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Brandts J, Dharmayat KI, Vallejo-Vaz AJ, et al., 2021, A meta-analysis of medications directed against PCSK9 in familial hypercholesterolemia, Atherosclerosis, Vol: 325, Pages: 46-56, ISSN: 0021-9150
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Several medications targeting PCSK9 reduce LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH). We aimed to assess in patients diagnosed clinically as HeFH, whether LDL-C reduction varied by different therapeutic approaches to PCSK9-targeting or by the underlying genetic variant. METHODS: We conducted a random-effects meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials assessing PCSK9-targeting therapies, namely alirocumab, evolocumab and inclisiran, in patients with clinically diagnosed HeFH and restricted analyses to those patients in whom genotypic data were available. A search of MEDLINE and Embase identified eligible trials published between inception and June 29, 2020. We included trials of sufficient duration to allow for a stable treatment effect: ~12 weeks for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) (alirocumab, evolocumab) and ~1 year for small interfering RNA (siRNA) (inclisiran). Single-moderator meta-regression comparing mean percentage LDL-C reduction between mAbs and siRNA as well as PCSK9-targeting therapies between different genotypes was used to assess heterogeneity. RESULTS: Eight trials of HeFH met our inclusion criteria, including 1887 genotyped patients. Among monogenic HeFH cases (N = 1347) the LDL-C reduction from baseline was 46.12% (95%CI 48.4-43.9) for siRNA and 50.4% (59.3-41.4) for mAbs compared to control, without evidence of significant heterogeneity between treatment (QM = 0.32, df = 1, p = 0.57). Irrespective of therapeutic approach to PCSK9-targeting, reductions in LDL-C were generally consistent across genetic variants (LDL-Receptor variants, LDL-Receptor variants of unknown significance, Apolipoprotein B variants, two variants and no variant) (QM = 8.3, df = 4, p = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with HeFH, the LDL-C-lowering effect of PCSK9-targeting medications did not show statistical heterogeneity across different drug-classes a
Hu P, Dharmayat KI, Stevens CAT, et al., 2020, Prevalence of familial hypercholesterolemia among the general population and patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis., Circulation, Vol: 141, Pages: 1742-1759, ISSN: 0009-7322
Background:Contemporary studies suggest that familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is more frequent than previously reported and increasingly recognized as affecting individuals of all ethnicities and across many regions of the world. Precise estimation of its global prevalence and prevalence across World Health Organization regions is needed to inform policies aiming at early detection and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) prevention. The present study aims to provide a comprehensive assessment and more reliable estimation of the prevalence of FH than hitherto possible in the general population (GP) and among patients with ASCVD.Methods:We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis including studies reporting on the prevalence of heterozygous FH in the GP or among those with ASCVD. Studies reporting gene founder effects and focused on homozygous FH were excluded. The search was conducted through Medline, Embase, Cochrane, and Global Health, without time or language restrictions. A random-effects model was applied to estimate the overall pooled prevalence of FH in the general and ASCVD populations separately and by World Health Organization regions.Results:From 3225 articles, 42 studies from the GP and 20 from populations with ASCVD were eligible, reporting on 7 297 363 individuals/24 636 cases of FH and 48 158 patients/2827 cases of FH, respectively. More than 60% of the studies were from Europe. Use of the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network criteria was the commonest diagnostic method. Within the GP, the overall pooled prevalence of FH was 1:311 (95% CI, 1:250–1:397; similar between children [1:364] and adults [1:303], P=0.60; across World Health Organization regions where data were available, P=0.29; and between population-based and electronic health records–based studies, P=0.82). Studies with ≤10 000 participants reported a higher prevalence (1:200–289) compared with larger cohorts (1:365–407; P<0.001). The pooled pre
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