25 results found
Oocyte retrieval forms a crucial part of in vitro fertilisation treatment and its ultimate outcome. Standard double-lumen needles, which include a sequence of aspiration and flushing steps, are characterised by a similar success rate to single-lumen needles, despite their increased cost. A novel hydrodynamics-based needle called the OxIVF needle is proposed here, which is geared towards the generation of an internal flow field within the full follicular volume via laterally, rather than frontally, oriented flushing, leading to successful retrievals with no additional stress on the oocyte. A two-dimensional digital twin of the follicular environment is created and tested via multi-phase flow direct numerical simulation. Oocyte initial location within the follicle is varied, while quantities of interest such as velocity magnitude and vorticity are measured with a high level of precision. This provides insight into the overall fluid motion, as well as the trajectory and stresses experienced by the oocyte. A comparative benchmark set of tests indicated a higher success rate of the OxIVF needle of up to 100%, marking a significant improvement over the traditional double-lumen design whose success rate of no more than 75% was also highly dependent on the location of the needle tip inside the follicle. All forces measured during these tests showcase how the oocyte experiences stresses which are no larger than at the aspiration point, with the flow field providing a gentle steering effect towards the extraction region. Finally, the flow generation strategy maximises oocyte yield, unlocking new capabilities in both human and veterinary contexts.
Fudge BD, Cimpeanu R, Antkowiak A, et al., 2023, Drop splashing after impact onto immiscible pools of different viscosities, JOURNAL OF COLLOID AND INTERFACE SCIENCE, Vol: 641, Pages: 585-594, ISSN: 0021-9797
Alventosa LFL, Cimpeanu R, Harris DM, 2023, Inertio-capillary rebound of a droplet impacting a fluid bath, JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS, Vol: 958, ISSN: 0022-1120
Wray AW, Cimpeanu R, Gomes SN, 2022, Electrostatic control of the Navier-Stokes equations for thin films, PHYSICAL REVIEW FLUIDS, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2469-990X
Fudge BD, Cimpeanu R, Castrejon-Pita AA, 2021, Dipping into a new pool: the interface dynamics of drops impacting onto a different liquid, Physical Review E: Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics, Vol: 104, ISSN: 1539-3755
When a drop impacts onto a pool of another liquid, the common interface will move down at a well-defined speed for the first few milliseconds. While simple mechanistic models and experiments with the same fluid used for the drop and pool have predicted this speed to be half the impacting drop speed, this is only one small part in a rich and intricate behavior landscape. Factors such as viscosity and density ratios greatly affect the penetration speed. By using a combination of high-speed photography, high-resolution numerical simulations, and physical modeling, we disentangle the different roles that physical fluid properties play in determining the true value of the postimpact interfacial velocity.
Negus MJ, Moore MR, Oliver JM, et al., 2021, Droplet impact onto a spring-supported plate: analysis and simulations, JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS, Vol: 128, ISSN: 0022-0833
Galeano-Rios CA, Cimpeanu R, Bauman IA, et al., 2021, Capillary-scale solid rebounds: experiments, modelling and simulations, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol: 912, ISSN: 0022-1120
A millimetre-size superhydrophobic sphere impacting on the free surface of a quiescent bath can be propelled back into the air by capillary effects and dynamic fluid forces, whilst transferring part of its energy to the fluid. We report the findings of a thorough investigation of this phenomenon, involving different approaches. Over the range from minimum impact velocities required to produce rebounds to impact velocities that cause the sinking of the solid sphere, we focus on the dependence of the coefficient of restitution, contact time and maximum surface deflection on the different physical parameters of the problem. Experiments, simulations and asymptotic analysis reveal trends in the rebound metrics, uncover new phenomena at both ends of the Weber number spectrum, and collapse the data. Direct numerical simulations using a pseudo-solid sphere successfully reproduce experimental data whilst also providing insight into flow quantities that are challenging to determine from experiments. A model based on matching the motion of a perfectly hydrophobic impactor to a linearised fluid free surface is validated against direct numerical simulations and used in the low-Weber-number regime. The hierarchical and cross-validated models in this study allow us to explore the entirety of our target parameter space within a challenging multi-scale system.
