22 results found
Aljuraiban GS, Gibson R, Al-Freeh L, et al., 2021, Association between plant-based dietary indices, the dietary inflammatory index and inflammatory potential in female college students in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study., J Acad Nutr Diet, ISSN: 2212-2672
BACKGROUND: Saudi Arabian diets are transitioning to more "Western" dietary patterns which have been associated with higher levels of inflammation. Emerging evidence suggests plant-based diets are related to lower levels of inflammation, however, the definition of plant-based diets varies. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify the extent to which an overall plant-based diet index (PDI), healthy-PDI (hPDI), and unhealthy-PDI (uPDI) versus energy-adjusted dietary inflammatory index (E-DII) correlate with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study carried out at King Saud University. Data on dietary intake, anthropometrics, and hs-CRP were collected. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Female students aged 19-35 (n=401) were recruited from King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between February and May 2019. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome was hs-CRP. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Pearson correlation and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to examine the associations between hs-CRP, each PDI, and E-DII. RESULTS: E-DII and uPDI scores had a moderate and a small positive correlation with hs-CRP levels (r=0.46 and 0.22, respectively), while PDI and hPDI scores had a small and a moderate inverse correlation with hs-CRP levels (r=-0.13 and -0.31, respectively). A 1-SD higher E-DII score was directly associated with a 1.05 mg/l higher hs-CRP (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72, 1.38, p<0.0001) after adjusting for body mass index (BMI). Overall PDI score was not associated with hs-CRP levels. A 6-point higher hPDI and uPDI scores were associated with a 0.13 mg/l lower hs-CRP [95%CI: -0.08, -0.28] and a 0.15 mg/l higher hs-CRP [95%CI: 0.03, 0.31], respectively, after adjusting for lifestyle and dietary factors, however, results attenuated and were no longer statistically significant after BMI adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: While all indices had a small or moderate correlation with hs-CRP, only E-DI
D'Annibale M, Hornzee N, Whelan M, et al., 2021, Eating on the night shift: A need for evidence-based dietary guidelines?, NUTRITION BULLETIN, ISSN: 1471-9827
Xu Y, Le Sayec M, Roberts C, et al., 2021, Dietary Assessment Methods to Estimate (Poly)phenol Intake in Epidemiological Studies: A Systematic Review., Adv Nutr
Nutritional epidemiological studies have frequently reported associations between higher (poly)phenol intake and a decrease in the risk or incidence of noncommunicable diseases. However, the assessment methods that have been used to quantify the intakes of these compounds in large-population samples are highly variable. This systematic review aims to characterize the methods used to assess dietary (poly)phenol intake in observational studies, report the validation status of the methods, and give recommendations on method selection and data reporting. Three databases were searched for publications that have used dietary assessment methods to measure (poly)phenol intake and 549 eligible full texts were identified. Food-frequency questionnaires were found to be the most commonly used tool to assess dietary (poly)phenol intake (73%). Published data from peer-reviewed journals were the major source of (poly)phenol content data (25%). An increasing number of studies used open-access databases such as Phenol-Explorer and USDA databases on flavonoid content since their inception, which accounted for 11% and 23% of the data sources, respectively. Only 16% of the studies reported a method that had been validated for measuring the target (poly)phenols. For future research we recommend: 1) selecting a validated dietary assessment tool according to the target compounds and target period of measurement; 2) applying and combining comprehensive (poly)phenol content databases such as USDA and Phenol-Explorer; 3) detailing the methods used to assess (poly)phenol intake, including dietary assessment method, (poly)phenol content data source; 4) follow the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology-Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut) framework; and 5) complementing dietary intake assessment based on questionnaires with measurement of (poly)phenols in biofluids using appropriate and validated analytical methods.
