70 results found
Tan P, Cai H, Wei Q, et al., 2021, Enhanced chemo-photodynamic therapy of an enzyme-responsive prodrug in bladder cancer patient-derived xenograft models, Biomaterials, ISSN: 0142-9612
Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models are powerful tools for understanding cancer biology and drug discovery. In this study, a polymeric nano-sized drug delivery system poly(OEGMA)-PTX@Ce6 (NPs@Ce6) composed of a photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6) and a cathepsin B-sensitive polymer-paclitaxel (PTX) prodrug was constructed. The photochemical internalization (PCI) effect and enhanced chemo-photodynamic therapy (PDT) were achieved via a two-stage light irradiation strategy. The results showed that the NPs@Ce6 had great tumor targeting and rapid cellular uptake induced by PCI, thereby producing excellent anti-tumor effects on human bladder cancer PDX models with tumor growth inhibition greater than 98%. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the combination of PTX chemotherapy and PDT up-regulated oxidative phosphorylation and ROS generation, blocked cell cycle and proliferation, and down-regulated the pathways related to tumor progression, invasion and metastasis, including hypoxia, TGF-β signaling and TNF-α signaling pathways. Western blots analysis confirmed that proteins promoting apoptosis (Bax, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP) and DNA damage (γH2A.X) were up-regulated, while those inhibiting apoptosis (Bcl-2) and mitosis (pan-actin and α/β-tubulin) were down-regulated after chemo-PDT treatment. Therefore, this stimuli-responsive polymer-PTX prodrug-based nanomedicine with combinational chemotherapy and PDT evaluated in the PDX models could be a potential candidate for bladder cancer therapy.
Huang Y, Gu B, Salles II, et al., 2021, Fibrinogen-mimicking, multi-arm nanovesicles for human thrombus-specific delivery of tissue plasminogen activator and targeted thrombolytic therapy, Science Advances, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2375-2548
Clinical use of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in thrombolytic therapy is limited by its short circulation time and hemorrhagic side effects. Inspired by fibrinogen binding to activated platelets, we report a fibrinogen-mimicking, multi-arm nanovesicle for thrombus-specific tPA delivery and targeted thrombolysis. This novel system is based on the lipid nanovesicle coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) terminally conjugated with a cyclic RGD (cRGD) peptide. Our experiments with human blood demonstrated its highly selective binding to activated platelets and efficient tPA release at a thrombus site under both static and physiological flow conditions. Its clot dissolution time in a microfluidic system was comparable to that of free tPA. Furthermore, we report a purpose-built computational model capable of simulating targeted thrombolysis of the tPA-loaded nanovesicle and with potential in predicting the dynamics of thrombolysis in physiologically realistic scenarios. This combined experimental and computational work presents a promising platform for development of thrombolytic nanomedicines.
Huang Y, Wang Z, Zhang G, et al., 2021, A pH/redox-dual responsive, nanoemulsion-embedded hydrogel for efficient oral delivery and controlled intestinal release of magnesium ions, Journal of Materials Chemistry B, Vol: 9, Pages: 1888-1895, ISSN: 2050-750X
It remains a major challenge to achieve efficient oral delivery and controlled intestinal release of ions using hydrogels. Herein, we report a novel, pH/redox-dual responsive, nanoemulsion-embedded composite hydrogel to address this issue. The hydrogel was first synthesized by crosslinking a biocompatible, pH-responsive pseudopeptide, poly(L-lysine isophthalamide) (PLP), and redox-sensitive L-cystine dimethyl ester dihydrochloride (CDE). A suitable amount of magnesium acetate was encapsulated into oil-in-water nanoemulsions, which were then embedded into the lysine-based hydrogel. The resulting composite hydrogel collapsed into a compact structure at acidic gastric pH, but became highly swollen or degraded in the neutral and reducing intestinal environment. The ion release profiles indicated that the nanoemulsion-embedded composite hydrogel could well retain and protect magnesium ions in the simulated gastric fluid (SGF) buffer at pH 1.2, but efficiently release them in the simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) buffer at pH 6.8 in the presence of 1,4-dithiothreitol (DTT) as a reducing agent. Moreover, this composite hydrogel system displayed good biocompatibility. These results suggested that the pH/redox-dual responsive, nanoemulsion-embedded composite hydrogel could be a promising candidate for efficient oral delivery and controlled intestinal release of magnesium and other ions.
