9 results found
Zis T, North RJ, Angeloudis P, et al., 2013, The effectiveness of cold ironing and speed reduction policies near ports on ship emissions, Maritime Economics and Logistics
The increasing environmental impact of maritime shipping has been addressed by both research and international regulation in recent decades with air pollution in the vicinity of ports being of particular concern. Alternative port operating policies have the potential to reduce pollutant emissions however their effectiveness for ports with different characteristics and vessel call patterns has not been systematically examined. This paper presents a consistent and transferable methodology for the estimation of emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and black carbon (BC) from the maritime component of port activities. For a range of typical container terminal types, results show significant variability from port to port. In per-vessel terms, compliance by a larger vessel tends to give larger emission reductions than compliance by a smaller vessel. Full compliance of all calling vessels with a speed reduction scheme can lead to reductions of 8-20%, 9-60%, and 9-22% for CO2, SO2, and NOx respectively with increased reduction potential for ports featuring shorter berth durations and a larger proportion of larger ships. For BC, speed reduction policies may increase emissions substantially (by 75-195%) for all ports considered. However ship emission factors for BC are less well established than for other pollutants. For the provision of Alternative Marine Power (AMP) for berthing vessels, full compliance can lead to reductions of in-port emissions of 48-70%, 12-70%, 48-70%, and 59-76% for CO2, SO2, NOx and BC respectively with increased benefits seen for non-SECA ports with long vessel berth durations and a larger proportion of larger ships. In terms of overall emissions the results are critically dependent on the emissions intensity of the port electricity supply, with increased total emissions possible. It is recommended that individual ports apply these methods to evaluate and prioritise alternative policies for emissions reductio
North RJ, Lent R, Barria JA, 2013, An evaluation of intelligent mobility models for participatory sensing in urban transport networks
Dynamically adaptive transport network management systems can implement a range of strategies to address multiple network performance objectives. However, where these objectives include environmental outcomes such as local air quality, insufficient input data presents a barrier to implementation. Networks of pervasive wireless sensors can provide such data, but key questions remain as to the number of sensors required in order to support a particular monitoring requirement, their optimal deployment, and ensuring robust sensor inter-comparison and calibration. This study develops an anlysis methodology and examines the potential benefits of combining fixed and mobile sensor nodes to enhance the detection of air pollution events in the vicinity of the transport network. Alternative sensor deployment strategies and mobility models are evaluated, including participatory sensing methods where additional sensing may be recruited or re-directed to respond to measured conditions. Results show that the inclusion of mobile nodes enables a reduction of either the number of sensors needed for a given level of detection uncertainty, or for a reduction in the error using the same number of nodes. The time-to-detection can be significantly reduced through the inclusion of a level of planning and intelligence in the routing of the mobile nodes. A simple assignment mechanism based on minimum detour cost is proposed and has been shown to achieve similar detection accuracy to systems with infinite budget. Based on these findings, the implementation and field evaluation of mixed networks of fixed and mobile sensors is recommended.
Ho IW-H, North RJ, Polak JW, et al., 2011, Effect of Transport Models on Connectivity of Interbus Communication Networks, JOURNAL OF INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS, Vol: 15, Pages: 161-178, ISSN: 1547-2450
Ochieng WY, Quddus MA, North RJ, et al., 2010, Technologies to measure indicators for road user charging, PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS-TRANSPORT, Vol: 163, Pages: 63-72, ISSN: 0965-092X
Feng S, Ochieng W, North R, 2008, Quantitative Measures for GPS Based Road User Charging, 11th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC 2008), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 495-500
North R, Richards M, Cohen J, et al., 2008, A mobile environmental sensing system to manage transportation and urban air quality, IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 1994-+, ISSN: 0271-4302
North RJ, Noland RB, Ochieng WY, et al., 2006, Modelling of particulate matter mass emissions from a light-duty diesel vehicle, TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH PART D-TRANSPORT AND ENVIRONMENT, Vol: 11, Pages: 344-357, ISSN: 1361-9209
North RJ, Ochieng WY, Quddus MA, et al., 2005, Development of a vehicle emissions monitoring system, PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS-TRANSPORT, Vol: 158, Pages: 167-177, ISSN: 0965-092X
Noland RB, Ochieng WY, Quddus MA, et al., 2004, The vehicle emissions and performance monitoring system: Analysis of tailpipe emissions and vehicle performance, TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 27, Pages: 431-447, ISSN: 0308-1060
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