Menni C, Louca P, Berry SE, et al., 2021, High intake of vegetables is linked to lower white blood cell profile and the effect is mediated by the gut microbiome, BMC MEDICINE, Vol: 19, ISSN: 1741-7015
Leeming ER, Louca P, Gibson R, et al., 2021, The complexities of the diet-microbiome relationship: advances and perspectives, GENOME MEDICINE, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1756-994X
Asnicar F, Berry SE, Valdes AM, et al., 2021, Microbiome connections with host metabolism and habitual diet from 1,098 deeply phenotyped individuals, NATURE MEDICINE, Vol: 27, Pages: 321-+, ISSN: 1078-8956
Louca P, Murray B, Klaser K, et al., 2021, Modest effects of dietary supplements during the COVID-19 pandemic: insights from 445 850 users of the COVID-19 Symptom Study app., BMJ Nutr Prev Health, Vol: 4, Pages: 149-157
Objectives: Dietary supplements may ameliorate SARS-CoV-2 infection, although scientific evidence to support such a role is lacking. We investigated whether users of the COVID-19 Symptom Study app who regularly took dietary supplements were less likely to test positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Design: App-based community survey. Setting: 445 850 subscribers of an app that was launched to enable self-reported information related to SARS-CoV-2 infection for use in the general population in the UK (n=372 720), the USA (n=45 757) and Sweden (n=27 373). Main exposure: Self-reported regular dietary supplement usage (constant use during previous 3 months) in the first waves of the pandemic up to 31 July 2020. Main outcome measures: SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by viral RNA reverse transcriptase PCR test or serology test before 31 July 2020. Results: In 372 720 UK participants (175 652 supplement users and 197 068 non-users), those taking probiotics, omega-3 fatty acids, multivitamins or vitamin D had a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection by 14% (95% CI (8% to 19%)), 12% (95% CI (8% to 16%)), 13% (95% CI (10% to 16%)) and 9% (95% CI (6% to 12%)), respectively, after adjusting for potential confounders. No effect was observed for those taking vitamin C, zinc or garlic supplements. On stratification by sex, age and body mass index (BMI), the protective associations in individuals taking probiotics, omega-3 fatty acids, multivitamins and vitamin D were observed in females across all ages and BMI groups, but were not seen in men. The same overall pattern of association was observed in both the US and Swedish cohorts. Conclusion: In women, we observed a modest but significant association between use of probiotics, omega-3 fatty acid, multivitamin or vitamin D supplements and lower risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. We found no clear benefits for men nor any effect of vitamin C, garlic or zinc. Randomised controlled trials
Hunt LC, Dashti HS, Chan Q, et al., 2020, Quantifying Diet Intake and Its Association with Cardiometabolic Risk in the UK Airwave Health Monitoring Study: A Data-Driven Approach, NUTRIENTS, Vol: 12
Aljuraiban GS, Gibson R, Oude Griep LM, et al., 2020, Perspective: the application of a priori diet quality scores to cardiovascular disease risk: a critical evaluation of current scoring systems, Advances in Nutrition, Vol: 11, Pages: 10-24, ISSN: 2156-5376
Healthy dietary habits are the cornerstone of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. Numerous researchers have developed diet quality indices to help evaluate and compare diet quality across and within various populations. The availability of these new indices raises questions regarding the best selection relevant to a given population. In this perspective, we critically evaluate a priori–defined dietary indices commonly applied in epidemiological studies of CVD risk and mortality. A systematic literature search identified 59 observational studies that applied a priori–defined diet quality indices to CVD risk factors and/or CVD incidence and/or CVD mortality. Among 31 different indices, these scores were categorized as follows: 1) those based on country-specific dietary patterns, 2) those adapted from distinct dietary guidelines, and 3) novel scores specific to key diet-related factors associated with CVD risk.The strengths and limitations of these indices are described according to index components, calculation methods, and the application of these indices to different population groups. Also, the importance of identifying methodological challenges faced by researchers when applying an index are considered, such as selection and weighting of food groups within a score, since food groups are not necessarily equivalent in their associations with CVD. The lack of absolute cutoff values, emphasis on increasing healthy food without limiting unhealthy food intake, and absence of validation of scores with biomarkers or other objective diet assessment methods further complicate decisions regarding the best indices to use. Future research should address these limitations, consider cross-cultural and other differences between population groups, and identify translational challenges inherent in attempting to apply a relevant diet quality index for use in CVD prevention at a population level.