We developed a polymer–drug strategy to explore anticancer polymers. A series of monomers containing groups with potential anticancer activity have been facilely prepared through the Biginelli reaction. These monomers were used to produce water-soluble polymers through convenient radical copolymerization. The resulting polymers are biocompatible and can be directly used to suppress proliferation of different cancer cells without the release of small molecules. Theoretical calculations revealed that Biginelli groups in polymers had strong interaction with the Eg5 protein, which is highly expressed in cancer cells and is closely related to cell mitosis. Subsequent cell experiments confirmed that a screened polymer is efficient in inhibiting mitosis in different cancer cells. Our study of exploring functional polymers via the combination of multicomponent reactions and theoretical calculation resulted in promising anticancer polymers, which might pave a path for de novo designing of functional polymers and have important implications in the fields of organic, computational, and polymer chemistry.
Chen R, Yu L, Tang Y, 2020, Polymer
Chen R, Huang Y, Xu XY, et al., 2020, Red Blood Cell-Derived Vesicle
Chen S, Wu L, Ren J, et al., 2020, Comb-like pseudopeptides enable very rapid and efficient intracellular trehalose delivery for enhanced cryopreservation of erythrocytes, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Vol: 12, Pages: 28941-28951, ISSN: 1944-8244
Cell cryopreservation plays a key role in development of reproducible and cost-effective cell-based therapies. Trehalose accumulated in freezing and desiccation tolerant organisms in nature has been sought as an attractive non-toxic cryoprotectant. Herein, we report a co-incubation method for very rapid and efficient delivery of membrane-impermeable trehalose into ovine erythrocytes through reversible membrane permeabilization using pH-responsive, comb-like pseudopeptides. The pseudopeptidic polymers containing relatively long alkyl side chains were synthesized to mimic membrane-anchoring fusogenic proteins. The intracellular trehalose delivery efficiency was optimized by manipulating the side chain length, degree of substitution and concentration of the pseudopeptides with different hydrophobic alkyl side chains, the pH, temperature and time of incubation, as well as the polymer-to-cell ratio and the concentration of extracellular trehalose. Treatment of erythrocytes with the comb-like pseudopeptides for only 15 min yielded an intracellular trehalose concentration of 177.9 ± 8.6 mM, which resulted in 90.3 ± 0.7% survival after freeze-thaw. The very rapid and efficient delivery was found to be attributed to the reversible, pronounced membrane curvature change as a result of strong membrane insertion of the comb-like pseudopeptides. The pseudopeptides can enable efficient intracellular delivery of not only trehalose for improved cell cryopreservation, but also other membrane-impermeable cargos.
Tascini AS, Wang S, Seddon JM, et al., 2020, Fats’ love–hate relationships: a molecular dynamics simulation and hands-on experiment outreach activity to introduce the amphiphilic nature and biological functions of lipids to young students and the general public, Journal of Chemical Education, Vol: 97, Pages: 1360-1367, ISSN: 0021-9584
Lipids are fundamental components of biological organisms and have important applications in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetics industries. Thus, it is important that young students and the general public properly understand the basic properties of lipids and how these relate to their biological and industrial roles. Here, we use molecular dynamics computer simulations and a simple, safe, and inexpensive popular hands-on activity, to communicate to participants why and how lipid molecules play a fundamental role in all living organisms and in our bodies. The activity is called “Fats’ Love–Hate Relationships”, to highlight how the different parts of amphiphilic lipids interact with water. This “love–hate relationship” is vital to the biological functions of lipids and drives the formation of lipid structures that can be visualized at molecular scale with the computer simulations. The participants were encouraged to investigate the interactions between milk lipids and soap surfactants, creating beautiful complex artwork that they could then take home. The hands-on activity was accompanied by a video of a molecular simulation that illustrates milk–soap interactions at a molecular scale and helps to explain how the amphiphilicity of lipids creates the beautiful artwork at a molecular level. The outreach activity has been performed in science festivals and in classrooms and has been well received by participants of all ages with multiple learner comprehension levels (primary and secondary school students and the general public). By combining molecular simulation, explanations of the amphiphilic structure of the lipids, and an engaging hands-on activity, we explained how lipids interact with water and surfactants and inspired discussions on the link between the structure of the lipids and their biological function, namely, their structural and protective roles as a key component of cell membranes.
