Imperial College London

Dr Richard J Pinder

Faculty of MedicineSchool of Public Health

Director of Undergraduate Public Health Education



+44 (0)20 7594 0789richard.pinder




313Reynolds BuildingCharing Cross Campus






BibTex format

author = {Pinder, RJ and Murphy, D and Iversen, AC and Wessely, S and Fear, NT},
title = {Social exclusion amongst UK veterans based on measures of employment},
year = {2011}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Objectives: For some individuals leaving the Armed Forces, the return to civilian life can be problematic. Social exclusion describes a process of detachment from normal participation in the activities of society. This study aims to identify risk factors associated with social exclusion amongst ex-service personnel, using measures of employment. Methods: A telephone study of serving and ex-serving personnel (n=821) drawn from the King’s cohort study of UK military personnel (n=10272), asked those who had left the military questions regarding their employment history and experiences since leaving the military. A composite variable was formed using employment measures, which identified a socially excluded group. These individuals were compared to a group in stable employment. Results: 215 ex-service personnel were included. 35 (7.5%) were unemployed at the time of interview. 78 (29.3%) were classified as socially excluded. Two groups were identified as being at highest risk of social exclusion: those leaving after a shorter period of service (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79-0.99), and those leaving after completing a full term of service (adjusted OR 14.05, 95% CI 2.78-71.06). Those with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder were less likely to experience social exclusion (adjusted OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.06-0.67). Conclusions: Military service is a positive experience for the majority, however a small group of individuals who are compulsorily discharged for completing their term of service or for other reasons, fare worse in the context of social exclusion as measured by employment.
AU - Pinder,RJ
AU - Murphy,D
AU - Iversen,AC
AU - Wessely,S
AU - Fear,NT
PY - 2011///
TI - Social exclusion amongst UK veterans based on measures of employment
ER -