplements during the COVID-19 pandemic: insights from 445 850 users of the COVID-19 Symptom Study app., BMJ Nutr Prev Health, Vol: 4, Pages: 149-157

OBJECTIVES: Dietary supplements may ameliorate SARS-CoV-2 infection, although scientific evidence to support such a role is lacking. We investigated whether users of the COVID-19 Symptom Study app who regularly took dietary supplements were less likely to test positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. DESIGN: App-based community survey. SETTING: 445 850 subscribers of an app that was launched to enable self-reported information related to SARS-CoV-2 infection for use in the general population in the UK (n=372 720), the USA (n=45 757) and Sweden (n=27 373). MAIN EXPOSURE: Self-reported regular dietary supplement usage (constant use during previous 3 months) in the first waves of the pandemic up to 31 July 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by viral RNA reverse transcriptase PCR test or serology test before 31 July 2020. RESULTS: In 372 720 UK participants (175 652 supplement users and 197 068 non-users), those taking probiotics, omega-3 fatty acids, multivitamins or vitamin D had a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection by 14% (95% CI (8% to 19%)), 12% (95% CI (8% to 16%)), 13% (95% CI (10% to 16%)) and 9% (95% CI (6% to 12%)), respectively, after adjusting for potential confounders. No effect was observed for those taking vitamin C, zinc or garlic supplements. On stratification by sex, age and body mass index (BMI), the protective associations in individuals taking probiotics, omega-3 fatty acids, multivitamins and vitamin D were observed in females across all ages and BMI groups, but were not seen in men. The same overall pattern of association was observed in both the US and Swedish cohorts. CONCLUSION: In women, we observed a modest but significant association between use of probiotics, omega-3 fatty acid, multivitamin or vitamin D supplements and lower risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. We found no clear benefits for men nor any effect of vitamin C, garlic or zinc. Randomised controlled trials

Journal article

Mompeo O, Gibson R, Christofidou P, Spector TD, Menni C, Mangino Met al., 2020, Genetic and Environmental Influences of Dietary Indices in a UK Female Twin Cohort, TWIN RESEARCH AND HUMAN GENETICS, Vol: 23, Pages: 330-337, ISSN: 1832-4274

Journal article

Hunt LC, Dashti HS, Chan Q, Gibson R, Vetter Cet al., 2020, Quantifying Diet Intake and Its Association with Cardiometabolic Risk in the UK Airwave Health Monitoring Study: A Data-Driven Approach, NUTRIENTS, Vol: 12

Journal article

Aljuraiban GS, Gibson R, Oude Griep LM, Okuda N, Steffen LM, Van Horn L, Chan Qet al., 2020, Perspective: the application of a priori diet quality scores to cardiovascular disease risk: a critical evaluation of current scoring systems, Advances in Nutrition, Vol: 11, Pages: 10-24, ISSN: 2156-5376

Healthy dietary habits are the cornerstone of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. Numerous researchers have developed diet quality indices to help evaluate and compare diet quality across and within various populations. The availability of these new indices raises questions regarding the best selection relevant to a given population. In this perspective, we critically evaluate a priori–defined dietary indices commonly applied in epidemiological studies of CVD risk and mortality. A systematic literature search identified 59 observational studies that applied a priori–defined diet quality indices to CVD risk factors and/or CVD incidence and/or CVD mortality. Among 31 different indices, these scores were categorized as follows: 1) those based on country-specific dietary patterns, 2) those adapted from distinct dietary guidelines, and 3) novel scores specific to key diet-related factors associated with CVD risk.The strengths and limitations of these indices are described according to index components, calculation methods, and the application of these indices to different population groups. Also, the importance of identifying methodological challenges faced by researchers when applying an index are considered, such as selection and weighting of food groups within a score, since food groups are not necessarily equivalent in their associations with CVD. The lack of absolute cutoff values, emphasis on increasing healthy food without limiting unhealthy food intake, and absence of validation of scores with biomarkers or other objective diet assessment methods further complicate decisions regarding the best indices to use. Future research should address these limitations, consider cross-cultural and other differences between population groups, and identify translational challenges inherent in attempting to apply a relevant diet quality index for use in CVD prevention at a population level.