Huang Y, Qiu F, Chen R, et al., 2020, Fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based drug delivery systems for enhanced photodynamic therapy, Journal of Materials Chemistry B, Vol: 8, Pages: 3772-3788, ISSN: 2050-750X
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has received an increasing attention in disease treatment due to its minimally-invasive, selective destruction with combination of a photosensitizer (PS), light, and oxygen. However, the limited cytotoxic singlet oxygen (1O2) generation and thin tissue penetrability have been two major barriers in the conventional PDT, hindering its further development and clinical use. Recently, fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based drug delivery systems (FRET-DDSs), indirectly activating PS drugs by a donor fluorophore, have been successfully applied to alleviate these issues. The transfer of excitation energy from donors to PS drugs can significantly boost its light harvesting and extend the field of light source, which dramatically improves its production efficiency of singlet oxygen, thus leading to highly efficient and deep-tissue-penetrable PDT for the treatment of bacteria, cancer and other diseases. In this Review, we give the first-known overview of recent advances in FRET-DDSs for the enhanced PDT. In particular, dependent on the excitation energy mechanism in the FRET process, six major types of FRET-DDSs, including one-photon, two-photon, upconversion, auto-fluorescence, X-ray, and Cerenkov excited FRET-DDSs in PDT applications are summarized in detail. Furthermore, future research directions and perspectives in this emerging field are also discussed.
Li L, Xiao B, Mu J, et al., 2019, A MnO2 nanoparticle-dotted hydrogel promotes spinal cord repair via regulating reactive oxygen species microenvironment and synergizing with mesenchymal stem cells, ACS Nano, Vol: 13, Pages: 14283-14293, ISSN: 1936-0851
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most debilitating injuries and transplantation of stem cells in a scaffold is a promising strategy for the treatment. However, the stem cell treatment of SCI has been severely impaired by the increased generation of reactive oxygen species in the lesion microenvironment, which can lead to a high level of stem cell death and dysfunction. Herein, a MnO2 nanoparticle (NP)-dotted hydrogel is prepared through dispersion of MnO2 NPs in a PPFLMLLKGSTR peptide modified hyaluronic acid hydrogel. The peptide modified hydrogel enables the adhesive growth of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and nerve tissue bridging. The MnO2 NPs alleviate the oxidative environment, thereby effectively improving the viability of MSCs. Transplantation of MSCs in the multifunctional gel generates a significant motor function restoration on a long-span rat spinal cord transection model and induces an in vivo integration as well as neural differentiation of the implanted MSCs, leading to a highly efficient regeneration of central nervous spinal cord tissue. Therefore, the MnO2 NP-dotted hydrogel represents a promising strategy for stem cell-based therapies of central nervous system diseases through the comprehensive regulation of pathological microenvironment complications.