Cimpeanu R, Gomes SN, Papageorgiou DT, 2021, Active control of liquid film flows: beyond reduced-order models, Nonlinear Dynamics, Vol: 104, Pages: 267-287, ISSN: 0924-090X
The ability to robustly and efficiently control the dynamics of nonlinear systems lies at the heart of many current technological challenges, ranging from drug delivery systems to ensuring flight safety. Most such scenarios are too complex to tackle directly, and reduced-order modelling is used in order to create viable representations of the target systems. The simplified setting allows for the development of rigorous control theoretical approaches, but the propagation of their effects back up the hierarchy and into real-world systems remains a significant challenge. Using the canonical set-up of a liquid film falling down an inclined plane under the action of active feedback controls in the form of blowing and suction, we develop a multi-level modelling framework containing both analytical models and direct numerical simulations acting as an in silico experimental platform. Constructing strategies at the inexpensive lower levels in the hierarchy, we find that offline control transfer is not viable; however, analytically informed feedback strategies show excellent potential, even far beyond the anticipated range of applicability of the models. The detailed effects of the controls in terms of stability and treatment of nonlinearity are examined in detail in order to gain understanding of the information transfer inside the flows, which can aid transition towards other control-rich frameworks and applications.
Ojiako CJ, Cimpeanu R, Bandulasena HCH, et al., 2020, Deformation and dewetting of liquid films under gas jets, JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS, Vol: 905, ISSN: 0022-1120
Wray AW, Cimpeanu R, 2020, Reduced-order modelling of thick inertial flows around rotating cylinders, JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS, Vol: 898, ISSN: 0022-1120
Kalogirou A, Cimpeanu R, Blyth MG, 2020, Asymptotic modelling and direct numerical simulations of multilayer pressure-driven flows, European Journal of Mechanics - B/Fluids, Vol: 80, Pages: 195-205, ISSN: 0997-7546
The nonlinear dynamics of two immiscible superposed viscous fluid layers in a channel is examined using asymptotic modelling and direct numerical simulations (DNS). The flow is driven by an imposed axial pressure gradient. Working on the assumption that one of the layers is thin, a weakly-nonlinear evolution equation for the interfacial shape is derived that couples the dynamics in the two layers via a nonlocal integral term whose kernel is determined by solving the linearised Navier–Stokes equations in the thicker fluid. The model equation incorporates salient physical effects including inertia, gravity, and surface tension, and allows for comparison with DNS at finite Reynolds numbers. Direct comparison of travelling-wave solutions obtained from the model equation and from DNS show good agreement for both stably and unstably stratified flows. Both the model and the DNS indicate regions in parameter space where unimodal, bimodal and trimodal waves co-exist. Nevertheless, the asymptotic model cannot capture the dynamics for a sufficiently strong unstable density stratification when interfacial break-up and eventual dripping occurs. In this case, complicated interfacial dynamics arise from the dominance of the gravitational force over the shear force due to the underlying flow, and this is investigated in detail using DNS.
Tomlin R, Cimpeanu R, Papageorgiou D, 2020, Instability and dripping of electrified liquid films flowing down inverted substrates, Physical Review Fluids, Vol: 5, Pages: 013703-1-013703-34, ISSN: 2469-990X
We consider the gravity-driven flow of a perfect dielectric, viscous, thin liquid film, wetting a flatsubstrate inclined at a non-zero angle to the horizontal. The dynamics of the thin film is influencedby an electric field which is set up parallel to the substrate surface – this nonlocal physical mechanismhas a linearly stabilizing effect on the interfacial dynamics. Our particular interest is in fluid filmsthat are hanging from the underside of the substrate; these films may drip depending on physicalparameters, and we investigate whether a sufficiently strong electric field can suppress such nonlinearphenomena. For a non-electrified flow, it was observed by Brun et al. (Phys. Fluids 27, 084107, 2015)that the thresholds of linear absolute instability and dripping are reasonably close. In the presentstudy, we incorporate an electric field and analyse the absolute/convective instabilities of a hierarchyof reduced-order models to predict the dripping limit in parameter space. The spatial stability resultsfor the reduced-order models are verified by performing an impulse–response analysis with directnumerical simulations (DNS) of the Navier–Stokes equations coupled to the appropriate electricalequations. Guided by the results of the linear theory, we perform DNS on extended domains withinflow/outflow conditions (mimicking an experimental set-up) to investigate the dripping limit forboth non-electrified and electrified liquid films. For the latter, we find that the absolute instabilitythreshold provides an order-of-magnitude estimate for the electric field strength required to suppressdripping; the linear theory may thus be used to determine the feasibility of dripping suppressiongiven a set of geometrical, fluid and electrical parameters.