Gibson R, Lau C, Loo RL, et al., 2019, The association of fish consumption and its urinary metabolites with cardiovascular risk factors: The International Study of Macro-/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP), American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol: 111, Pages: 280-290, ISSN: 0002-9165
BackgroundResults from observational studies regarding associations between fish (including shellfish) intake and cardiovascular disease risk factors, including blood pressure (BP) and BMI, are inconsistent.ObjectiveTo investigate associations of fish consumption and associated urinary metabolites with BP and BMI in free-living populations.MethodsWe used cross-sectional data from the International Study of Macro-/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP), including 4680 men and women (40–59 y) from Japan, China, the United Kingdom, and United States. Dietary intakes were assessed by four 24-h dietary recalls and BP from 8 measurements. Urinary metabolites (2 timed 24-h urinary samples) associated with fish intake acquired from NMR spectroscopy were identified. Linear models were used to estimate BP and BMI differences across categories of intake and per 2 SD higher intake of fish and its biomarkers.ResultsNo significant associations were observed between fish intake and BP. There was a direct association with fish intake and BMI in the Japanese population sample (P trend = 0.03; fully adjusted model). In Japan, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and taurine, respectively, demonstrated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values of 0.81 and 0.78 in discriminating high against low fish intake, whereas homarine (a metabolite found in shellfish muscle) demonstrated an AUC of 0.80 for high/nonshellfish intake. Direct associations were observed between urinary TMAO and BMI for all regions except Japan (P < 0.0001) and in Western populations between TMAO and BP (diastolic blood pressure: mean difference 1.28; 95% CI: 0.55, 2.02 mmHg; P = 0.0006, systolic blood pressure: mean difference 1.67; 95% CI: 0.60, 2.73 mmHg; P = 0.002).ConclusionsUrinary TMAO showed a stronger association with fish intake in the Japanese compared with the Western population sample. Urinary TMAO was directly associated with BP in the Western but not the Japanese popula
Eriksen R, Gibson R, Aresu M, et al., 2019, Gene-diet quality interactions on HbA1c and type 2 diabetes risk: The Airwave Health Monitoring Study, Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism, Vol: 2, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 2398-9238
Introduction: Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is multi-factorial involving lifestyle, environmental and genetic risk factors. This study aims to investigate the impact of genetic interactions with alcohol and diet quality on glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) independent of obesity, in a British population.Methods: Cross-sectional study of 14,089 white British participants from Airwave Health Monitoring Study, and a sub-sample of 3,733 participants with dietary data. A T2D genetic risk score (GRS) was constructed and its interactions with diet on HbA1c were assessed.Results: GRS was associated with a higher HbA1c% ( 0.03, p<0.0001) and a higher risk of pre-diabetes (OR 1.09, p<0.0001) and T2D (OR 1.14, p 0.006). The genetic effect on HbA1c% was significantly higher in obese participants ( 1.88, pinteraction 0.03). A high intake of wholegrain attenuated the effect on HbA1c% in high-risk individuals pinteraction 0.04. Conclusion: The genetic effect on HbA1c was almost doubled in obese individuals, compared with those with a healthy weight, and independent of weight there was a modest offset on HbA1c in high-genetic risk individuals consuming a diet high in wholegrain. This supports the importance of a healthy diet high in wholegrains and along with maintaining a healthy weight in controlling HbA1c amongst high genetic risk groups.