Kopytynski M, Chen S, Legg S, et al., 2019, A versatile polymer‐based platform for intracellular delivery of macromolecules, Advanced Therapeutics, Vol: 3, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2366-3987
The plasma membrane barrier greatly restricts intracellular delivery of macromolecules. Currently available methods suffer from various limitations, including low delivery efficiency, high cytotoxicity or incompatibility with a wider range of macromolecules or cell types. To overcome these issues, stimuli-responsive polymers such as the bio-inspired, pH-responsive poly(L-lysine isophthalamide) grafted with L-phenylalanine at a stoichiometric ratio of 50% (PP50) can be used. In mildly acidic environments, the pseudopeptidic polymer can permeabilize the plasma membrane overcoming the problem of payload entrapment in the endosomes and allowing for efficient intracellular delivery. We demonstrate that PP50 was capable of intracellular delivery by simple co-incubation at pH 6.5 with various macromolecules, including different-sized Dextrans, green fluorescent protein (GFP) and an apoptotic peptide. The delivery process was fast, non-toxic and compatible with multiple cell types, including adherent and suspension cell lines, primary human mesenchymal stem cells, and cells grown as spheroids. In addition, apoptotic peptide delivery by co-incubation with PP50 was over 3 times more effective than delivery using other common methods, including poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI), cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) and electroporation. Our findings suggest that payload delivery by co-incubation with PP50 is a flexible, controllable method allowing delivery of various payloads to many different cell types in vitro.
Gu B, Piebalgs A, Huang Y, et al., 2019, Computational simulations of thrombolysis in acute stroke: Effect of clot size and location on recanalisation, Medical Engineering & Physics, Vol: 73, Pages: 9-17, ISSN: 1350-4533
Acute ischaemic stroke can be treated by intravenous thrombolysis whereby tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is infused to dissolve clots that block blood supply to the brain. In this study, we aim to examine the influence of clot location and size on lysis pattern and recanalisation by using a recently developed computational modelling framework for thrombolysis under physiological flow conditions. An image-based patient-specific model is reconstructed which consists of the internal carotid bifurcation with the A1 segment of anterior cerebral arteries and M1 segment of middle cerebral arteries, and the M1 bifurcation containing the M2 segments. By varying the clot size and location, 7 scenarios are simulated mimicking thrombolysis of M1 and M2 occlusions. Our results show that initial breakthrough always occurs along the inner curvature of the occluded cerebral artery, due to prolonged tPA residence time in the recirculation zone. For a given occlusion site, lysis completion time appears to increase almost quadratically with the initial clot volume; whereas for a given clot volume, the simulated M2 occlusions take up to 30% longer for complete lysis compared to the corresponding M1 occlusions.
Chen S, Ren J, Chen R, 2019, Cryopreservation and Desiccation Preservation of Cells, Comprehensive Biotechnology, Editors: Moo-Young, Elsevier: Pergamon, Publisher: Pergamon, Pages: 157-166, ISBN: 9780444640468
Cell preservation technology is required to retain cell viability and functionality during storage. It is of critical importance for the development of biobanks and the delivery of emerging cell-based therapies including blood transfusion, immunotherapy, reparative and regenerative medicine, and fertility preservation. Cryopreservation at ultralow temperature is currently the main way of long-term cell storage. Preservation of cells in dried state at room temperature is an attractive strategy to overcome the limitations of refrigeration and enable easy transportation. Although achievements have been made in preservation of human, animal and bacteria cells, there is still much space for improving their survival rate and functionality. Cell injuries may easily occur during freezing and drying steps, especially for mammalian cells which are more delicate and freezing/desiccation sensitive. This article reviews the mechanisms of cell damage, describes the challenges for cell preservation, and presents the technologies and protectants used in this rapidly growing field.
Huang Y, Yu L, Ren J, et al., 2019, An activated-platelet-sensitive nanocarrier enables targeted delivery of tissue plasminogen activator for effective thrombolytic therapy, Journal of Controlled Release, Vol: 300, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 0168-3659
It remains a major challenge to develop a selective and effective fibrinolytic system for thrombolysis with minimal undesirable side effects. Herein, we report a multifunctional liposomal system (164.6 ± 5.3 nm in diameter) which can address this challenge through targeted delivery and controlled release of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) at the thrombus site. The tPA-loaded liposomes were PEGylated to improve their stability, and surface coated with a conformationally-constrained, cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (cRGD) to enable highly selective binding to activated platelets. The in vitro drug release profiles at 37 °C showed that over 90% of tPA was released through liposomal membrane destabilization involving membrane fusion upon incubation with activated platelets within 1 h, whereas passive release of the encapsulated tPA in pH 7.4 PBS buffer was 10% after 6 h. The release of tPA could be readily manipulated by changing the concentration of activated platelets. The presence of activated platelets enabled the tPA-loaded, cRGD-coated, PEGylated liposomes to induce efficient fibrin clot lysis in a fibrin-agar plate model and the encapsulated tPA retained 97.4 ± 1.7% of fibrinolytic activity as compared with that of native tPA. Furthermore, almost complete blood clot lysis was achieved in 75 min, showing considerably higher and quicker thrombolytic activity compared to the tPA-loaded liposomes without cRGD labelling. These results suggest that the nano-sized, activated-platelet-sensitive, multifunctional liposomes could facilitate selective delivery and effective release of tPA at the site of thrombus, thus achieving efficient clot dissolution whilst minimising undesirable side effects.