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Cimpeanu R, Moore MR, 2018, Early-time jet formation in liquid-liquid impact problems: theory and simulations, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol: 856, Pages: 764-796, ISSN: 0022-1120
We perform a thorough qualitative and quantitative comparison of theoretical predictions and direct numerical simulations for the two-dimensional, vertical impact of two droplets of the same fluid. In particular, we show that the theoretical predictions for the location and velocity of the jet root are excellent in the early stages of the impact, while the predicted jet velocity and thickness profiles are also in good agreement with the computations before the jet begins to bend. By neglecting the role of the surrounding gas both before and after impact, we are able to use Wagner theory to describe the early-time structure of the impact. We derive the model for general droplet velocities and radii, which encompasses a wide range of impact scenarios from the symmetric impact of identical drops to liquid drops impacting a deep pool. The leading-order solution is sufficient to predict the curve along which the root of the high-speed jet travels. After moving into a frame fixed in this curve, we are able to derive the zero-gravity shallow-water equations governing the leading-order thickness and velocity of the jet. Our numerical simulations are performed in the open-source software Gerris, which allows for the level of local grid refinement necessary for a problem with such a wide variety of length scales. The numerical simulations incorporate more of the physics of the problem, in particular the surrounding gas, the fluid viscosities, gravity and surface tension. We compare the computed and predicted solutions for a range of droplet radii and velocities, finding excellent agreement in the early stage. In light of these successful comparisons, we discuss the tangible benefits of using Wagner theory to confidently track properties such as the jet-root location, jet thickness and jet velocity in future studies of splash jet/ejecta evolution.
Cimpeanu R, Papageorgiou DT, 2018, Three-dimensional high speed drop impact onto solid surfaces at arbitrary angles, International Journal of Multiphase Flow, Vol: 107, Pages: 192-207, ISSN: 0301-9322
The rich structures arising from the impingement dynamics of water drops onto solid substrates at high velocities are investigated numerically. Current methodologies in the aircraft industry estimating water collection on aircraft surfaces are based on particle trajectory calculations and empirical extensions thereof in order to approximate the complex fluid-structure interactions. We perform direct numerical simulations (DNS) using the volume-of-fluid method in three dimensions, for a collection of drop sizes and impingement angles. The high speed background air flow is coupled with the motion of the liquid in the framework of oblique stagnation-point flow. Qualitative and quantitative features are studied in both pre- and post-impact stages. One-to-one comparisons are made with experimental data available from the investigations of Sor and García-Magariño (2015), while the main body of results is created using parameters relevant to flight conditions with droplet sizes in the ranges from tens to several hundreds of microns, as presented by Papadakis et al. (2004). Drop deformation, collision, coalescence and microdrop ejection and dynamics, all typically neglected or empirically modelled, are accurately accounted for. In particular, we identify new morphological features in regimes below the splashing threshold in the modelled conditions. We then expand on the variation in the number and distribution of ejected microdrops as a function of the impacting drop size beyond this threshold. The presented drop impact model addresses key questions at a fundamental level, however the conclusions of the study extend towards the advancement of understanding of water dynamics on aircraft surfaces, which has important implications in terms of compliance to aircraft safety regulations. The proposed methodology may also be utilised and extended in the context of related industrial applications involving high speed drop impact such as inkjet printing and combustion.