Gibson R, Eriksen R, Chambers E, et al., 2019, Intakes and food sources of dietary fibre and their associations with measures of body composition and inflammation in UK adults: Cross-sectional analysis of the Airwave Health Monitoring Study, Nutrients, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2072-6643
The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between intakes of fibre from the main food sources of fibre in the UK diet with body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat (%BF), waist circumference (WC) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Participants enrolled in the Airwave Health Monitoring Study (2007–2012) with 7-day food records (n = 6898; 61% men) were included for cross-sectional analyses. General linear models evaluated associations across fifths of fibre intakes (total, vegetable, fruit, potato, whole grain and non-whole grain cereal) with BMI, %BF, WC and CRP. Fully adjusted analyses showed inverse linear trends across fifths of total fibre and fibre from fruit with all outcome measures (ptrend < 0.0001). Vegetable fibre intake showed an inverse association with WC (ptrend 0.0156) and CRP (ptrend 0.0005). Fibre from whole grain sources showed an inverse association with BMI (ptrend 0.0002), %BF (ptrend 0.0007) and WC (ptrend 0.0004). Non-whole grain cereal fibre showed an inverse association with BMI (Ptrend 0.0095). Direct associations observed between potato fibre intake and measures of body composition and inflammation were attenuated in fully adjusted analyses controlling for fried potato intake. Higher fibre intake has a beneficial association on body composition, however, there are differential associations based on the food source.
Gibson R, Lau C-H, Loo RL, et al., 2018, American Heart Association's Epidemiology and Prevention/Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic Health 2019 Scientific Sessions, American Heart Association EpiLifestyle
Gibson R, Frost G, Chan Q, et al., 2018, A cross-sectional investigation into the occupational and socio-demographic characteristics of British police force employees reporting a dietary pattern associated with cardiometabolic risk: Findings from the Airwave Health Monitoring Study, European Journal of Nutrition, Vol: 57, Pages: 2913-2926, ISSN: 0044-264X
PurposeThe aims of this study were to (1) determine the association between diet quality using the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score and cardiometabolic risk in a British working population and (2) identify employee characteristics associated with reporting a poorer quality dietary pattern.MethodsBritish police employees enrolled (2007–2012) into the Airwave Health Monitoring Study (n = 5527) were included for sex-specific cross-sectional analyses. Dietary intakes were measured using 7-day food records. DASH score was calculated to determine diet quality. Logistic regression evaluated associations between (1) diet quality and increased cardiometabolic risk (defined as ≥ 3 risk markers: dyslipidaemia, elevated blood pressure, waist circumference, CRP or HbA1c), and (2) poor diet quality (lowest fifth of DASH score distribution) and employee characteristics.ResultsEmployees recording a poor diet quality had greater odds (OR) of increased cardiometabolic risk independent of established risk factors (demographic, lifestyle and occupational) and BMI: men OR 1.50 (95% CI 1.12–2.00), women: OR 1.84 (95% CI 1.19–2.97) compared to the healthiest diet group. Characteristics associated with reporting a poor quality diet were employment in Scotland vs. England: men OR 1.88 (95% CI 1.53–2.32), women: OR 1.49 (95% CI 1.11–2.00), longer working hours (≥ 49 vs. ≤40 h) men: OR 1.53 (95% CI 1.21–1.92) women: OR 1.53 (95% CI 1.12–2.09). For men, job strain (high vs. low) was associated with reporting a poor diet quality OR 1.66 (95% CI 1.30–2.12).ConclusionsThe general population disparities in diet quality between England and Scotland were reflected in British police employees. The association of longer working hours and job strain with diet quality supports the targeting of workplace nutritional interventions.