He M, Huang L, Hou X, et al., 2019, Efficient ovalbumin delivery using a novel multifunctional micellar platform for targeted melanoma immunotherapy, International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Vol: 560, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 0378-5173
Cancer immunotherapy is considered to be one of the alternatives to traditional chemotherapy. It's known that foreign antigen, such as ovalbumin (OVA), can label tumor cells, leading to neoantigen recognition by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Herein, a novel multifunctional micelle coated with PEGylated hyaluronic acid (HA) was prepared through self-assembly and electrostatic interaction. The OVA-loaded micelle with uniform size (132.1 ± 0.2 nm in diameter) exhibited favorable stability and sustained release profiles. The HA-coated micelle could target CD44-overexpressed cells and enhance the cellular uptake of OVA by 11.9 fold compared to free OVA. In vitro studies revealed that the cationic polymer, polyethyleneimine, could facilitate endosomal escape of OVA to label a tumor cell. After treatment with the OVA-loaded micelle, tumor growth in mice was significantly inhibited by 70% compared to the group treated with free OVA. All these results suggest the potential application of the immunotherapeutic micellar platform for melanoma treatment.
Gu B, Piebalgs A, Huang Y, et al., 2019, Mathematical modelling of intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischaemic stroke: Effects of dose regimens on levels of fibrinolytic proteins and clot lysis time, Pharmaceutics, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1999-4923
Thrombolytic therapy is one of the medical procedures in the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke (AIS), whereby the tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is intravenously administered to dissolve the obstructive blood clot. The treatment of AIS by thrombolysis can sometimes be ineffective and it can cause serious complications, such as intracranial haemorrhage (ICH). In this study, we propose an efficient mathematical modelling approach that can be used to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and safety of thrombolysis in various clinically relevant scenarios. Our model combines the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tPA with local clot lysis dynamics. By varying the drug dose, bolus-infusion delay time, and bolus-infusion ratio, with the FDA approved dosing protocol serving as a reference, we have used the model to simulate 13 dose regimens. Simulation results are compared for temporal concentrations of fibrinolytic proteins in plasma and the time that is taken to achieve recanalisation. Our results show that high infusion rates can cause the rapid degradation of plasma fibrinogen, indicative of increased risk for ICH, but they do not necessarily lead to fast recanalisation. In addition, a bolus-infusion delay results in an immediate drop in plasma tPA concentration, which prolongs the time to achieve recanalisation. Therefore, an optimal administration regimen should be sought by keeping the tPA level sufficiently high throughout the treatment and maximising the lysis rate while also limiting the degradation of fibrinogen in systemic plasma. This can be achieved through model-based optimisation in the future.
Dong R, Liu R, Gaffney P, et al., 2019, Sequence-defined multifunctional polyethers via liquid-phase synthesis with molecular sieving, Nature Chemistry, Vol: 11, Pages: 136-145, ISSN: 1755-4330
Synthetic chemists have devoted tremendous effort towards the production of precision synthetic polymers with defined sequences and specific functions. However, the creation of a general technology that enables precise control over monomer sequence, with efficient isolation of the target polymers, is highly challenging. Here, we report a robust strategy for the production of sequence-defined synthetic polymers through a combination of liquid-phase synthesis and selective molecular sieving. The polymer is assembled in solution with real-time monitoring to ensure couplings proceed to completion, on a three-armed star-shaped macromolecule to maximize efficiency during the molecular sieving process. This approach is applied to the construction of sequence-defined polyethers, with side-arms at precisely defined locations that can undergo site-selective modification after polymerization. Using this versatile strategy, we have introduced structural and functional diversity into sequence-defined polyethers, unlocking their potential for real-life applications in nanotechnology, healthcare and information storage.