Journal article

Gibson R, Lau C, Loo RL, Ebbels T, Chekmeneva E, Dyer A, Miura K, Ueshima H, Zhao L, Daviglus M, Stamler J, Van Horn L, Elliott P, Holmes E, Chan Qet al., 2019, The association of fish consumption and its urinary metabolites with cardiovascular risk factors: The International Study of Macro-/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP), American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol: 111, Pages: 280-290, ISSN: 0002-9165

BackgroundResults from observational studies regarding associations between fish (including shellfish) intake and cardiovascular disease risk factors, including blood pressure (BP) and BMI, are inconsistent.ObjectiveTo investigate associations of fish consumption and associated urinary metabolites with BP and BMI in free-living populations.MethodsWe used cross-sectional data from the International Study of Macro-/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP), including 4680 men and women (40–59 y) from Japan, China, the United Kingdom, and United States. Dietary intakes were assessed by four 24-h dietary recalls and BP from 8 measurements. Urinary metabolites (2 timed 24-h urinary samples) associated with fish intake acquired from NMR spectroscopy were identified. Linear models were used to estimate BP and BMI differences across categories of intake and per 2 SD higher intake of fish and its biomarkers.ResultsNo significant associations were observed between fish intake and BP. There was a direct association with fish intake and BMI in the Japanese population sample (P trend = 0.03; fully adjusted model). In Japan, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and taurine, respectively, demonstrated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values of 0.81 and 0.78 in discriminating high against low fish intake, whereas homarine (a metabolite found in shellfish muscle) demonstrated an AUC of 0.80 for high/nonshellfish intake. Direct associations were observed between urinary TMAO and BMI for all regions except Japan (P < 0.0001) and in Western populations between TMAO and BP (diastolic blood pressure: mean difference 1.28; 95% CI: 0.55, 2.02 mmHg; P = 0.0006, systolic blood pressure: mean difference 1.67; 95% CI: 0.60, 2.73 mmHg; P = 0.002).ConclusionsUrinary TMAO showed a stronger association with fish intake in the Japanese compared with the Western population sample. Urinary TMAO was directly associated with BP in the Western but not the Japanese popula

Journal article

Eriksen R, Gibson R, Aresu M, Heard A, Chan Q, Evangelou E, Gao H, Elliott P, Frost Get al., 2019, Gene-diet quality interactions on HbA1c and type 2 diabetes risk: The Airwave Health Monitoring Study, Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism, Vol: 2, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 2398-9238

Introduction: Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is multi-factorial involving lifestyle, environmental and genetic risk factors. This study aims to investigate the impact of genetic interactions with alcohol and diet quality on glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) independent of obesity, in a British population.Methods: Cross-sectional study of 14,089 white British participants from Airwave Health Monitoring Study, and a sub-sample of 3,733 participants with dietary data. A T2D genetic risk score (GRS) was constructed and its interactions with diet on HbA1c were assessed.Results: GRS was associated with a higher HbA1c% ( 0.03, p<0.0001) and a higher risk of pre-diabetes (OR 1.09, p<0.0001) and T2D (OR 1.14, p 0.006). The genetic effect on HbA1c% was significantly higher in obese participants ( 1.88, pinteraction 0.03). A high intake of wholegrain attenuated the effect on HbA1c% in high-risk individuals pinteraction 0.04. Conclusion: The genetic effect on HbA1c was almost doubled in obese individuals, compared with those with a healthy weight, and independent of weight there was a modest offset on HbA1c in high-genetic risk individuals consuming a diet high in wholegrain. This supports the importance of a healthy diet high in wholegrains and along with maintaining a healthy weight in controlling HbA1c amongst high genetic risk groups.