Gibson R, 2018, Working hours and cardiometabolic health – an emerging area of nutritional research, Nutrition Bulletin, ISSN: 1467-3010
Chan Q, 2018, The alternative Mediterranean diet score and blood pressure for US participant in the INTERMAP Study, American Society for Nutrition’s inaugural flagship meeting
Eriksen R, Gibson R, Lamb K, et al., 2018, Nutrient profiling and adherence to components of the UK national dietary guidelines association with metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes: Airwave Health Monitoring Study, British Journal of Nutrition, Vol: 119, Pages: 695-705, ISSN: 1475-2662
CVD is the leading cause of death worldwide. Diet is a key modifiable component in the development of CVD. No official UK diet quality index exists for use in UK nutritional epidemiological studies. The aims of this study are to: (i) develop a diet quality index based on components of UK dietary reference values (DRV) and (ii) determine the association between the index, the existing UK nutrient profile (NP) model and a comprehensive range of cardiometabolic risk markers among a British adult population. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data from the Airwave Health Monitoring Study (n 5848). Dietary intake was measured by 7-d food diary and metabolic risk using waist circumference, BMI, blood lipid profile, glycated Hb (HbA1c) and blood pressure measurements. Diet quality was assessed using the novel DRV index and NP model. Associations between diet and cardiometabolic risk were analysed via multivariate linear models and logistic regression. A two-point increase in NP score was associated with total cholesterol (β −0·33 mmol/l, P<0·0001) and HbA1c (β −0·01 %, P<0·0001). A two-point increase in DRV score was associated with waist circumference (β −0·56 cm, P<0·0001), BMI (β −0·15 kg/m2, P<0·0001), total cholesterol (β −0·06 mmol/l, P<0·0001) and HbA1c (β −0·02 %, P=0·002). A one-point increase in DRV score was associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) (OR 0·94, P=0·01) and obesity (OR 0·95, P<0·0001). The DRV index is associated with overall diet quality and risk factors for CVD and T2D, supporting its application in nutritional epidemiological studies investigating CVD risk in a UK population.
Gibson R, Eriksen R, Lamb K, et al., 2017, Dietary assessment of British police force employees: a description of diet record coding procedures and cross-sectional evaluation of dietary energy intake reporting (the airwave health monitoring study), BMJ Open, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2044-6055
Objectives: Dietary intake is a key aspect of occupational health. To capture the characteristics of dietary behaviour that is affected by occupational environment that may impact on disease risk, collection of prospective multi-day dietary records are required. The aims of this paper are to: i) the collection of multi day dietary data in the Airwaves health monitoring study, ii) describe the dietarycoding procedures applied and iii) investigate the plausibilityof dietary reporting in this occupational cohort. Design: A dietary coding protocol for this large-scale studywas developed to minimise coding error rate. Participants (n4,412) who completed 7-day food records were included for cross-sectional analyses. Energy intake misreporting wasestimated using the Goldberg method. Multivariate logistic regression models were applied to determine participant characteristics associated with energy intake misreporting. Setting: British police force employees enrolled (2007 to 2012) into the Airwave Health Monitoring Study. Results: The mean code error rate per food diary was3.7% (SD 3.2%). The strongest predictors of energy intake under-reporting were body mass index (BMI) and physical activity. Compared to participants withBMI <25kg/m2, thosewith BMI >30kg/m2 had increased odds of being classified as under-reporting energy intake (men OR 5.20 95%CI 3.92, 6.89; women OR 2.66 95%CI 1.85, 3.83). Men and women in the highest physical activity category compared to the lowest were also more likely to be classified as under-reporting (men OR 3.33 95%CI 2.46, 4.50; women OR 4.34 95%CI 2.91, 6.55). Conclusions: A reproducible dietary record coding procedure has been developed to minimise coding error in complex 7-day diet diaries. The prevalence of energy intake under-reporting is comparable to existingnational UK cohortsand, in agreement with p
Garcia Perez I, Posma JM, Gibson R, et al., 2017, Objective assessment of dietary patterns using metabolic phenotyping: a randomized, controlled, crossover trial, The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, Vol: 5, Pages: 184-195, ISSN: 2213-8587