Dong R, Liu R, Gaffney PRJ, et al., 2019, Author Correction: Sequence-defined multifunctional polyethers via liquid-phase synthesis with molecular sieving, Nature Chemistry, Vol: 11, Pages: 184-184, ISSN: 1755-4330
Correction to: Nature Chemistry https://doi.org/10.1038/s41557-018-0169-6, published online 3 December 2018.
Tascini AS, Noro MG, Seddon JM, et al., 2019, Mechanisms of lipid extraction from skin lipid bilayers by sebum triglycerides, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol: 21, Pages: 1471-1477, ISSN: 1463-9076
The skin surface, our first barrier against the external environment, is covered by the sebum oil, a lipid film composed of sebaceous and epidermal lipids, which is important in the regulation of the hydration level of our skin. Here, we investigate the pathways leading to the transfer of epidermal lipids from the skin lipid bilayer to the sebum. We show that the sebum triglycerides, a major component of sebum, interact strongly with the epidermal lipids and extract them from the bilayer. Using microsecond time scale molecular dynamics simulations, we identify and quantify the free energy associated with the skin lipid extraction process.
Wang S, Attah R, Li J, et al., 2018, A pH-responsive amphiphilic hydrogel based on pseudopeptides and poly(ethylene glycol) for oral delivery of hydrophobic drugs, ACS Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Vol: 4, Pages: 4236-4243, ISSN: 2373-9878
Oral administration is a noninvasive and convenient drug delivery route most preferred by patients. However, poor stability in the gastrointestinal tract and low bioavailability of hydrophobic drugs has greatly limited their oral administration. To address this problem, we report a pH-responsive, amphiphilic hydrogel drug carrier based on a pseudopeptide poly(l-lysine isophthalamide) (PLP) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). The hydrogels were prepared by a simple N-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)-N′-ethyl carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC)/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) coupling reaction, and the cross-linking was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry analyses. Because of the pH-responsive conformational alteration of PLP, the hydrogels were relatively hydrophobic and collapsed at acidic pH, but became hydrophilic and swollen at neutral pH. The amphiphilicity enabled the hydrogels to well retain and protect hydrophobic model drugs in the simulated gastric fluid, but efficiently release them in the simulated intestinal fluid. These results suggested that the pH-responsive amphiphilic hydrogels are promising candidates for oral delivery of hydrophobic drugs.
Wang S, Ha Y, Huang X, et al., 2018, A new strategy for intestinal drug delivery via pH-responsive and membrane-active nanogels, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, Vol: 10, Pages: 36622-36627, ISSN: 1944-8244
Oral administration of hydrophobic and poorly intestinal epithelium-permeable drugs is a significant challenge. Herein, we report a new strategy to overcome this problem by using novel, pH-responsive, and membrane-active nanogels as drug carriers. Prepared by simple physical cross-linking of amphiphilic pseudopeptidic polymers with pH-controlled membrane-activity, the size and hydrophobicity–hydrophilicity balance of the nanogels could be well-tuned. Furthermore, the amphiphilic nanogels could release hydrophobic payloads and destabilize cell membranes at duodenum and jejunum pH 5.0–6.0, which suggests their great potential for intestinal drug delivery.