Anderson TG, Cimpeanu R, Papageorgiou DT, et al., 2017, Electric field stabilization of viscous liquid layers coating the underside of a surface, PHYSICAL REVIEW FLUIDS, Vol: 2, ISSN: 2469-990X
We investigate the electrostatic stabilization of a viscous thin film wetting the underside of a horizontal surface in the presence of an electric field applied parallel to the surface. The model includes the effect of bounding solid dielectric regions above and below the liquid-air system that are typically found in experiments. The competition between gravitational forces, surface tension, and the nonlocal effect of the applied electric field is captured analytically in the form of a nonlinear evolution equation. A semispectral solution strategy is employed to resolve the dynamics of the resulting partial differential equation. Furthermore, we conduct direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the Navier-Stokes equations using the volume-of-fluid methodology and assess the accuracy of the obtained solutions in the long-wave (thin-film) regime when varying the electric field strength from zero up to the point when complete stabilization occurs. We employ DNS to examine the limitations of the asymptotically derived behavior as the liquid layer thickness increases and find excellent agreement even beyond the regime of strict applicability of the asymptotic solution. Finally, the asymptotic and computational approaches are utilized to identify robust and efficient active control mechanisms allowing the manipulation of the fluid interface in light of engineering applications at small scales, such as mixing.
Cimpeanu R, Devine MT, O'Brien C, 2017, A simulation model for the management and expansion of extended port terminal operations, Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Vol: 98, Pages: 105-131, ISSN: 1366-5545
This study introduces a discrete event simulation model for the analysis of bulk carrier unloading and material transport, storage and discharge at Europe’s largest alumina refinery, RUSAL Aughinish Alumina. With novel features such as the integration of additional unloading functionality, auxiliary infrastructure units, as well as efficient maintenance scheduling into the material processing chain, the model is used to predict and evaluate the performance gain in the port system in the context of long-term investment and planning scenarios. Promising strategic directions in terms of large scale performance indicators such as berth occupancy and costs have been identified.
Kalogirou A, Cîmpeanu R, Keaveny EE, et al., 2016, Capturing nonlinear dynamics of two-fluid Couette flows with asymptotic models, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol: 806, Pages: R1-R13, ISSN: 1469-7645
The nonlinear stability of two-fluid Couette flows is studied using a novel evolution equation whose dynamics is validated by direct numerical simulation (DNS). The evolution equation incorporates inertial effects at arbitrary Reynolds numbers through a non-local term arising from the coupling between the two fluid regions, and is valid when one of the layers is thin. The equation predicts asymmetric solutions and exhibits bistability, features that are essential observations in the experiments of Barthelet et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 303, 1995, pp. 23–53). Related low-inertia models have been used in qualitative predictions rather than the direct comparisons carried out here, and ad hoc modifications appear to be necessary in order to predict asymmetry and bistability. Comparisons between model solutions and DNS show excellent agreement at Reynolds numbers of O(103)O(103) found in the experiments. Direct comparisons are also made with the available experimental results of Barthelet et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 303, 1995, pp. 23–53) when the thin layer occupies 1/51/5 of the channel height. Pointwise comparisons of the travelling wave shapes are carried out, and once again the agreement is very good.
Cimpeanu R, Papageorgiou DT, 2015, Electrostatically induced mixing in confined stratified multi-fluid systems, International Journal of Multiphase Flow, Vol: 75, Pages: 194-204, ISSN: 1879-3533
Electrostatic control mechanisms underpin a wide range of modern industrial processes, from lab-on-a-chip devices to microfluidic sensors for security applications. During the last decades, the striking impact of fluid interface manipulation in contexts such as polymer self-assembly, micromanufacturing and mixing in viscous media has established the field of electrically driven interfacial flows as invaluable. This work investigates electrostatically induced interfacial instabilities and subsequent generation of nonlinear coherent structures in immiscible, viscous, dielectric multi-layer stratified flows confined in channels with plane walls. The present study demonstrates theoretically that interfacial instabilities can be utilized to achieve efficient mixing in different immiscible fluid regions. This is accomplished by electrostatically driving stable flows far from their equilibrium states to attain time-oscillatory and highly nonlinear flows producing mixing. The nonlinear electrohydrodynamic instabilities play the role of imposed background velocity fields or moving device parts in more traditional mixing protocols. Initially, simple yet efficient on–off voltage protocols are investigated and subsequently symmetry-breaking voltage distributions are considered and shown to considerably enhance the achieved level of mixing. Both two- and three-dimensional flows, containing realistic fluid configurations (water and oils), are computed using direct numerical simulations based on the Navier–Stokes equations. Such numerical investigations facilitate the quantitative study of the flow into the fully nonlinear regime and constitute the basis of optimization methods in the context of microfluidic mixing applications in two- and three-dimensional geometries.