Background: The burden of non-communicable diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, coronary heart disease and cancer, can be reduced by the consumption of healthy diets. Accurate monitoring of changes in dietary patterns in response to food policy implementation is challenging. Metabolic profiling allows simultaneous measurement of hundreds of metabolites in urine, many of them influenced by food intake. We aim to classify people according to dietary behaviour and enhance dietary reporting using metabolic profiling of urine.Methods: To develop metabolite models from 19 healthy volunteers who attended a clinical research unit for four day periods on four occasions. We used the World Health Organisation’s healthy eating guidelines (increase fruits, vegetables, wholegrains, dietary fibre and decrease fats, sugars, and salt) to develop four dietary interventions lasting for four days each that ranged from a diet associated with a low to high risk of developing non-communicable disease. Urine samples were measured by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. This study is registered as an International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN 43087333. INTERMAP U.K. (n=225) and a healthy-eating Danish cohort (n=66) were used as free-living validation datasets.Findings: There was clear separation between the urinary metabolite profiles of the four diets. We also demonstrated significant stepwise differences in metabolite levels between the lowest and highest metabolic risk diets and developed metabolite models for each diet. Application of the derived metabolite models to independent cohorts confirmed the association between urinary metabolic and dietary profiles in INTERMAP (P<0•001) and the Danish cohort (P<0•001).Interpretation: Urinary metabolite models, developed in a highly controlled environment, can classify groups of free-living people into consumers of dietary profiles associated with lower or higher non-communicable disease risk based on multivariate m
McGlone ER, Kamocka A, Pevida B, et al., 2017, Is revision of the ‘candy cane’ after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass worthwhile?, International Federation for Surgery for Obesity, Pages: 1-1253
Gibson R, Eriksen R, Chan Q, et al., 2016, Sex differences in the relationship between work patterns and diet in British police force employees: a nested cross-sectional study, Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, Vol: 75, Pages: E20-E20, ISSN: 0029-6651
Gibson R, Knight A, Asante M, et al., 2015, Comparing dietary macronutrient composition and food sources between native and diasporic Ghanaian adults., Food Nutr Res, Vol: 59, ISSN: 1654-661X
BACKGROUND: Dietary acculturation may contribute to the increased burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in diasporic populations of African ancestry. OBJECTIVE: To assess nutritional composition and the contribution that traditional foods make to the diets of native and UK-dwelling Ghanaian adults. DESIGN: An observational study of Ghanaian adults living in Accra (n=26) and London (n=57) was undertaken. Three-day food records were translated to nutrient data using culturally sensitive methods and comparisons were made for energy, macronutrients, and dietary fibre between cohorts. The contribution of traditional foods to dietary intake was measured and the foods contributing to each nutrient were identified. RESULTS: Compared to native Ghanaians, UK-Ghanaians derived a significantly higher proportion of energy from protein (16.9±3.9 vs. 14.1±2.8%, p=0.001), fat (29.9±7.9 vs. 24.4±8.5%, p=0.005), and saturated fat (8.5±3.4 vs. 5.8±3.7%, p<0.001) and a significantly lower energy from carbohydrate (52.2±7.7 vs. 61.5±9.3%, p<0.001). Dietary fibre intake was significantly higher in the UK-Ghanaian diet compared to the native Ghanaian diet (8.3±3.1 vs. 6.7±2.2 g/1,000 kcal, p=0.007). There was significantly less energy, macronutrients, and fibre derived from traditional foods post-migration. Non-traditional foods including breakfast cereals, wholemeal bread, and processed meats made a greater contribution to nutrient intake post-migration. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show the migrant Ghanaian diet is characterised by significantly higher intakes of fat, saturated fat, and protein and significantly lower intakes of carbohydrate; a macronutrient profile which may promote increased risk of NCDs amongst UK-Ghanaians. These differences in the nutrient profile are likely to be modulated by the consumption of 'Western' foods observed in migrant communities.
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