Bachir ZA, Huang Y, He M, et al., 2018, Effects of PEG surface density and chain length on the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of methotrexate-loaded chitosan nanoparticles, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NANOMEDICINE, Vol: 13, Pages: 5657-5671, ISSN: 1178-2013
Background: One of the most important aspects of drug delivery is extended nanoparticle (NP) residence time in vivo. Herein, we report a series of methotrexate (MTX)-loaded chitosan (CS) NPs coated with differently sized methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) at different mPEG surface densities.Materials and methods: MTX was incorporated into NPs (112.8–171.2 nm in diameter) prepared from the resulting mPEG-g-CS. The NPs had a zeta potential of +7.4–35.0 mV and MTX loading efficiency of 17.1%–18.4%. MTX/mPEG-g-CS NPs showed an initial burst release of MTX followed by a sustained-release profile in PBS at pH 7.4.Results: The in vitro cellular uptake study showed that MTX accumulation in J774A.1 macrophage cells decreased with increasing the mPEG surface density or the mPEG molecular weight. The pharmacokinetic study on Sprague Dawley rats revealed an increase in AUC0–72 h (area under the plasma drug concentration–time curve over a period of 72 hours) with increasing the mPEG surface density or the mPEG molecular weight and a linear correlation between the mPEG surface density and AUC0–72 h.Conclusion: The biodistribution study on Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice revealed that MTX/mPEG-g-CS NPs significantly enhanced blood circulation time in the body and decreased accumulation in liver, spleen, and lung. These results suggest the potential of the mPEG-g-CS NPs as a promising candidate for drug delivery.
Dong R, Chen R, Livingston A, 2018, Iterative synthesis of sequence-defined, multifunctional, biocompatible PEGs for biomedical applications, 256th National Meeting and Exposition of the American-Chemical-Society (ACS) - Nanoscience, Nanotechnology and Beyond, Publisher: AMER CHEMICAL SOC, ISSN: 0065-7727
Chen R, Chen S, Wu L, 2018, Poly(L-lysine isophthalamide) (PLP) Polymers with Hydrophobic Pendant Chains, WO 2018/011580
The present disclosure relates to the provision of novel biodegradable amphiphilic peptides and peptide analogues based on poly(L-lysine isophthalamide) (PLP) derivatives comprising hydrophobic chains and their use in the permeabilization of mammalian cells and delivery of agents, for example therapeutic agents, imaging agents and cell preservation agents.
Tascini AS, Noro MG, Chen R, et al., 2018, Understanding the interactions between sebum triglycerides and water: a molecular dynamics simulation study., Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol: 20, Pages: 1848-1860, ISSN: 1463-9076
In recent years, sebum oil has been found to play a key role in the regulation of the hydration of the outermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum. Understanding how a major component of the sebum oil, the triglyceride tri-cis-6-hexadecenoin (TG), interacts with water is an important step in gaining insight into the water regulation function of the sebum oil. Here we use molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the structural and interfacial properties of TG in bulk and at the air and water interface. Our model performs very well in reproducing experimental results, such as density, surface tensions and surface pressure area isotherms. We show that triglyceride molecules in the liquid phase assemble together, through the glycerol group, forming a single percolating network. TG-air interfaces orient the lipids with the interface enriched with the hydrophobic tails and the glycerol groups buried inside. When in contact with water, the TG molecules at the interface orient the glycerol group towards the water phase and adopt a characteristic trident conformation. Water is shown to penetrate the TG layer thanks to the interaction with the oxygen atoms of the TG molecules, which acts as a pathway for water diffusion. The activation energy for the passage of water is found to be ≈9.5kBT at 310 K, showing that the layer is permeable to water diffusion.
Kluzek M, Tyler AII, Wang S, et al., 2017, Influence of a pH-sensitive polymer on the structure of monoolein cubosomes., Soft Matter, Vol: 13, Pages: 7571-7577
Cubosomes consist in submicron size particles of lipid bicontinuous cubic phases stabilized by surfactant polymers. They provide an appealing road towards the practical use of lipid cubic phases for pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications, and efforts are currently being made to control the encapsulation and release properties of these colloidal objects. We overcome in this work the lack of sensitivity of monoolein cubosomes to pH conditions by using a pH sensitive polymer designed to strongly interact with the lipid structure at low pH. Our cryo-transmission electron microscope (cryo-TEM) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) results show that in the presence of the polymer the cubic phase structure is preserved at neutral pH, albeit with a larger cell size. At pH 5.5, in the presence of the polymer, the nanostructure of the cubosome particles is significantly altered, providing a pathway to design pH-responsive cubosomes for applications in drug delivery.