Journal article

Gibson R, Eriksen R, Chambers E, Gao H, Aresu M, Heard A, Chan Q, Elliott P, Frost Get al., 2019, Intakes and food sources of dietary fibre and their associations with measures of body composition and inflammation in UK adults: Cross-sectional analysis of the Airwave Health Monitoring Study, Nutrients, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2072-6643

The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between intakes of fibre from the main food sources of fibre in the UK diet with body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat (%BF), waist circumference (WC) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Participants enrolled in the Airwave Health Monitoring Study (2007–2012) with 7-day food records (n = 6898; 61% men) were included for cross-sectional analyses. General linear models evaluated associations across fifths of fibre intakes (total, vegetable, fruit, potato, whole grain and non-whole grain cereal) with BMI, %BF, WC and CRP. Fully adjusted analyses showed inverse linear trends across fifths of total fibre and fibre from fruit with all outcome measures (ptrend < 0.0001). Vegetable fibre intake showed an inverse association with WC (ptrend 0.0156) and CRP (ptrend 0.0005). Fibre from whole grain sources showed an inverse association with BMI (ptrend 0.0002), %BF (ptrend 0.0007) and WC (ptrend 0.0004). Non-whole grain cereal fibre showed an inverse association with BMI (Ptrend 0.0095). Direct associations observed between potato fibre intake and measures of body composition and inflammation were attenuated in fully adjusted analyses controlling for fried potato intake. Higher fibre intake has a beneficial association on body composition, however, there are differential associations based on the food source.

Journal article

Gibson R, Lau C-HE, Chan Q, Chekmeneva E, Loo R, Ebbels TM, Dyer AR, Miura K, Ueshima H, Zhao L, Daviglus ML, Elliott P, Stamler J, Holmes E, Van Horn Let al., 2019, Cross-Sectional Investigation of the Relationship Between Fish Consumption and Its Urinary Biomarkers With Blood Pressure Across Asian and Western Populations: Results From the INTERMAP Study, Scientific Sessions of the American-Heart-Association on Epidemiology and Prevention/Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic Health, Publisher: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, ISSN: 0009-7322

Conference paper

Gibson R, Lau C-H, Loo RL, Ebbles T, Chekmeneva E, Dyer A, Miura K, Ueshima H, Zhao L, Elliott P, Daviglus M, Stamler J, Van Horn L, Holmes E, Chan Qet al., 2018, American Heart Association's Epidemiology and Prevention/Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic Health 2019 Scientific Sessions, American Heart Association EpiLifestyle

Conference paper

Gibson R, Frost G, Chan Q, Elliott P, Singh D, Eriksen R, Heard A, Vergnaud ACet al., 2018, A cross-sectional investigation into the occupational and socio-demographic characteristics of British police force employees reporting a dietary pattern associated with cardiometabolic risk: Findings from the Airwave Health Monitoring Study, European Journal of Nutrition, Vol: 57, Pages: 2913-2926, ISSN: 0044-264X

PurposeThe aims of this study were to (1) determine the association between diet quality using the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score and cardiometabolic risk in a British working population and (2) identify employee characteristics associated with reporting a poorer quality dietary pattern.MethodsBritish police employees enrolled (2007–2012) into the Airwave Health Monitoring Study (n = 5527) were included for sex-specific cross-sectional analyses. Dietary intakes were measured using 7-day food records. DASH score was calculated to determine diet quality. Logistic regression evaluated associations between (1) diet quality and increased cardiometabolic risk (defined as ≥ 3 risk markers: dyslipidaemia, elevated blood pressure, waist circumference, CRP or HbA1c), and (2) poor diet quality (lowest fifth of DASH score distribution) and employee characteristics.ResultsEmployees recording a poor diet quality had greater odds (OR) of increased cardiometabolic risk independent of established risk factors (demographic, lifestyle and occupational) and BMI: men OR 1.50 (95% CI 1.12–2.00), women: OR 1.84 (95% CI 1.19–2.97) compared to the healthiest diet group. Characteristics associated with reporting a poor quality diet were employment in Scotland vs. England: men OR 1.88 (95% CI 1.53–2.32), women: OR 1.49 (95% CI 1.11–2.00), longer working hours (≥ 49 vs. ≤40 h) men: OR 1.53 (95% CI 1.21–1.92) women: OR 1.53 (95% CI 1.12–2.09). For men, job strain (high vs. low) was associated with reporting a poor diet quality OR 1.66 (95% CI 1.30–2.12).ConclusionsThe general population disparities in diet quality between England and Scotland were reflected in British police employees. The association of longer working hours and job strain with diet quality supports the targeting of workplace nutritional interventions.

Journal article

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