Cimpeanu R, Martinsson A, Heil M, 2015, A parameter-free perfectly matched layer formulation for the finite-element-based solution of the Helmholtz equation, Journal of Computational Physics, Vol: 296, Pages: 329-347, ISSN: 1090-2716
This paper presents a parameter-free perfectly matched layer (PML) method for the finite-element-based solution of the Helmholtz equation. We employ one of Bermúdez et al.'s unbounded absorbing functions for the complex coordinate mapping underlying the PML. With this choice, the only free parameter that controls the accuracy of the numerical solution for a fixed numerical cost (characterised by the number of elements in the bulk and the PML regions) is the thickness of the perfectly matched layer, δPML. We show that, for the case of planar waves, the absorbing function performs best for PMLs whose thickness is much smaller than the wavelength. We then perform extensive numerical experiments to explore its performance for non-planar waves, considering domain shapes with smooth and polygonal boundaries, different solution types (smooth and singular), and a wide range of wavenumbers, k , to identify an optimal range for the normalised PML thickness, kδPML, such that, within this range, the error introduced by the presence of the PML is consistently small and insensitive to change. This implies that if the PML thickness is chosen from within this range no further PML optimisation is required, i.e. the method is parameter-free. We characterise the dependence of the error on the discretisation parameters and establish the conditions under which the convergence of the solution under mesh refinement is controlled exclusively by the discretisation of the bulk mesh.
Cimpeanu R, Devine MT, Tocher D, et al., 2015, Development and analysis of a port terminal loader model at RUSAL Aughinish, SIMULATION MODELLING PRACTICE AND THEORY, Vol: 51, Pages: 14-30, ISSN: 1569-190X
Cimpeanu R, Papageorgiou DT, 2014, On the generation of nonlinear travelling waves in confined geometries using electric fields, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol: 372, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 1364-503X
We investigate electrostatically induced interfacial instabilities and subsequent generation of nonlinear coherent structures in immiscible, viscous, dielectric multi-layer stratified flows confined in small-scale channels. Vertical electric fields are imposed across the channel to produce interfacial instabilities that would normally be absent in such flows. In situations when the imposed vertical fields are constant, interfacial instabilities emerge due to the presence of electrostatic forces, and we follow the nonlinear dynamics via direct numerical simulations. We also propose and illustrate a novel pumping mechanism in microfluidic devices that does not use moving parts. This is achieved by first inducing interfacial instabilities using constant background electric fields to obtain fully nonlinear deformations. The second step involves the manipulation of the imposed voltage on the lower electrode (channel wall) to produce a spatio-temporally varying voltage there, in the form of a travelling wave with pre-determined properties. Such travelling wave dielectrophoresis methods are shown to generate intricate fluid–surface–structure interactions that can be of practical value since they produce net mass flux along the channel and thus are candidates for microfluidic pumps without moving parts. We show via extensive direct numerical simulations that this pumping phenomenon is a result of an externally induced nonlinear travelling wave that forms at the fluid–fluid interface and study the characteristics of the generated velocity field inside the channel.
Cimpeanu R, Papageorgiou DT, Petropoulos PG, 2014, On the control and suppression of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability using electric fields, PHYSICS OF FLUIDS, Vol: 26, ISSN: 1070-6631
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