Dong R, Chen R, Livingston A, 2017, Liquid-phase iterative synthesis with OSN: A flexible and scalable platform for precision synthetic macromolecules, 254th National Meeting and Exposition of the American-Chemical-Society (ACS) on Chemistry's Impact on the Global Economy, Publisher: AMER CHEMICAL SOC, ISSN: 0065-7727
Wang S, Chen R, 2017, pH-Responsive, Lysine-Based, Hyperbranched Polymers Mimicking Endosomolytic Cell-Penetrating Peptides for Efficient Intracellular Delivery, Chemistry of Materials, Vol: 29, Pages: 5806-5815, ISSN: 0897-4756
The insufficient delivery of biomacromolecular therapeutic agents into the cytoplasm of mammalian cells remains a major barrier to their pharmaceutical applications. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are considered as potential carriers for cytoplasmic delivery of macromolecular drugs. However, due to the positive charge of most CPPs, strong nonspecific cell membrane bindings may lead to relatively high toxicity. In this study, we report a series of anionic, CPP-mimicking, lysine-based hyperbranched polymers, which caused complete membrane disruption at late endosomal pH while remaining nonlytic at physiological pH. The pH-responsive conformational alterations and the multivalency effect of the hyperbranched structures were demonstrated to effectively facilitate their interaction with cell membranes, thus leading to significantly enhanced membrane-lytic activity compared with their linear counterpart. The unique structures and pH-responsive cell-penetrating abilities make the novel hyperbranched polymers promising candidates for cytoplasmic delivery of biomacromolecular payloads.
Wang W, Guo Y, Tiede C, et al., 2017, Ultraefficient Cap-Exchange Protocol To Compact Biofunctional Quantum Dots for Sensitive Ratiometric Biosensing and Cell Imaging., ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Vol: 9, Pages: 15232-15244, ISSN: 1944-8244
An ultraefficient cap-exchange protocol (UCEP) that can convert hydrophobic quantum dots (QDs) into stable, biocompatible, and aggregation-free water-dispersed ones at a ligand:QD molar ratio (LQMR) as low as 500, some 20-200-fold less than most literature methods, has been developed. The UCEP works conveniently with air-stable lipoic acid (LA)-based ligands by exploiting tris(2-carboxylethyl phosphine)-based rapid in situ reduction. The resulting QDs are compact (hydrodynamic radius, Rh, < 4.5 nm) and bright (retaining > 90% of original fluorescence), resist nonspecific adsorption of proteins, and display good stability in biological buffers even with high salt content (e.g., 2 M NaCl). These advantageous properties make them well suited for cellular imaging and ratiometric biosensing applications. The QDs prepared by UCEP using dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA)-zwitterion ligand can be readily conjugated with octa-histidine (His8)-tagged antibody mimetic proteins (known as Affimers). These QDs allow rapid, ratiometric detection of the Affimer target protein down to 10 pM via a QD-sensitized Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) readout signal. Moreover, compact biotinylated QDs can be readily prepared by UCEP in a facile, one-step process. The resulting QDs have been further employed for ratiometric detection of protein, exemplified by neutravidin, down to 5 pM, as well as for fluorescence imaging of target cancer cells.
Gaffney P, Livingston A, Chen R, et al., 2017, Defined Monomer Sequence Polymers, WO/2017/042583
Processes of preparing defined monomer sequence polymers are disclosed, in which a backbone portion of the polymer is first prepared by performing one or more sequential monomeric coupling reactions with intervening membrane diafiltration purification/isolation steps, followed by a step of decorating the backbone portion with one or more side chains at predetermined positions along its length. The process represents an improvement on prior art techniques, which impose limitations on the size of the side chains that may be present. Defined monomer sequence polymers that are obtainable by the processes are also disclosed.
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